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1.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e59, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947116

ABSTRACT

Camel milk has been consumed for centuries due to its medicinal and healing properties. The present study aims to investigate the consumption patterns of camel milk and perceived benefits and risks among adults in the United Arab Emirates. A self-administered online questionnaire was developed in English and Arabic languages and was completed online by 852 adults. Socio-demographic characteristics, camel milk consumption patterns and perceived knowledge of the benefits and risks of camel milk were investigated. About 60 % of the participants have tried drinking camel milk, but only a quarter (25⋅1 %) were regular consumers. The most consumed camel milk products after fresh milk were yoghurt and flavoured milk. The most popular additions to camel milk were honey, turmeric and sugar. Most consumers had less than one cup of camel milk per day (57⋅0 %). Camel milk consumers preferred it over other types of milk due to its nutritional value (66⋅4 %) and medicinal properties (39⋅3 %). Among consumers, 58⋅4 % reported consuming unpasteurised camel milk. Reasons included the belief that it is fresher (87⋅2 %), better for the immune system (41⋅6 %), and higher in nutrients (39⋅2 %). Overall, participants had inadequate knowledge about the health benefits of camel milk (7⋅11 ± 5⋅3 out of 25). Males and camel milk consumers had a significantly higher knowledge about the health benefits of camel milk compared to females and non-consumers (P < 0⋅05). Although positive perceptions were common, misperceptions appear to be prevalent among non-consumers. Consuming unpasteurised camel milk is a major public health concern, thus national regulations are essential.


Subject(s)
Camelus , Milk , Animals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Nutritive Value , Taste
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10340, 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900653

ABSTRACT

In 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in Saudi Arabia and was mostly associated with severe respiratory illness in humans. Dromedary camels are the zoonotic reservoir for MERS-CoV. To investigate the biology of MERS-CoV in camelids, we developed a well-differentiated airway epithelial cell (AEC) culture model for Llama glama and Camelus bactrianus. Histological characterization revealed progressive epithelial cellular differentiation with well-resemblance to autologous ex vivo tissues. We demonstrate that MERS-CoV displays a divergent cell tropism and replication kinetics profile in both AEC models. Furthermore, we observed that in the camelid AEC models MERS-CoV replication can be inhibited by both type I and III interferons (IFNs). In conclusion, we successfully established camelid AEC cultures that recapitulate the in vivo airway epithelium and reflect MERS-CoV infection in vivo. In combination with human AEC cultures, this system allows detailed characterization of the molecular basis of MERS-CoV cross-species transmission in respiratory epithelium.


Subject(s)
Camelids, New World , Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Camelus , Respiratory System
3.
Curr Protoc ; 2(6): e459, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898638

ABSTRACT

Single-domain antibodies, including the antigen-binding variable domains of the shark immunoglobulin new antigen receptor and the camelid variable region of the heavy chain, are the smallest antigen recognition domains (∼15 kDa) and have unique characteristics compared to conventional antibodies. They are capable of binding epitopes that are hard to access for classical antibodies and can also be used for therapeutics or diagnostics or as modular building blocks for multi-domain constructs, antibody-drug conjugates, immunotoxins, or chimeric antigen receptor therapy. This article contains detailed procedures for the purification and validation of two single-domain antibodies (one shark and one camel), which bind to the S2 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, using both bacterial and mammalian cell expression systems. It provides a comprehensive reference for the production of single-domain antibodies with high yield, good quality, and purity. © Published 2022. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Basic Protocol: Production of single-domain antibodies from Escherichia coli Alternate Protocol: Production of single-domain antibodies using the mammalian cell line Expi293F Support Protocol 1: Production and purification of single-domain antibodies on a small scale with the polymyxin B method Support Protocol 2: Validation of single-domain antibodies by ELISA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sharks , Single-Domain Antibodies , Animals , Antibodies , Camelus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7005, 2022 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830097

ABSTRACT

Camels gained attention since the discovery of MERS-CoV as intermediary hosts for potentially epidemic zoonotic viruses. DcHEV is a novel zoonotic pathogen associated with camel contact. This study aimed to genetically characterize DcHEV in domestic and imported camels in Saudi Arabia. DcHEV was detected by RT-PCR in serum samples, PCR-positive samples were subjected to sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. DcHEV was detected in 1.77% of samples with higher positivity in domestic DCs. All positive imported dromedaries were from Sudan with age declining prevalence. Domestic DcHEV sequences clustered with sequences from Kenya, Somalia, and UAE while imported sequences clustered with one DcHEV isolate from UAE and both sequences clustered away from isolates reported from Pakistan. Full-genome sequences showed 24 amino acid difference with reference sequences. Our results confirm the detection of DcHEV in domestic and imported DCs. Further investigations are needed in human and camel populations to identify DcHEV potential zoonosis threat.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Hepatitis E virus , Animals , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Genetic Variation , Hepatitis E virus/genetics , Phylogeny , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(18): e2201433119, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815698

