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2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715396

ABSTRACT

Interferon-ß (IFN-ß) is a pleiotropic cytokine secreted in response to various pathological conditions and is clinically used for therapy of multiple sclerosis. Its application for treatment of cancer, infections and pulmonary diseases is limited by incomplete understanding of regulatory mechanisms of its functioning. Recently, we reported that IFN-ß activity is affected by interactions with S100A1, S100A4, S100A6, and S100P proteins, which are members of the S100 protein family of multifunctional Ca2+-binding proteins possessing cytokine-like activities (Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(24):9473). Here we show that IFN-ß interacts with one more representative of the S100 protein family, the S100B protein, involved in numerous oncological and neurological diseases. The use of chemical crosslinking, intrinsic fluorescence, and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy revealed IFN-ß binding to Ca2+-loaded dimeric and monomeric forms of the S100B protein. Calcium depletion blocks the S100B-IFN-ß interaction. S100B monomerization increases its affinity to IFN-ß by 2.7 orders of magnitude (equilibrium dissociation constant of the complex reaches 47 pM). Crystal violet assay demonstrated that combined application of IFN-ß and S100B (5-25 nM) eliminates their inhibitory effects on MCF-7 cell viability. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the direct modulation of IFN-ß activity by the S100B protein described here could be relevant to progression of multiple oncological and neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Interferon-beta/metabolism , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/metabolism , Animals , CHO Cells , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cricetulus , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Protein Binding/physiology
3.
Metab Brain Dis ; 37(3): 711-728, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606836

ABSTRACT

The overload cytosolic free Ca2+ (cCa2+) influx-mediated excessive generation of oxidative stress in the pathophysiological conditions induces neuronal and cellular injury via the activation of cation channels. TRPM2 and TRPV4 channels are activated by oxidative stress, and their specific antagonists have not been discovered yet. The antioxidant and anti-Covid-19 properties of carvacrol (CARV) were recently reported. Hence, I suspected possible antagonist properties of CARV against oxidative stress (OS)/ADP-ribose (ADPR)-induced TRPM2 and GSK1016790A (GSK)-mediated TRPV4 activations in neuronal and kidney cells. I investigated the antagonist role of CARV on the activations of TRPM2 and TRPV4 in SH-SY5Y neuronal, BV-2 microglial, and HEK293 cells. The OS/ADPR and GSK in the cells caused to increase of TRPM2/TRPV4 current densities and overload cytosolic free Ca2+ (cCa2+) influx with an increase of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic (cROS), and mitochondrial (mROS) ROS. The changes were not observed in the absence of TRPM2 and TRPV4 or the presence of Ca2+ free extracellular buffer and PARP-1 inhibitors (PJ34 and DPQ). When OS-induced TRPM2 and GSK-induced TRPV4 activations were inhibited by the treatment of CARV, the increase of cROS, mROS, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, cell death, cCa2+ concentration, caspase -3, and caspase -9 levels were restored via upregulation of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. In conclusion, the treatment of CARV modulated the TRPM2 and TRPV4-mediated overload Ca2+ influx and may provide an avenue for protecting TRPM2 and TRPV4-mediated neurodegenerative diseases associated with the increase of mROS and cCa2+. The possible TRPM2 and TRPV4 blocker action of carvacrol (CARV) via the modulation oxidative stress and apoptosis in the SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. TRPM2 is activated by DNA damage-induced (via PARP-1 activation) ADP-ribose (ADPR) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (H2O2), although it is inhibited by nonspecific inhibitors (ACA and 2-APB). TRPV4 is activated by the treatments of GSK1016790A (GSK), although it is inhibited by a nonspecific inhibitor (ruthenium red, RuRe). The treatment of GSK induces excessive generation of ROS. The accumulation of free cytosolic Ca2+ (cCa2+) via the activations of TRPM2 and TRPV4 in the mitochondria causes the increase of mitochondrial membrane depolarization (ΔΨm). In turn, the increase of ΔΨm causes the excessive generation of ROS. The TRPM2 and TRPV4-induced the excessive generations of ROS result in the increase of apoptosis and cell death via the activations of caspase -3 (Casp-3) and caspase -9 (Casp-9) in the neuronal cells, although their oxidant actions decrease the glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) levels. The oxidant and apoptotic adverse actions of TRPM2 and TRPV4 are modulated by the treatment of CARV.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cymenes/pharmacology , TRPM Cation Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , TRPV Cation Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , Apoptosis/drug effects , Calcium/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Microglia/drug effects , Microglia/metabolism , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species
4.
J Virol ; 94(13)2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583223

