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1.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110275

ABSTRACT

While some companion animals have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, their role in the COVID-19 pandemic has remained poorly investigated. Equids are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 based on the similarity of the human ACE-2 receptor and reports of infection. Clinical disease and prevalence factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in equids have not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and selected prevalence factors in 1186 equids presented for various conditions to a Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital over a two-year period. Blood samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using an ELISA targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Further, selected prevalence factors (season, age, breed, sex, presenting complaint) were retrieved from the medical records. No information was available on whether the horses had come into contact with COVID-19-positive individuals. Among the study animals, 42/1186 (3.5%) horses had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Amongst the prevalence factors investigated, only seasonality (spring) was associated with a greater frequency of seropositivity to SARS-CoV-2. Horses with medical and surgical complaints were more likely to test seropositive to SARS-CoV-2 compared to horses presented for routine health care procedures, suggesting more frequent and/or longer interactions with individuals with COVID-19. While horses can become infected with SARS-CoV-2 via the occasional spillover from COVID-19 individuals, clinical disease expression remains subclinical, making horses an unlikely contributor to the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , California , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Horses/virology , Hospitals, Teaching , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Hospitals, Animal
2.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 11 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117026

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to describe the COVID-19 risk mitigation strategies implemented in California prisons and the impact of these policies on the mental health of incarcerated women. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The authors conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with ten women who were over the age of 50 and/or had a chronic illness and had been incarcerated in California prisons during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors also interviewed ten health-care providers working in California jails or prisons during the pandemic. Interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory coding framework and triangulated with fieldnotes from ethnographic observations of medical and legal advocacy efforts during the pandemic. FINDINGS: Participants described being locked in their cells for 23 hours per day or more, often for days, weeks or even months at a time in an effort to reduce the spread of COVID-19. For many participants, these lockdowns and the resulting isolation from loved ones both inside and outside of the prison were detrimental to both their physical and mental health. Participants reported that access to mental health care for those in the general population was limited prior to the pandemic, and that COVID-19 risk mitigation strategies, including the cessation of group programs and shift to cell-front mental health services, created further barriers. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: There has been little qualitative research on the mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on incarcerated populations. This paper provides insight into the mental health effects of both the COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 risk mitigation strategies for the structurally vulnerable older women incarcerated in California prisons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisoners , Humans , Female , Aged , Prisons , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Prisoners/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , California/epidemiology
3.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(4): 1965-1984, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109266

ABSTRACT

Delayed medical care is a negative consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic for families with young children. Our study used data from the Accessing California Communities' Experiences with Safety net Supports (ACCESS) survey, a cross-sectional study that assessed experiences with safety-net programs among working families with low incomes (n=491). From August 2020 to May 2021, we conducted interviewer-administered surveys of low-income families with young children (ages zero to eight) in California and asked questions about whether participants had delayed medical care for their children or themselves. We found that delaying care for children was associated with lack of childcare and with the child having pre-existing conditions. Delaying parental medical care was associated with lack of childcare, experiences of racism, government mistrust, and perceptions of welfare stigma. These results suggest that health care access may be improved through a focus on supporting childcare systems and addressing structural racism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Health Services Accessibility , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , California/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Economic Factors , Pandemics , Healthcare Disparities
4.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6575-6580, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate the trends of HPV vaccination between 03/2019-09/2021 and whether the impact of the COVID pandemic on HPV vaccination varied by race/ethnicity and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI). METHODS: Electronic medical records at Kaiser Permanente Southern California were used to assess monthly volume of HPV vaccine doses administered among children aged 9-12.9yrs, and up-to-date coverage (% vaccinated) by age 13 between 03/2019-09/2021. Modified Poisson models were used to evaluate the interactions between race/ethnicity, NDI and the pandemic periods on HPV vaccine coverage. RESULTS: HPV vaccine doses administered in 2020/2021 have returned to the 2019 level after the initial drop. The average up-to-date coverage in 05/2021-09/2021 (54.8%) remained lower than the pre-pandemic level (58.5%). The associations between race/ethnicity, NDI and HPV vaccine coverage did not vary due to the pandemic. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine promotion efforts are needed to address COVID-19 pandemic's lasting impact on HPV vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Ethnicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Social Class , California/epidemiology
5.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2_suppl): 67S-75S, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098160

