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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785743

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at obtaining hesperidin (Hed) and hesperetin (Het) systems with HP-ß-CD by means of the solvent evaporation method. The produced systems were identified using infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Moreover, in silico docking and molecular dynamics studies were performed to assess the most preferable site of interactions between tested compounds and HP-ß-CD. The changes of physicochemical properties (solubility, dissolution rate, and permeability) were determined chromatographically. The impact of modification on biological activity was tested in an antioxidant study as well as with regards to inhibition of enzymes important in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The results indicated improvement in solubility over 1000 and 2000 times for Hed and Het, respectively. Permeability studies revealed that Hed has difficulties in crossing biological membranes, in contrast with Het, which can be considered to be well absorbed. The improved physicochemical properties influenced the biological activity in a positive manner by the increase in inhibitory activity on the DPPH radical and cholinoesterases. To conclude the use of HP-ß-CD as a carrier in the formation of an amorphous inclusion complex seems to be a promising approach to improve the biological activity and bioavailability of Hed and Het.


Subject(s)
Hesperidin , 2-Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin/chemistry , Biological Availability , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Hesperidin/pharmacology , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , X-Ray Diffraction
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20877, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479811

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus vectors offer a platform technology for vaccine development. The value of the platform has been proven during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although good stability at 2-8 °C is an advantage of the platform, non-cold-chain distribution would have substantial advantages, in particular in low-income countries. We have previously reported a novel, potentially less expensive thermostabilisation approach using a combination of simple sugars and glass micro-fibrous matrix, achieving excellent recovery of adenovirus-vectored vaccines after storage at temperatures as high as 45 °C. This matrix is, however, prone to fragmentation and so not suitable for clinical translation. Here, we report an investigation of alternative fibrous matrices which might be suitable for clinical use. A number of commercially-available matrices permitted good protein recovery, quality of sugar glass and moisture content of the dried product but did not achieve the thermostabilisation performance of the original glass fibre matrix. We therefore further investigated physical and chemical characteristics of the glass fibre matrix and its components, finding that the polyvinyl alcohol present in the glass fibre matrix assists vaccine stability. This finding enabled us to identify a potentially biocompatible matrix with encouraging performance. We discuss remaining challenges for transfer of the technology into clinical use, including reliability of process performance.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenovirus Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccine Potency , Adenoviruses, Simian , Biocompatible Materials , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Glass , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Light , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Polyvinyl Alcohol , Rabies Vaccines , Scattering, Radiation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Sugars/chemistry , Temperature , Thermogravimetry , Trehalose/chemistry
3.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101238, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433455

ABSTRACT

The D614G mutation in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 alters the fitness of the virus, leading to the dominant form observed in the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the molecular basis of the mechanism by which this mutation enhances fitness is not clear. Here we demonstrated by cryo-electron microscopy that the D614G mutation resulted in increased propensity of multiple receptor-binding domains (RBDs) in an upward conformation poised for host receptor binding. Multiple substates within the one RBD-up or two RBD-up conformational space were determined. According to negative staining electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and differential scanning fluorimetry, the most significant impact of the mutation lies in its ability to eliminate the unusual cold-induced unfolding characteristics and to significantly increase the thermal stability under physiological pH. The D614G spike variant also exhibited exceptional long-term stability when stored at 37 °C for up to 2 months. Our findings shed light on how the D614G mutation enhances the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 through a stabilizing mutation and suggest an approach for better design of spike protein-based conjugates for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Protein Domains , Protein Stability , Protein Structure, Quaternary , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Temperature
4.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101127, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373108

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike is the primary target of virus-neutralizing antibodies and critical to the development of effective vaccines against COVID-19. Here, we demonstrate that the prefusion-stabilized two-proline "S2P" spike-widely employed for laboratory work and clinical studies-unfolds when stored at 4 °C, physiological pH, as observed by electron microscopy (EM) and differential scanning calorimetry, but that its trimeric, native-like conformation can be reacquired by low pH treatment. When stored for approximately 1 week, this unfolding does not significantly alter antigenic characteristics; however, longer storage diminishes antibody binding, and month-old spike elicits virtually no neutralization in mice despite inducing high ELISA-binding titers. Cryo-EM structures reveal the folded fraction of spike to decrease with aging; however, its structure remains largely similar, although with varying mobility of the receptor-binding domain. Thus, the SARS-CoV-2 spike is susceptible to unfolding, which affects immunogenicity, highlighting the need to monitor its integrity.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Female , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protein Unfolding , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Time Factors
5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 264: 118011, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172080