ABSTRACT

Fusion with, and subsequent entry into, the host cell is one of the critical steps in the life cycle of enveloped viruses. For Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), the spike (S) protein is the main determinant of viral entry. Proteolytic cleavage of the S protein exposes its fusion peptide (FP), which initiates the process of membrane fusion. Previous studies on the related severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) FP have shown that calcium ions (Ca2+) play an important role in fusogenic activity via a Ca2+ binding pocket with conserved glutamic acid (E) and aspartic acid (D) residues. SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV FPs share a high sequence homology, and here, we investigated whether Ca2+ is required for MERS-CoV fusion by screening a mutant array in which E and D residues in the MERS-CoV FP were substituted with neutrally charged alanines (A). Upon verifying mutant cell surface expression and proteolytic cleavage, we tested their ability to mediate pseudoparticle (PP) infection of host cells in modulating Ca2+ environments. Our results demonstrate that intracellular Ca2+ enhances MERS-CoV wild-type (WT) PP infection by approximately 2-fold and that E891 is a crucial residue for Ca2+ interaction. Subsequent electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments revealed that this enhancement could be attributed to Ca2+ increasing MERS-CoV FP fusion-relevant membrane ordering. Intriguingly, isothermal calorimetry showed an approximate 1:1 MERS-CoV FP to Ca2+ ratio, as opposed to an 1:2 SARS-CoV FP to Ca2+ ratio, suggesting significant differences in FP Ca2+ interactions of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV FP despite their high sequence similarity.IMPORTANCE Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a major emerging infectious disease with zoonotic potential and has reservoirs in dromedary camels and bats. Since its first outbreak in 2012, the virus has repeatedly transmitted from camels to humans, with 2,468 confirmed cases causing 851 deaths. To date, there are no efficacious drugs and vaccines against MERS-CoV, increasing its potential to cause a public health emergency. In order to develop novel drugs and vaccines, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms that enable the virus to infect host cells. Our data have found that calcium is an important regulator of viral fusion by interacting with negatively charged residues in the MERS-CoV FP region. This information can guide therapeutic solutions to block this calcium interaction and also repurpose already approved drugs for this use for a fast response to MERS-CoV outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Calcium/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Ions/metabolism , Membrane Fusion , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Binding , Proteolysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells , Virulence , Virus Assembly
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463706

ABSTRACT

In hearts, calcium (Ca2+) signaling is a crucial regulatory mechanism of muscle contraction and electrical signals that determine heart rhythm and control cell growth. Ca2+ signals must be tightly controlled for a healthy heart, and the impairment of Ca2+ handling proteins is a key hallmark of heart disease. The discovery of microRNA (miRNAs) as a new class of gene regulators has greatly expanded our understanding of the controlling module of cardiac Ca2+ cycling. Furthermore, many studies have explored the involvement of miRNAs in heart diseases. In this review, we aim to summarize cardiac Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+-related miRNAs in pathological conditions, including cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and atrial fibrillation. We also discuss the therapeutic potential of Ca2+-related miRNAs as a new target for the treatment of heart diseases.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/genetics , Calcium Signaling/genetics , Calcium/metabolism , Heart Failure/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Myocardial Infarction/genetics , Animals , Atrial Fibrillation/metabolism , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Gene Expression Regulation , Heart Failure/metabolism , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Myocardial Contraction/genetics , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/therapy
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5825-5832, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432413