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Toward common methods for system monitoring and evaluation, we proposed a key performance indicator framework and discussed lessons learned while implementing a statewide exposure notification (EN) system in California during the COVID-19 epidemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: California deployed the Google Apple Exposure Notification framework, branded CA Notify, on December 10, 2020, to supplement traditional COVID-19 contact tracing programs. For system evaluation, we defined 6 key performance indicators: adoption, retention, sharing of unique codes, identification of potential contacts, behavior change, and impact. We aggregated and analyzed data from December 10, 2020, to July 1, 2021, in compliance with the CA Notify privacy policy. RESULTS: We estimated CA Notify adoption at nearly 11 million smartphone activations during the study period. Among 1 654 201 CA Notify users who received a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, 446 634 (27%) shared their unique code, leading to ENs for other CA Notify users who were in close proximity to the SARS-CoV-2-positive individual. We identified at least 122 970 CA Notify users as contacts through this process. Contact identification occurred a median of 4 days after symptom onset or specimen collection date of the user who received a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Smartphone-based EN systems are promising new tools to supplement traditional contact tracing and public health interventions, particularly when efficient scaling is not feasible for other approaches. Methods to collect and interpret appropriate measures of system performance must be refined while maintaining trust and privacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Notification , Contact Tracing/methods , California/epidemiology
7.
N Engl J Med ; 387(19): 1770-1782, 2022 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information regarding the protection conferred by vaccination and previous infection against infection with the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is limited. METHODS: We evaluated the protection conferred by mRNA vaccines and previous infection against infection with the omicron variant in two high-risk populations: residents and staff in the California state prison system. We used a retrospective cohort design to analyze the risk of infection during the omicron wave using data collected from December 24, 2021, through April 14, 2022. Weighted Cox models were used to compare the effectiveness (measured as 1 minus the hazard ratio) of vaccination and previous infection across combinations of vaccination history (stratified according to the number of mRNA doses received) and infection history (none or infection before or during the period of B.1.617.2 [delta]-variant predominance). A secondary analysis used a rolling matched-cohort design to evaluate the effectiveness of three vaccine doses as compared with two doses. RESULTS: Among 59,794 residents and 16,572 staff, the estimated effectiveness of previous infection against omicron infection among unvaccinated persons who had been infected before or during the period of delta predominance ranged from 16.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1 to 23.7) to 48.9% (95% CI, 41.6 to 55.3). Depending on previous infection status, the estimated effectiveness of vaccination (relative to being unvaccinated and without previous documented infection) ranged from 18.6% (95% CI, 7.7 to 28.1) to 83.2% (95% CI, 77.7 to 87.4) with two vaccine doses and from 40.9% (95% CI, 31.9 to 48.7) to 87.9% (95% CI, 76.0 to 93.9) with three vaccine doses. Incremental effectiveness estimates of a third (booster) dose (relative to two doses) ranged from 25.0% (95% CI, 16.6 to 32.5) to 57.9% (95% CI, 48.4 to 65.7) among persons who either had not had previous documented infection or had been infected before the period of delta predominance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings in two high-risk populations suggest that mRNA vaccination and previous infection were effective against omicron infection, with lower estimates among those infected before the period of delta predominance. Three vaccine doses offered significantly more protection than two doses, including among previously infected persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Prisons , Vaccination , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , California/epidemiology , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Police/statistics & numerical data , Vaccine Efficacy/statistics & numerical data , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data
8.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082070

ABSTRACT

The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) provides reimbursements for nutritious foods for children with low-income at participating child care sites in the United States. The CACFP is associated with improved child diet quality, health outcomes, and food security. However CACFP participation rates are declining. Independent child care centers make up a substantial portion of CACFP sites, yet little is known about their barriers to participation. Researcher-led focus groups and interviews were conducted in 2021-2022 with 16 CACFP-participating independent centers and 5 CACFP sponsors across California CACFP administrative regions to identify participation benefits, barriers, and facilitators. Transcripts were coded for themes using the grounded theory method. CACFP benefits include reimbursement for food, supporting communities with low incomes, and healthy food guidelines. Barriers include paperwork, administrative reviews, communication, inadequate reimbursement, staffing, nutrition standards, training needs, eligibility determination, technological challenges, and COVID-19-related staffing and supply-chain issues. Facilitators included improved communication, additional and improved training, nutrition standards and administrative review support, online forms, reduced and streamlined paperwork. Sponsored centers cited fewer barriers than un-sponsored centers, suggesting sponsors facilitate independent centers' CACFP participation. CACFP participation barriers should be reduced to better support centers and improve nutrition and food security for families with low-income.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Care , Adult , Child , Humans , United States , Nutrition Policy , Child Day Care Centers , California
9.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 21: 23259582221128500, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064706