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike is a trimer of S1/S2 heterodimers with three receptor-binding domains (RBDs) at the S1 subunit for human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). Due to their small size, nanobodies can recognize protein cavities that are not accessible to conventional antibodies. To isolate high-affinity nanobodies, large libraries with great diversity are highly desirable. Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are natural reservoirs of coronaviruses like Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) that are transmitted to humans. Here, we built large dromedary camel VHH phage libraries to isolate nanobodies that broadly neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants. We isolated two VHH nanobodies, NCI-CoV-7A3 (7A3) and NCI-CoV-8A2 (8A2), which have a high affinity for the RBD via targeting nonoverlapping epitopes and show broad neutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants of concern. Cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) complex structures revealed that 8A2 binds the RBD in its up mode with a long CDR3 loop directly involved in the ACE2 binding residues and that 7A3 targets a deeply buried region that uniquely extends from the S1 subunit to the apex of the S2 subunit regardless of the conformational state of the RBD. At a dose of ≥5 mg/kg, 7A3 efficiently protected transgenic mice expressing hACE2 from the lethal challenge of variants B.1.351 or B.1.617.2, suggesting its therapeutic use against COVID-19 variants. The dromedary camel VHH phage libraries could be helpful as a unique platform ready for quickly isolating potent nanobodies against future emerging viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Domain Antibodies , Animals , Camelus , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Domain Antibodies/genetics
6.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(6): 828-838, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768952

ABSTRACT

The past two decades have witnessed the emergence of three zoonotic coronaviruses which have jumped species to cause lethal disease in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2. MERS-CoV emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and the origins of MERS-CoV are not fully understood. Genomic analysis indicates it originated in bats and transmitted to camels. Human-to-human transmission occurs in varying frequency, being highest in healthcare environment and to a lesser degree in the community and among family members. Several nosocomial outbreaks of human-to-human transmission have occurred, the largest in Riyadh and Jeddah in 2014 and South Korea in 2015. MERS-CoV remains a high-threat pathogen identified by World Health Organization as a priority pathogen because it causes severe disease that has a high mortality rate, epidemic potential, and no medical countermeasures. MERS-CoV has been identified in dromedaries in several countries in the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia. MERS-CoV-2 causes a wide range of clinical presentations, although the respiratory system is predominantly affected. There are no specific antiviral treatments, although recent trials indicate that combination antivirals may be useful in severely ill patients. Diagnosing MERS-CoV early and implementation infection control measures are critical to preventing hospital-associated outbreaks. Preventing MERS relies on avoiding unpasteurized or uncooked animal products, practicing safe hygiene habits in health care settings and around dromedaries, community education and awareness training for health workers, as well as implementing effective control measures. Effective vaccines for MERS-COV are urgently needed but still under development.


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Camelus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity
7.
Curr Opin Virol ; 52: 258-264, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611679

ABSTRACT

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the second of three zoonotic coronaviruses to infect humans since 2002, causing severe pneumonia. Unlike SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, the causes of the severe acute respiratory syndrome and Covid-19, respectively, MERS-CoV is enzootic in dromedary camels, a domestic/companion animal present across Africa, the Middle East and Central or South Asia and is sporadically transmitted to humans. However, it does not transmit readily from human to human except in hospital and household settings. Human MERS disease is reported only from the Arabian Peninsula (and only since 2012 even though the virus was detected in camels from at least the early 1990's) and in travelers from this region. Remarkably, no zoonotic MERS disease has been detected in Africa or Asia, even in areas of high density of MERS-CoV infected dromedaries. Here, we review aspects of MERS biology and epidemiology that might contribute to this lack of correlation between sites of camel infection and human zoonotic disease. Since MERS-CoV or MERS-like CoV have pandemic potential, further investigations into this disparity is critical, to forestall pandemics caused by this virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Camelus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 265, 2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is responsible for the local immune response of the lung against airborne infections. The structure of this tissue varies according to species and age. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the possible age-related structural variation of the BALT of the one humped camel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fresh specimens from both lungs of 15 clinically healthy male camels (10 months-12 years) were studied with light and electron microscopes. RESULTS: The BALT in the camel was variable from few lymphocytes to well-organized lymphoid tissue with a clear germinal center. The BALT of the bronchi is a constant lymphoid tissue in young and adult camels which may be of the large size with clear germinal center in response to repeated immune reaction and involutes in old age. The BALT of the bronchioles may be induced and develops mainly due to an immune reaction and showed great morphological variations and observed in different ages. High endothelial venules were associated with BALT in the bronchi but not with that of the bronchioles. The BALT-associated epithelium was tall pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells in the extrapulmonary bronchi changed to pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium mucous secreting cells in the intrapulmonary bronchi and simple columnar ciliated to simple cuboidal epithelium with Clara cells without goblet cells or mucous secreting cells in the bronchioles. CONCLUSIONS: The BALT of the bronchi is a constant lymphoid tissue in young and adult camels and involutes in old age. The BALT of the bronchioles may be induced and develops mainly due to an immune reaction and observed in different ages.