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has focused attention on the need to develop effective therapeutics against the causative pathogen, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and also against other pathogenic coronaviruses. In this study, we report on a kind of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, neferine, as a pan-coronavirus entry inhibitor. Neferine effectively protected HEK293/hACE2 and HuH7 cell lines from infection by different coronaviruses pseudovirus particles (SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 [D614G, N501Y/D614G, 501Y.V1, 501Y.V2, 501Y.V3 variants], SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV) in vitro, with median effect concentration (EC50 ) of 0.13-0.41 µM. Neferine blocked host calcium channels, thus inhibiting Ca2+ -dependent membrane fusion and suppressing virus entry. This study provides experimental data to support the fact that neferine may be a promising lead for pan-coronaviruses therapeutic drug development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , Calcium/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/physiology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Isoquinolines/pharmacology , Phenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389394

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 currently lacks effective first-line drug treatment. We present promising data from in silico docking studies of new Methisazone compounds (modified with calcium, Ca; iron, Fe; magnesium, Mg; manganese, Mn; or zinc, Zn) designed to bind more strongly to key proteins involved in replication of SARS-CoV-2. In this in silico molecular docking study, we investigated the inhibiting role of Methisazone and the modified drugs against SARS-CoV-2 proteins: ribonucleic acid (RNA)-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), spike protein, papain-like protease (PlPr), and main protease (MPro). We found that the highest binding interactions were found with the spike protein (6VYB), with the highest overall binding being observed with Mn-bound Methisazone at -8.3 kcal/mol, followed by Zn and Ca at -8.0 kcal/mol, and Fe and Mg at -7.9 kcal/mol. We also found that the metal-modified Methisazone had higher affinity for PlPr and MPro. In addition, we identified multiple binding pockets that could be singly or multiply occupied on all proteins tested. The best binding energy was with Mn-Methisazone versus spike protein, and the largest cumulative increases in binding energies were found with PlPr. We suggest that further studies are warranted to identify whether these compounds may be effective for treatment and/or prophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Metals/chemistry , Methisazone/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium/chemistry , Calcium/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Drug Design , Humans , Iron/chemistry , Iron/metabolism , Magnesium/chemistry , Magnesium/metabolism , Manganese/chemistry , Manganese/metabolism , Metals/metabolism , Methisazone/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Zinc/chemistry , Zinc/metabolism
9.
J Mol Biol ; 433(10): 166946, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386061

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are a major infectious disease threat, and include the zoonotic-origin human pathogens SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV (SARS-2, SARS-1, and MERS). Entry of coronaviruses into host cells is mediated by the spike (S) protein. In our previous ESR studies, the local membrane ordering effect of the fusion peptide (FP) of various viral glycoproteins including the S of SARS-1 and MERS has been consistently observed. We previously determined that the sequence immediately downstream from the S2' cleavage site is the bona fide SARS-1 FP. In this study, we used sequence alignment to identify the SARS-2 FP, and studied its membrane ordering effect. Although there are only three residue differences, SARS-2 FP induces even greater membrane ordering than SARS-1 FP, possibly due to its greater hydrophobicity. This may be a reason that SARS-2 is better able to infect host cells. In addition, the membrane binding enthalpy for SARS-2 is greater. Both the membrane ordering of SARS-2 and SARS-1 FPs are dependent on Ca2+, but that of SARS-2 shows a greater response to the presence of Ca2+. Both FPs bind two Ca2+ ions as does SARS-1 FP, but the two Ca2+ binding sites of SARS-2 exhibit greater cooperativity. This Ca2+ dependence by the SARS-2 FP is very ion-specific. These results show that Ca2+ is an important regulator that interacts with the SARS-2 FP and thus plays a significant role in SARS-2 viral entry. This could lead to therapeutic solutions that either target the FP-calcium interaction or block the Ca2+ channel.


