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1.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542802

ABSTRACT

Human Norovirus is currently the main viral cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGEs) in most countries worldwide. Nearly 50 years after the discovery of the "Norwalk virus" by Kapikian and colleagues, the scientific and medical community continue to generate new knowledge on the full biological and disease spectrum of Norovirus infection. Nevertheless, several areas remain incompletely understood due to the serious constraints to effectively replicate and propagate the virus. Here, we present a narrated historic perspective and summarize our current knowledge, including insights and reflections on current points of interest for a broad medical community, including clinical and molecular epidemiology, viral-host-microbiota interactions, antivirals, and vaccine prototypes. We also include a reflection on the present and future impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on Norovirus infection and disease.


Subject(s)
Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/prevention & control , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Norovirus/physiology , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caliciviridae Infections/microbiology , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Gastroenteritis/microbiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Norovirus/genetics , Norovirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/immunology
2.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256638, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted surveillance activities for multiple pathogens. Since March 2020, there was a decline in the number of reports of norovirus and Campylobacter recorded by England's national laboratory surveillance system. The aim is to estimate and compare the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on norovirus and Campylobacter surveillance data in England. METHODS: We utilised two quasi-experimental approaches based on a generalised linear model for sequential count data. The first approach estimates overall impact and the second approach focuses on the impact of specific elements of the pandemic response (COVID-19 diagnostic testing and control measures). The following time series (27, 2015-43, 2020) were used: weekly laboratory-confirmed norovirus and Campylobacter reports, air temperature, conducted Sars-CoV-2 tests and Index of COVID-19 control measures stringency. RESULTS: The period of Sars-CoV-2 emergence and subsequent sustained transmission was associated with persistent reductions in norovirus laboratory reports (p = 0.001), whereas the reductions were more pronounced during pandemic emergence and later recovered for Campylobacter (p = 0.075). The total estimated reduction was 47% - 79% for norovirus (12-43, 2020). The total reduction varied by time for Campylobacter, e.g. 19% - 33% in April, 1% - 7% in August. CONCLUSION: Laboratory reporting of norovirus was more adversely impacted than Campylobacter by the COVID-19 pandemic. This may be partially explained by a comparatively stronger effect of behavioural interventions on norovirus transmission and a relatively greater reduction in norovirus testing capacity. Our study underlines the differential impact a pandemic may have on surveillance of gastrointestinal infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/diagnosis , Campylobacter Infections/diagnosis , Laboratories/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Campylobacter/isolation & purification , Campylobacter Infections/epidemiology , Campylobacter Infections/microbiology , England/epidemiology , Humans , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(1): 9-13, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294727

ABSTRACT

In April 2020, the incidence of norovirus outbreaks reported to the National Outbreak Reporting System dramatically declined. We used regression models to determine if this decline was best explained by underreporting, seasonal trends, or reduced exposure due to nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) implemented for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using data from 9 states from July 2012 to July 2020. The decline in norovirus outbreaks was significant for all 9 states, and underreporting and/or seasonality are unlikely to be the primary explanation for these findings. These patterns were similar across a variety of settings. NPIs appear to have reduced incidence of norovirus, a nonrespiratory pathogen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Coinfection , Norovirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cross Infection , Disease Management , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Incidence , Seasons , United States/epidemiology
4.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 452021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080878

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Significant reductions in the incidence of enteroviruses and noroviruses, both transmitted primarily by the faecal-oral route, were noted in 2020 compared to the previous decade, in Victoria, Australia. The enterovirus specimen positivity rate was reduced by 84.2% in 2020, while the norovirus outbreak positivity rate declined by 49.0%. The most likely explanation for these reductions is the concurrence of social restrictions, physical distancing, personal hygiene awareness and international and domestic border closures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Enterovirus , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Norovirus , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , Victoria/epidemiology
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(2): 350-353, 2020 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823542

ABSTRACT

In July 2018, recombinant norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney was detected in dogs who had diarrhea in a kennel and in children living on the same premises in Thailand. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 4 noroviruses from Thailand showed that the canine norovirus was closely related to human norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney, suggesting human-to-canine transmission.


Subject(s)
Caliciviridae Infections/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Adult , Animals , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Child , Dogs , Family Characteristics , Humans , Phylogeny , Thailand
6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 18-28, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832750

ABSTRACT

Porcine sapoviruses (SaVs) are genetically diverse and widely distributed in pig-producing countries. Eight genogroups of porcine SaV have been identified, and genogroup III is the predominant type. Most of the eight genogroups of porcine SaV are circulating in the United States. In the present study, we report detection of porcine SaVs in pigs at different ages with clinical diarrhoea using next-generation sequencing and genetic characterization. All seven cases have porcine SaV GIII strains detected and one pooled case was found to have a porcine SaV GVI strain IA27912-B-2018. Sequence analysis showed that seven GIII isolates were genetically divergent and formed four different lineages on the trees of complete genome, RdRP, VP1 and VP2. In addition, these seven GIII isolates had three different deletion/insertion patterns in an identified variable region close to the 3' end of VP2. The GVI strain IA27912-B-2018 was closely related to strains previously detected in the United States and Japan. A 3-nt deletion in VP1 region of GVI IA27912-B-2018 was identified. Our study showed that genetically divergent SaVs of different genogroups are co-circulating in pigs in the United States. Future studies comparing the virulence of these different genogroups in pigs are needed to better understand this virus and to determine if surveillance and vaccine development are needed to monitor and control porcine SaVs.


Subject(s)
Caliciviridae Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/veterinary , Genetic Variation , Sapovirus/genetics , Swine Diseases/virology , Animals , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Female , Genotype , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/veterinary , Phylogeny , Sapovirus/isolation & purification , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
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