ABSTRACT

The degree to which COVID-19 has disrupted the advances in reducing new HIV infections and preventing AIDS-related deaths is unknown. We present findings related to the effect COVID-19 had on HIV, sexual health and harm reduction service delivery in the state of California. We conducted a qualitative rapid assessment with health care providers, as well as representatives from non-medical support service agencies serving clients living with HIV in a range of counties in California. Some organizations adapted fairly easily while others struggled or were unable to adapt at all. Clinics were better positioned than community-based organizations to accommodate COVID restrictions and to quickly reestablish services. Influential forces that softened or calcified the hardships created by COVID-19 included influx of funding, flexibility in managing funds, networking and relationships, and workforce vulnerabilities. These data clearly suggest that an enhanced level of flexibility within funding streams and reporting requirements should be continued.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e064677, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate healthcare professional staff and students' perception of wearing surgical masks before and after their experience with the COVID-19 pandemic, and to evaluate the impact on mask wearing behaviour in future influenza seasons. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using anonymous survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Healthcare students and staff from a healthcare academic institution in Southern California participated in the mask survey study. Survey results were collected from June to November 2021. A total of 305 respondents responded to the survey, with 173 being healthcare students and 132 being working healthcare staff. OUTCOMES: The study examined respondents' perceptions and hospital mask wearing behaviour before and after their COVID-19 pandemic experience, as well as during previous and future influenza seasons. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-four (86.6%) respondents agreed that wearing a surgical mask reduces infection and limits transmission of infectious disease, yet prior to the pandemic, only a small proportion wore a mask in the hospital or during patient care. After experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic, more respondents indicated that they would continue to wear a mask when they are in a hospital in general (n=145, 47.5%), during patient care (n=262, 85.9%), during influenza seasons throughout the hospital (n=205, 67.2%) and during influenza seasons during patient care (n=270, 88.5%). CONCLUSION: The pandemic experience has greatly influenced the health prevention behaviours of healthcare students and staff. After the pandemic, many respondents will continue to practice surgical mask wearing behaviour in the hospital, especially during face-to-face patient care. This demonstrates a significant change in health prevention perceptions among the current and the future generation of healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , California/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seasons , Students
11.
Ann Surg ; 275(5): e725-e727, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051782

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize changes in firearm injuries at 5 level 1 trauma centers in Northern California in the 12 months following the start of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the preceding 4 years, accounting for regional variations and seasonal trends. SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: Increased firearm injuries have been reported during the early peaks of the COVID-19 pandemic despite shelter-in-place restrictions. However, these data are overwhelmingly from singlecenter studies, during the initial phase of the pandemic prior to lifting of shelter-in-place restrictions, or do not account for seasonal trends. METHODS: An interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) of all firearm injuries presenting to 5 adult level 1 trauma centers in Northern California was performed (January 2016to February 2021). ITSA modeled the association of the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020) with monthly firearm injuries using the ordinary least-squares method, included month indicators to adjust for seasonality, and specified lags of up to 12 months to account for autocorrelation. RESULTS: Prior to the start of COVID-19, firearm injuries averaged (±SD) of 86 (±16) and were decreasing by 0.5/month (P < 0.01). The start of COVID- 19 (March 2020) was associated with an alarming increase of 39 firearm injuries/month (P < 0.01) followed by an ongoing rise of 3.5/mo (P < 0.01). This resulted in an average of 130 (±26) firearm injuries/month during the COVID-19 period and included 8 of the 10 highest monthly firearm injury rates in the past 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight an alarming escalation in firearm injuries in the 12 months following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in Northern California. Additional studies and resources are needed to better understand and address this parallel public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Wounds, Gunshot , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology
12.
Am J Public Health ; 112(11): 1543-1545, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022196

ABSTRACT

Although widespread vaccination in correctional facilities is crucial for preventing COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in these institutions and their surrounding communities, there are little data on how to effectively perform vaccine outreach to people experiencing incarceration who remain unvaccinated. In this article, we describe lessons learned from a successful vaccine education initiative in California state prisons and describe opportunities for application to other correctional settings. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(11):1543-1545. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307042).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisons , COVID-19/prevention & control , California , Health Education , Humans , Vaccination Hesitancy
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006003