Subject(s)
Calcium/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites , Calcium/pharmacology , Calorimetry , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/virology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Thermodynamics , Viral Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics , Virus Internalization/drug effects
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury associated with cytokine release frequently occurs in SARS-CoV-2 mediated coronavirus disease (COVID19) and mortality is particularly high in these patients. The mechanistic role of the COVID19 associated cytokine-storm for the concomitant cardiac dysfunction and associated arrhythmias is unclear. Moreover, the role of anti-inflammatory therapy to mitigate cardiac dysfunction remains elusive. AIMS AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of COVID19-associated inflammatory response on cardiac cellular function as well as its cardiac arrhythmogenic potential in rat and induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM). In addition, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of the IL-1ß antagonist Canakinumab using state of the art in-vitro confocal and ratiometric high-throughput microscopy. RESULTS: Isolated rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were exposed to control or COVID19 serum from intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe ARDS and impaired cardiac function (LVEF 41±5%; 1/3 of patients on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; CK 154±43 U/l). Rat cardiomyocytes showed an early increase of myofilament sensitivity, a decrease of Ca2+ transient amplitudes and altered baseline [Ca2+] upon exposure to patient serum. In addition, we used iPS-CM to explore the long-term effect of patient serum on cardiac electrical and mechanical function. In iPS-CM, spontaneous Ca2+ release events were more likely to occur upon incubation with COVID19 serum and nuclear as well as cytosolic Ca2+ release were altered. Co-incubation with Canakinumab had no effect on pro-arrhythmogenic Ca2+ release or Ca2+ signaling during excitation-contraction coupling, nor significantly influenced cellular automaticity. CONCLUSION: Serum derived from COVID19 patients exerts acute cardio-depressant and chronic pro-arrhythmogenic effects in rat and iPS-derived cardiomyocytes. Canakinumab had no beneficial effect on cellular Ca2+ signaling during excitation-contraction coupling. The presented method utilizing iPS-CM and in-vitro Ca2+ imaging might serve as a novel tool for precision medicine. It allows to investigate cytokine related cardiac dysfunction and pharmacological approaches useful therein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19 , Calcium Signaling/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Animals , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/metabolism , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Calcium/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology
11.
Immunol Res ; 69(6): 496-519, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363786

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 S protein on the membrane of infected cells can promote receptor-dependent syncytia formation, relating to extensive tissue damage and lymphocyte elimination. In this case, it is challenging to obtain neutralizing antibodies and prevent them through antibodies effectively. Considering that, in the current study, structural domain search methods are adopted to analyze the SARS-CoV-2 S protein to find the fusion mechanism. The results show that after the EF-hand domain of S protein bound to calcium ions, S2 protein had CaMKII protein activities. Besides, the CaMKII_AD domain of S2 changed S2 conformation, facilitating the formation of HR1-HR2 six-helix bundles. Apart from that, the Ca2+-ATPase of S2 pumped calcium ions from the virus cytoplasm to help membrane fusion, while motor structures of S drove the CaATP_NAI and CaMKII_AD domains to extend to the outside and combined the viral membrane and the cell membrane, thus forming a calcium bridge. Furthermore, the phospholipid-flipping-ATPase released water, triggering lipid mixing and fusion and generating fusion pores. Then, motor structures promoted fusion pore extension, followed by the cytoplasmic contents of the virus being discharged into the cell cytoplasm. After that, the membrane of the virus slid onto the cell membrane along the flowing membrane on the gap of the three CaATP_NAI. At last, the HR1-HR2 hexamer would fall into the cytoplasm or stay on the cell membrane. Therefore, the CaMKII_like system of S protein facilitated membrane fusion for further inducing syncytial multinucleated giant cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2/metabolism , Calcium-Transporting ATPases/metabolism , Giant Cells/metabolism , Membrane Fusion/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Membrane/physiology , Cell Membrane/virology , Giant Cells/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Virus Internalization
12.
Mol Aspects Med ; 81: 101004, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322255

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are one of the leading causes of human illness. Viruses take over host cell signaling cascades for their replication and infection. Calcium (Ca2+) is a versatile and ubiquitous second messenger that modulates plethora of cellular functions. In last two decades, a critical role of host cell Ca2+ signaling in modulating viral infections has emerged. Furthermore, recent literature clearly implicates a vital role for the organellar Ca2+ dynamics (influx and efflux across organelles) in regulating virus entry, replication and severity of the infection. Therefore, it is not surprising that a number of viral infections including current SARS-CoV-2 driven COVID-19 pandemic are associated with dysregulated Ca2+ homeostasis. The focus of this review is to first discuss the role of host cell Ca2+ signaling in viral entry, replication and egress. We further deliberate on emerging literature demonstrating hijacking of the host cell Ca2+ dynamics by viruses. In particular, a variety of viruses including SARS-CoV-2 modulate lysosomal and cytosolic Ca2+ signaling for host cell entry and replication. Moreover, we delve into the recent studies, which have demonstrated the potential of several FDA-approved drugs targeting Ca2+ handling machinery in inhibiting viral infections. Importantly, we discuss the prospective of targeting intracellular Ca2+ signaling for better management and treatment of viral pathogenesis including COVID-19. Finally, we highlight the key outstanding questions in the field that demand critical and timely attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Calcium/metabolism , Calcium Signaling , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1863(11): 183697, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316392

