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1.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512511

ABSTRACT

This work describes an untargeted analytical approach for the screening, identification, and characterization of the trans-epithelial transport of green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechin extracts with in vitro inhibitory effect against the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro) activity. After specific catechin extraction, a chromatographic separation obtained six fractions were carried out. The fractions were assessed in vitro against the PLpro target. Fraction 5 showed the highest inhibitory activity against the SARS-CoV-2 PLpro (IC50 of 0.125 µg mL-1). The untargeted characterization revealed that (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) was the most abundant compound in the fraction and the primary molecule absorbed by differentiated Caco-2 cells. Results indicated that fraction 5 was approximately 10 times more active than ECG (IC50 value equal to 11.62 ± 0.47 µg mL-1) to inhibit the PLpro target. Overall, our findings highlight the synergistic effects of the various components of the crude extract compared to isolated ECG.


Subject(s)
Catechin/pharmacology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Tea/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Caco-2 Cells , Camellia sinensis/metabolism , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/chemistry , Catechin/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/drug effects , Epithelium/drug effects , Epithelium/metabolism , Humans , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tea/chemistry , Tea/physiology
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348676

ABSTRACT

Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is producing a large number of infections and deaths globally, the development of supportive and auxiliary treatments is attracting increasing attention. Here, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity of the polyphenol-rich tea leaf extract TY-1 containing concentrated theaflavins and other virucidal catechins. The TY-1 was mixed with SARS-CoV-2 solution, and its virucidal activity was evaluated. To evaluate the inhibition activity of TY-1 in SARS-CoV-2 infection, TY-1 was co-added with SARS-CoV-2 into cell culture media. After 1 h of incubation, the cell culture medium was replaced, and the cells were further incubated in the absence of TY-1. The viral titers were then evaluated. To evaluate the impacts of TY-1 on viral proteins and genome, TY-1-treated SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins and viral RNA were analyzed using western blotting and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. TY-1 showed time- and concentration-dependent virucidal activity. TY-1 inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection of cells. The results of western blotting and real-time RT-PCR suggested that TY-1 induced structural change in the S2 subunit of the S protein and viral genome destruction, respectively. Our findings provided basic insights in vitro into the possible value of TY-1 as a virucidal agent, which could enhance the current SARS-CoV-2 control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tea/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/chemistry , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Camellia sinensis/metabolism , Catechin/chemistry , Catechin/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genome, Viral/drug effects , Humans , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects
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