ABSTRACT

The United States Department of Agriculture approved an increase to the Cash Value Benefit (CVB) for the purchase of fruits and vegetables issued to participants receiving an eligible Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package. In order to understand satisfaction, perceptions, and the overall impact of additional benefits for fruits and vegetables at the household level, a qualitative study consisting of structured phone interviews was conducted with families served by WIC in Southern California from November to December 2021 (n = 30). Families were selected from a large longitudinal study sample (N = 2784); the sample was restricted by benefit redemption and stratified by language and race. WIC participants were highly satisfied with the CVB increase, reporting increased purchasing and consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Respondents noted the improved quality and variety of fruits and vegetables purchased due to the increased amount. Findings are expected to inform policy makers to adjust the CVB offered in the WIC food package with the potential to improve participant satisfaction and increase participation and retention of eligible families with benefits from healthy diets supported by WIC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , California , Child , Female , Fruit , Humans , Infant , Longitudinal Studies , United States , Vegetables
14.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(9): e744-e753, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, workers in essential sectors had higher rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 mortality than those in non-essential sectors. It is unknown whether disparities in pandemic-related mortality across occupational sectors have continued to occur during the periods of SARS-CoV-2 variants and vaccine availability. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study, we obtained data from the California Department of Public Health on all deaths occurring in the state of California, USA, from Jan 1, 2016, to Dec 31, 2021. We restricted our analysis to residents of California who were aged 18-65 years at time of death and died of natural causes. We classified the occupational sector into nine essential sectors; non-essential; or unemployed or without an occupation provided on the death certificate. We calculated the number of COVID-19 deaths in total and per capita that occurred in each occupational sector. Separately, using autoregressive integrated moving average models, we estimated total, per-capita, and relative excess natural-cause mortality by week between March 1, 2020, and Nov 30, 2021, stratifying by occupational sector. We additionally stratified analyses of occupational risk into counties with high versus low vaccine uptake, categorising high-uptake regions as counties where at least 50% of the population were fully vaccinated according to US guidelines by Aug 1, 2021. FINDINGS: From March 1, 2020, to Nov 30, 2021, 24 799 COVID-19 deaths were reported in residents of California aged 18-65 years and an estimated 28 751 (95% prediction interval 27 853-29 653) excess deaths. People working in essential sectors were associated with higher COVID-19 deaths and excess deaths than were those working in non-essential sectors, with the highest per-capita COVID-19 mortality in the agriculture (131·8 per 100 000 people), transportation or logistics (107·1 per 100 000), manufacturing (103·3 per 100 000), facilities (101·1 per 100 000), and emergency (87·8 per 100 000) sectors. Disparities were wider during periods of increased infections, including during the Nov 29, 2020, to Feb 27, 2021, surge in infections, which was driven by the delta variant (B.1.617.2) and occurred during vaccine uptake. During the June 27 to Nov 27, 2021 surge, emergency workers had higher COVID-19 mortality (113·7 per 100 000) than workers from any other sector. Workers in essential sectors had the highest COVID-19 mortality in counties with low vaccination uptake, a difference that was more pronounced during the period of the delta infection surge during Nov 29, 2020, to Feb 27, 2021. INTERPRETATION: Workers in essential sectors have continued to bear the brunt of high COVID-19 and excess mortality throughout the pandemic, particularly in the agriculture, emergency, manufacturing, facilities, and transportation or logistics sectors. This high death toll has continued during periods of vaccine availability and the delta surge. In an ongoing pandemic without widespread vaccine coverage and with anticipated threats of new variants, the USA must actively adopt policies to more adequately protect workers in essential sectors. FUNDING: US National Institute on Aging, Swiss National Science Foundation, and US National Institute on Drug Abuse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , California/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 120: 106891, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996062

ABSTRACT

Through a public County/University partnership, we employed a Spanish/English bilingual research coordinator to increase awareness of newly available treatments with FDA Emergency Use Authorization and clinical trial opportunities for Latino outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Out of the 550 San Mateo County outpatients with COVID-19 referred to Stanford University between July 2020 and April 2022, 9.5% elected to receive monoclonal antibody EUA treatment. COVID-19 treatment trial enrollment of County patients, 5% of those recruited, was commensurate with non-County populations enrollment. Recruitment models such as ours have the potential to increase US Latino populations' recruitment in outpatient COVID-19 treatment trials and contribute to decreasing COVID-19 health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19/drug therapy , California , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Universities
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(33): 1052-1056, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994636