ABSTRACT

Veklury™ by Gilead Sciences, Inc., containing antiviral drug, remdesivir (REM) has received emergency authorization in the USA and in Europe for COVID-19 therapy. Here, for the first time, we describe details of the non-covalent, host-guest type interaction between REM and the solubilizing excipient, sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin (SBECD) that results in significant solubility enhancement. Complete amorphousness of the cyclodextrin-enabled REM formulation was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, Raman chemical mapping and electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy. The use of solubilizing carbohydrate resulted in a 300-fold improvement of the aqueous solubility of REM, and enhanced dissolution rate of the drug enabling the preparation of stable infusion solutions for therapy. 2D ROESY NMR spectroscopy provided information on the nature of REM-excipient interaction and indicated the presence of inclusion phenomenon and the electrostatic attraction between anionic SBECD and nitrogen-containing REM in aqueous solution.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Excipients/chemistry , beta-Cyclodextrins/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Alanine/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Freeze Drying/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nanofibers/chemistry , Powders , Solubility , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , X-Ray Diffraction
6.
Mol Pharm ; 18(5): 1970-1984, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164785

ABSTRACT

Physicochemical properties, in particular solubility and the associated bioavailability, are key factors in determining efficacy of poorly water-soluble drugs, which constitute 40% of new drugs in the market, and improving them is an important challenge for modern pharmacy. A recent strategy to achieve this goal is formation of stable co-amorphous solid dispersions with co-formers of low molecular weight. Here, the amorphization strategy was applied for low-soluble anti-hypertensive valsartan (VAL), an angiotensin II receptor blocker, and nicotinamide, which exhibits lung- and cardio-protective effects. Through interactions with the renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system, VAL may be used to treat both hypertension and the current pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using mechanochemical and liquid- and solid-state approaches, solvated co-amorphous solid dispersions of VAL with nicotinamide were obtained. They were characterized by spectroscopic, thermal, and X-ray analyses. The density functional theory, quantum theory of atoms in molecules, and non-covalent interaction index calculations revealed the presence of two types of hydrogen bonds between VAL and NIC (i.e., N-H···O and O-H···O). One of them had a partially covalent character, which caused conformational changes in the flexible VAL molecule, restricting contribution of the tetrazolyl N-H donor and thus limiting the possibility of co-crystal formation. The recognized VAL/NIC1- and VAL/NIC2-type heterodimeric interactions were responsible for the excellent durability of the solid compositions and up to 24-fold better solubility than VAL alone. The synthesized dispersions constitute a new class of dually acting drugs, containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient (VAL) and supporting nutraceutical (nicotinamide).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Niacinamide/chemistry , Valsartan/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemical synthesis , Biological Availability , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Drug Compounding , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Quantum Theory , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , X-Ray Diffraction
7.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 34(1): 20-31, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066217

ABSTRACT

Background: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is one of the repurposed drugs proposed for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, all the published clinical trials involve oral administration of the drug, although the disease is primarily a respiratory one. Direct inhaled delivery could reduce the side effects associated with oral use and ensure a high concentration of the drug in the lungs. In this study, inhalable HCQ powders were prepared and characterized for potential COVID-19 therapy. Methods: Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQ-sul) was jet milled (JM) followed by conditioning by storage at different relative humidities (43%, 53%, 58%, and 75% RHs) for 7 days. The solid-state properties, including particle morphology and size distribution, crystallinity, and vapor moisture profiles of HCQ-sul samples, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and dynamic water vapor sorption. The aerosol performance of the HCQ-sul powders was assessed using a medium-high resistance Osmohaler coupling to a next-generation impactor (NGI) at a flow rate of 60 L/min. Results: The jet-milled powder showed a volume median diameter of 1.7 µm (span 1.5) and retained the same crystalline form as the raw HCQ-sul. A small amount of amorphous materials was present in the jet-milled HCQ-sul, which was convertible to the stable, crystalline state after conditioning at 53%, 58%, and 75% RH. The recovered fine particle fraction (FPF)recovered and the emitted fine particle fraction (FPFemitted) of the HCQ-sul sample immediately after jet milling and the samples after conditioning at 43%, 53%, and 58% RH were similar at ∼43% and 61%, respectively. In contrast, the sample having conditioned at 75%RH showed lower corresponding values at 33% and 26% respectively, due to the formation of solid bridges caused by excessive moisture. Conclusion: Inhalable crystalline powders of HCQ-sul were successfully prepared, which can be used for clinical testing as a potential inhaled COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Inhalation , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Humans , Particle Size , Powders , X-Ray Diffraction
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