ABSTRACT

Fusion peptides (FP) are prominent hydrophobic segments of viral fusion proteins that play critical roles in viral entry. FPs interact with and insert into the host lipid membranes, triggering conformational changes in the viral protein that leads to the viral-cell fusion. Multiple membrane-active domains from the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) spike protein have been reported to act as the functional fusion peptide such as the peptide sequence located between the S1/S2 and S2' cleavage sites (FP1), the S2'-adjacent fusion peptide domain (FP2), and the internal FP sequence (cIFP). Using a combined biophysical approach, we demonstrated that the α-helical coiled-coil-forming internal cIFP displayed the highest membrane fusion and permeabilizing activities along with membrane ordering effect in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylglycerol (PG) unilamellar vesicles compared to the other two N-proximal fusion peptide counterparts. While the FP1 sequence displayed intermediate membranotropic activities, the well-conserved FP2 peptide was substantially less effective in promoting fusion, leakage, and membrane ordering in PC/PG model membranes. Furthermore, Ca2+ did not enhance the FP2-induced lipid mixing activity in PC/phosphatidylserine/cholesterol lipid membranes, despite its strong erythrocyte membrane perturbation. Nonetheless, we found that the three putative SARS-CoV membrane-active fusion peptide sequences here studied altered the physical properties of model and erythrocyte membranes to different extents. The importance of the distinct membranotropic and biological activities of all SARS-CoV fusion peptide domains and the pronounced effect of the internal fusion peptide sequence to the whole spike-mediated membrane fusion process are discussed.


Subject(s)
Erythrocyte Membrane/metabolism , Phospholipids/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Calcium/chemistry , Calcium/metabolism , Erythrocyte Membrane/chemistry , Humans , Phospholipids/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Domains , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Unilamellar Liposomes/chemistry , Unilamellar Liposomes/metabolism
14.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305742

ABSTRACT

Malaria control relies heavily on the small number of existing antimalarial drugs. However, recurring antimalarial drug resistance necessitates the continual generation of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action. In order to shift the focus from only controlling this disease towards elimination and eradication, next-generation antimalarial agents need to address the gaps in the malaria drug arsenal. This includes developing drugs for chemoprotection, treating severe malaria and blocking transmission. Plasmodial kinases are promising targets for next-generation antimalarial drug development as they mediate critical cellular processes and some are active across multiple stages of the parasite's life cycle. This review gives an update on the progress made thus far with regards to plasmodial kinase small-molecule inhibitor development.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , Drug Discovery/trends , Malaria/drug therapy , Plasmodium/drug effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Casein Kinase I/metabolism , Culicidae , Drug Design , Drug Resistance , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/metabolism , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Life Cycle Stages/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Phosphotransferases/chemistry , Plasmodium/enzymology , Pyridines/pharmacology
15.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(7): 573-582, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279891

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a is a putative viral ion channel implicated in autophagy inhibition, inflammasome activation and apoptosis. 3a protein and anti-3a antibodies are found in infected patient tissues and plasma. Deletion of 3a in SARS-CoV-1 reduces viral titer and morbidity in mice, suggesting it could be an effective target for vaccines or therapeutics. Here, we present structures of SARS-CoV-2 3a determined by cryo-EM to 2.1-Å resolution. 3a adopts a new fold with a polar cavity that opens to the cytosol and membrane through separate water- and lipid-filled openings. Hydrophilic grooves along outer helices could form ion-conduction paths. Using electrophysiology and fluorescent ion imaging of 3a-reconstituted liposomes, we observe Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channel activity, identify mutations that alter ion permeability and discover polycationic inhibitors of 3a activity. 3a-like proteins are found across coronavirus lineages that infect bats and humans, suggesting that 3a-targeted approaches could treat COVID-19 and other coronavirus diseases.