ABSTRACT

Work-related factors can contribute to risk for exposure to and infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and subsequent COVID-19-attributable outcomes, including death. Comparing COVID-19 metrics across industries can help identify workers at highest risk. Elevated COVID-19 mortality rates have been reported among all transportation workers, as well as specifically in public transportation industries (1-3). The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) calculated public transportation industry-specific COVID-19 outbreak incidence during January 2020-May 2022 and analyzed all laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 deaths among working-age adults in California to calculate public transportation industry-specific mortality rates during the same period. Overall, 340 confirmed COVID-19 outbreaks, 5,641 outbreak-associated cases, and 537 COVID-19-associated deaths were identified among California public transportation industries. Outbreak incidence was 5.2 times as high (129.1 outbreaks per 1,000 establishments) in the bus and urban transit industry and 3.6 times as high in the air transportation industry (87.7) as in all California industries combined (24.7). Mortality rates were 2.1 times as high (237.4 deaths per 100,000 workers) in transportation support services and 1.8 times as high (211.5) in the bus and urban transit industry as in all industries combined (114.4). Workers in public transportation industries are at higher risk for COVID-19 workplace outbreaks and mortality than the general worker population in California and should be prioritized for COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination and enhanced workplace protection measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , California/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Industry , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1558, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Undocumented immigrants are expected to face increased risks related to COVID-19 due to marginalizing restrictive immigration policies. However, few studies have assessed the prevalence of direct encounters with the immigration enforcement system among the undocumented and its impacts on their COVID-related health behaviors and outcomes. In this study, we quantify undocumented immigrants' lifetime exposure to various immigration enforcement tactics and their association with delays in COVID-19 testing and healthcare behaviors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a non-random sample of 326 Asian and Latinx undocumented immigrants in California from September 2020 to February 2021. The primary exposure was immigration enforcement encounter scores ranging from 0-9, assessed through self-reports of direct experiences with the immigration system, immigration officials, and law enforcement. The main outcomes were positive test for COVID-19, had or suspected having COVID-19, and delayed or avoided testing and/or treatment for COVID-19 due to immigration status. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the association between the primary exposure and outcomes of interest. RESULTS: Among 326 participants, 7% had received a positive COVID-19 test result, while 43% reported having or suspected having COVID-19. Almost 13% delayed or avoided COVID-19 testing and/or treatment because of their immigration status. Overall, an increase in immigration enforcement encounters was associated with higher odds of suspecting having had COVID-19 (aOR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01,1.26). Reporting an additional enforcement encounter was associated with higher odds of delaying or avoiding testing and/or treatment because of immigration status (aOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.26,1.86). Compared to their Latino counterparts, Asian respondents were more likely to report higher odds of delaying or avoiding testing and/or treatment (aOR = 3.13, 95% CI: 1.17,8.42). There were no significant associations between the enforcement score and testing positive for COVID-19. Additionally, while Latinxs were more likely to report immigration enforcement encounters than Asians, there were no differences in the effects of race on COVID-19 testing and healthcare behaviors in models with race as an interaction term (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Immigration enforcement encounters compound barriers to COVID-19 testing and treatment for undocumented immigrants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Health Services Accessibility , Undocumented Immigrants , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delayed Diagnosis , Emigration and Immigration , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Young Adult
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979259

ABSTRACT

Latino construction workers in the U.S. have faced a disproportionate risk for COVID-19 infection in the workplace. Prior studies have focused on quantifying workplace risk for COVID-19 infection; few have captured workers' experiences and perspectives. This study describes COVID-19-related workplace risks from the perspectives of Latino construction workers. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured phone interviews with Latino construction workers from the Fruitvale District of Oakland, California. Twenty individuals were interviewed from December 2020 to March 2021. Nearly all participants (19/20) were Spanish-speaking men; mean age 42.6 years. The majority were low-income and over one-third did not have health insurance. Participants worked in varied construction-related jobs ranging from demolition to office work; additionally, four were day laborers, and three belonged to a labor union. We identified four major themes with public health policy and workplace safety implications: (1) Major concern about the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection for family health and economic wellbeing; (2) Clarity about mask use and social distancing but not disclosure; (3) Variability in access to additional resources provided by employers; and (4) Uncertainty around structural support for SARS-CoV-2 quarantine/isolation. Our findings provide further evidence from workers' own perspectives of the major gaps experienced during the pandemic in workplace protections and resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Workplace
19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(8): 1191-1201, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974335