Subject(s)
Cryoelectron Microscopy , Nanostructures , SARS-CoV-2 , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/ultrastructure , Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae , Electrophysiology , Fluorescence , Humans , Ion Transport , Liposomes , Models, Molecular , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nanostructures/ultrastructure , Open Reading Frames , Optical Imaging , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Sequence Homology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure , Viroporin Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
16.
Theranostics ; 11(15): 7379-7390, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266907

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel strain of highly contagious coronaviruses that infects humans. Prolonged fever, particularly that above 39.5 °C, is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, little is known about the pathological effects of fever caused by SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Primary bovine alveolar macrophages (PBAMs), RAW264.7 mouse macrophages, and THP-1 human cells were transfected with plasmids carrying the genes encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein or receptor-binding domain (RBD). Proteins in the macrophages interacting with S-RBD at 39.5 °C or 37 °C were identified by immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry. Glutathione S-transferase pulldown, surface plasmon resonance, and immunofluorescence were performed to evaluate the transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) interaction with SARS-CoV-2-S-RBD at 39.5 °C. Using an RNA sequencing-based approach, cytokine gene expression induced by SARS-CoV-2 S transfection at 39.5 °C and 37.5 °C in primary alveolar macrophages was measured. Fluo-4 staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to assess the regulatory function of TRPV2 in intracellular Ca 2+ and cytokines under SARS-CoV-2-S-RBD at 39.5 °C. Additionally, cytokine release was examined after TRPV2 knockdown with shRNA oligonucleotides or inhibition using the SKF-96365 antagonist. Results: We identified an interaction between the primary alveolar macrophage receptor TRPV2 and S-RBD under febrile conditions. Febrile temperature promotes Ca2+ influx through SARS-CoV-2 infection in PBAMs, further activates the NF-κB p65 signaling pathway, and enhances the secretion of cytokines. Furthermore, knockdown or antagonist (with SKF-96365) of TRPV2 significantly decreased the release of cytokines that drive the inflammatory response. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings identified TRPV2 as a receptor of SARS-CoV-2 in conditions of febrile temperature, providing insight into critical interactions of SARS-CoV-2 with macrophages, as well as a useful resource and potential drug target for coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Fever/virology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , TRPV Cation Channels/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Cattle , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Kinetics , Macrophages/drug effects , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Binding/drug effects , RAW 264.7 Cells , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , THP-1 Cells , Temperature , Virus Internalization/drug effects
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3772-3790, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264762

ABSTRACT

Multiple epidemiological studies have suggested that industrialization and progressive urbanization should be considered one of the main factors responsible for the rising of atherosclerosis in the developing world. In this scenario, the role of trace metals in the insurgence and progression of atherosclerosis has not been clarified yet. In this paper, the specific role of selected trace elements (magnesium, zinc, selenium, iron, copper, phosphorus, and calcium) is described by focusing on the atherosclerotic prevention and pathogenesis plaque. For each element, the following data are reported: daily intake, serum levels, intra/extracellular distribution, major roles in physiology, main effects of high and low levels, specific roles in atherosclerosis, possible interactions with other trace elements, and possible influences on plaque development. For each trace element, the correlations between its levels and clinical severity and outcome of COVID-19 are discussed. Moreover, the role of matrix metalloproteinases, a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, as a new medical therapeutical approach to atherosclerosis is discussed. Data suggest that trace element status may influence both atherosclerosis insurgence and plaque evolution toward a stable or an unstable status. However, significant variability in the action of these traces is evident: some - including magnesium, zinc, and selenium - may have a protective role, whereas others, including iron and copper, probably have a multi-faceted and more complex role in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerotic plaque. Finally, calcium and phosphorus are implicated in the calcification of atherosclerotic plaques and in the progression of the plaque toward rupture and severe clinical complications. In particular, the role of calcium is debated. Focusing on the COVID-19 pandemia, optimized magnesium and zinc levels are indicated as important protective tools against a severe clinical course of the disease, often related to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to cause a systemic inflammatory response, able to transform a stable plaque into an unstable one, with severe clinical complications.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/pathology , Trace Elements/metabolism , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calcium/blood , Calcium/metabolism , Copper/blood , Copper/metabolism , Humans , Iron/blood , Iron/metabolism , Magnesium/blood , Magnesium/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Phosphorus/blood , Phosphorus/metabolism , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Selenium/blood , Selenium/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Trace Elements/blood , Zinc/blood , Zinc/metabolism
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236794