ABSTRACT

The number of older adults (age fifty-five or older) incarcerated in US prisons reached an all-time high just as COVID-19 entered correctional facilities in 2020. However, little is known about COVID-19's impact on incarcerated older adults. We compared COVID-19 outcomes between older and younger adults in California state prisons from March 1, 2020, to October 9, 2021. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) revealed an increasing risk for adverse COVID-19 outcomes among older age groups (ages 55-64, 65-74, and 75 or older) compared with younger adults, including for documented infection (aOR, 1.3, 1.4, and 1.4, respectively) and hospitalization with COVID-19 (aOR, 4.6, 8.7, and 15.1, respectively). Moreover, although accounting for 17.3 percent of the California state prison population, older adults represented 85.8 percent of this population's COVID-19-related deaths. Yet a smaller percentage of older adults than younger adults were released from prison during the pandemic. The differential rates of morbidity and mortality experienced by incarcerated older adults should be considered in future pandemic response strategies regarding prisons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisoners , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prisons
20.
JAMA ; 328(4): 360-366, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971153

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a large decrease in US life expectancy in 2020, but whether a similar decrease occurred in 2021 and whether the relationship between income and life expectancy intensified during the pandemic are unclear. Objective: To measure changes in life expectancy in 2020 and 2021 and the relationship between income and life expectancy by race and ethnicity. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective ecological analysis of deaths in California in 2015 to 2021 to calculate state- and census tract-level life expectancy. Tracts were grouped by median household income (MHI), obtained from the American Community Survey, and the slope of the life expectancy-income gradient was compared by year and by racial and ethnic composition. Exposures: California in 2015 to 2019 (before the COVID-19 pandemic) and 2020 to 2021 (during the COVID-19 pandemic). Main Outcomes and Measures: Life expectancy at birth. Results: California experienced 1 988 606 deaths during 2015 to 2021, including 654 887 in 2020 to 2021. State life expectancy declined from 81.40 years in 2019 to 79.20 years in 2020 and 78.37 years in 2021. MHI data were available for 7962 of 8057 census tracts (98.8%; n = 1 899 065 deaths). Mean MHI ranged from $21 279 to $232 261 between the lowest and highest percentiles. The slope of the relationship between life expectancy and MHI increased significantly, from 0.075 (95% CI, 0.07-0.08) years per percentile in 2019 to 0.103 (95% CI, 0.098-0.108; P < .001) years per percentile in 2020 and 0.107 (95% CI, 0.102-0.112; P < .001) years per percentile in 2021. The gap in life expectancy between the richest and poorest percentiles increased from 11.52 years in 2019 to 14.67 years in 2020 and 15.51 years in 2021. Among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Asian, Black, and White populations, life expectancy declined 5.74 years among the Hispanic population, 3.04 years among the non-Hispanic Asian population, 3.84 years among the non-Hispanic Black population, and 1.90 years among the non-Hispanic White population between 2019 and 2021. The income-life expectancy gradient in these groups increased significantly between 2019 and 2020 (0.038 [95% CI, 0.030-0.045; P < .001] years per percentile among Hispanic individuals; 0.024 [95% CI: 0.005-0.044; P = .02] years per percentile among Asian individuals; 0.015 [95% CI, 0.010-0.020; P < .001] years per percentile among Black individuals; and 0.011 [95% CI, 0.007-0.015; P < .001] years per percentile among White individuals) and between 2019 and 2021 (0.033 [95% CI, 0.026-0.040; P < .001] years per percentile among Hispanic individuals; 0.024 [95% CI, 0.010-0.038; P = .002] years among Asian individuals; 0.024 [95% CI, 0.011-0.037; P = .003] years per percentile among Black individuals; and 0.013 [95% CI, 0.008-0.018; P < .001] years per percentile among White individuals). The increase in the gradient was significantly greater among Hispanic vs White populations in 2020 and 2021 (P < .001 in both years) and among Black vs White populations in 2021 (P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: This retrospective analysis of census tract-level income and mortality data in California from 2015 to 2021 demonstrated a decrease in life expectancy in both 2020 and 2021 and an increase in the life expectancy gap by income level relative to the prepandemic period that disproportionately affected some racial and ethnic minority populations. Inferences at the individual level are limited by the ecological nature of the study, and the generalizability of the findings outside of California are unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , California/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Life Expectancy , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
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