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) afflicts approximately 200,000 patients annually and has a 40% mortality rate. The COVID-19 pandemic has massively increased the rate of ALI incidence. The pathogenesis of ALI involves tissue damage from invading microbes and, in severe cases, the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). This study aimed to develop a therapy to normalize the excess production of inflammatory cytokines and promote tissue repair in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Based on our previous studies, we tested the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and BTP-2 therapies. IGF-I was selected, because we and others have shown that elevated inflammatory cytokines suppress the expression of growth hormone receptors in the liver, leading to a decrease in the circulating IGF-I. IGF-I is a growth factor that increases vascular protection, enhances tissue repair, and decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is also required to produce anti-inflammatory 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. BTP-2, an inhibitor of cytosolic calcium, was used to suppress the LPS-induced increase in cytosolic calcium, which otherwise leads to an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. We showed that LPS increased the expression of the primary inflammatory mediators such as toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4), IL-1ß, interleukin-17 (IL-17), TNF-α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which were normalized by the IGF-I + BTP-2 dual therapy in the lungs, along with improved vascular gene expression markers. The histologic lung injury score was markedly elevated by LPS and reduced to normal by the combination therapy. In conclusion, the LPS-induced increases in inflammatory cytokines, vascular injuries, and lung injuries were all improved by IGF-I + BTP-2 combination therapy.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Anilides/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/pharmacology , Thiadiazoles/pharmacology , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Anilides/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Calcium/metabolism , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-17/genetics , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Thiadiazoles/therapeutic use , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
19.
Protein Expr Purif ; 185: 105894, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209890

ABSTRACT

The novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) has led to a world-wild pandemic. The replication of SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome involves the core replication-transcription complex (RTC, nsp12-nsp7-nsp8) and the proofreading complex (nsp14-nsp10) that can correct mismatched base pairs during replication. Structures and functions of SARS-CoV-2 RTC have been actively studied, yet little is known about SARS-CoV-2 nsp14-nsp10. Here, we purified, reconstituted, and characterized the SARS-CoV-2 nsp14-nsp10 proofreading nuclease in vitro. We show that SARS-CoV-2 nsp14 is activated by nsp10, functioning as a potent RNase that can hydrolyze RNAs in the context of single- and double-stranded RNA and RNA/DNA hybrid duplex. SARS-CoV-2 nsp14-nsp10 shows a metal-dependent nuclease activity but has different metal selectivity from RTC. While RTC is activated by Ca2+, nsp14-nsp10 is completely inhibited. Importantly, the reconstituted SARS-CoV-2 nsp14-nsp10 efficiently removed the A:A mismatch at the 3'-end of the primer, enabling the stalled RTC to restart RNA replication. Our collective results confirm that SARS-CoV-2 nsp14-nsp10 functions as the RNA proofreading complex in SARS-CoV-2 replication and provide a useful foundation to understand the structure and function of SARS-CoV-2 RNA metabolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Enzyme Activation , Humans , Hydrolysis , Substrate Specificity
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(7): 3136-3144, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194855

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Disruption of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis via excessive and pathological Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and/or sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through ryanodine receptor (RyRs) Ca2+ channels play a critical role in the pathology of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and associated multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in sepsis or septic shock. Dantrolene, a potent inhibitor of RyRs, is expected to ameliorate SIRS and MODS and decrease mortality in sepsis or septic shock patients. This review summarized the potential mechanisms of therapeutic effects of dantrolene in sepsis or septic shock at molecular, cell, and organ levels and provided suggestions and strategies for future clinical studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Dantrolene/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Drug Repositioning , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Humans , Mortality , Multiple Organ Failure , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Sepsis/metabolism , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Shock, Septic/metabolism
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