Subject(s)
Bronchi , Camelus , Animals , Epithelium , Lung , Lymphoid Tissue , Male
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(12): 3052-3062, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528794

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects humans and dromedary camels and is responsible for an ongoing outbreak of severe respiratory illness in humans in the Middle East. Although some mutations found in camel-derived MERS-CoV strains have been characterized, most natural variation found across MERS-CoV isolates remains unstudied. We report on the environmental stability, replication kinetics, and pathogenicity of several diverse isolates of MERS-CoV, as well as isolates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, to serve as a basis of comparison with other stability studies. Although most MERS-CoV isolates had similar stability and pathogenicity in our experiments, the camel-derived isolate C/KSA/13 had reduced surface stability, and another camel isolate, C/BF/15, had reduced pathogenicity in a small animal model. These results suggest that although betacoronaviruses might have similar environmental stability profiles, individual variation can influence this phenotype, underscoring the need for continual global viral surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Aerosols , Animals , Camelus , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virulence , Zoonoses
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1313: 85-97, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473148

ABSTRACT

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging zoonotic coronavirus that circulates in dromedary camels and sporadically transmit into humans, subsequently resulting in community and nosocomial cases. The viral infection in humans has a range of disease severity from asymptomatic to severe pneumonia and death, whereas the infection in camels is usually asymptomatic. There is no approved antiviral therapy or vaccine for MERS-CoV infections although there have been a number of therapeutic and vaccine candidates under development, for both humans and camels. To date, there has been limited research on the immune responses and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV in both humans and camels. Here, this chapter is focused on MERS-CoV specific immunity in different species with some details regarding the various animal models.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Humans , Immunity
11.
Med Mal Infect ; 50(3): 243-251, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409419

ABSTRACT

Since the first case of human infection by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia in June 2012, more than 2260 cases of confirmed MERS-CoV infection and 803 related deaths have been reported since the 16th of October 2018. The vast majority of these cases (71%) were reported in Saudi Arabia but the epidemic has now spread to 27 countries and has not ceased 6 years later, unlike SARS-CoV that disappeared a little less than 2 years after emerging. Due to the high fatality rate observed in MERS-CoV infected patients (36%), much effort has been put into understanding the origin and pathophysiology of this novel coronavirus to prevent it from becoming endemic in humans. This review focuses in particular on the origin, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of MERS-CoV, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of infected patients. The experience gained over recent years on how to manage the different risks related to this kind of epidemic will be key to being prepared for future outbreaks of communicable disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Camelus/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Management , Disease Reservoirs , Epidemics , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Genome, Viral , Global Health , Humans , Hygiene , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Risk Factors , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Symptom Assessment , Travel , Viral Vaccines
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2301-2311, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368386

ABSTRACT

After the first detection of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in camels in Jordan in 2013, we conducted 2 consecutive surveys in 2014-2015 and 2017-2018 investigating risk factors for MERS-CoV infection among camel populations in southern Jordan. Multivariate analysis to control for confounding demonstrated that borrowing of camels, particularly males, for breeding purposes was associated with increased MERS-CoV seroprevalence among receiving herds, suggesting a potential route of viral transmission between herds. Increasing age, herd size, and use of water troughs within herds were also associated with increased seroprevalence. Closed herd management practices were found to be protective. Future vaccination strategies among camel populations in Jordan could potentially prioritize breeding males, which are likely to be shared between herds. In addition, targeted management interventions with the potential to reduce transmission between herds should be considered; voluntary closed herd schemes offer a possible route to achieving disease-free herds.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5328-5332, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363671

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is one of the recently identified zoonotic coronaviruses. The one-hump camels are believed to play important roles in the evolution and transmission of the virus. The animal-to-animal, as well as the animal-to-human transmission in the context of MERS-CoV infection, were reported. The camels shed the virus in some of their secretions, especially the nasal tract. However, there are many aspects of the transmission cycle of the virus from animals to humans that are still not fully understood. Rodents played important roles in the transmission of many pathogens, including viruses and bacteria. They have been implicated in the evolution of many human coronaviruses, especially HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1. However, the role of rodents in the transmission of MERS-CoV still requires more exploration. To achieve this goal, we identified MERS-CoV that naturally infected dromedary camel by molecular surveillance. We captured 15 of the common rodents (rats, mice, and jerboa) sharing the habitat with these animals. We collected both oral and rectal swabs from these animals and then tested them by the commercial MERS-CoV real-time-PCR kits using two targets. Despite the detection of the viral shedding in the nasal swabs of some of the dromedary camels, none of the rodents tested positive for the virus during the tenure of this study. We concluded that these species of rodents did not harbor the virus and are most unlikely to contribute to the transmission of the MERS-CoV. However, further large-scale studies are required to confirm the potential roles of rodents in the context of the MERS-CoV transmission cycle, if any.


Subject(s)
Camelus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary , RNA, Viral/genetics , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Nasal Cavity/virology , Rats , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rectum/virology , Rodentia/virology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1865(11): 129974, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330651

ABSTRACT

Background Since December 2019, the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to infect humans and many people died from severe Covid-19 during the last 2 years worldwide. Different approaches are being used for treatment of this infection and its consequences, but limited results have been achieved and new therapeutics are still needed. One of the most interesting biotherapeutics in this era are Nanobodies which have shown very promising results in recent researches. Scope of review Here, we have reviewed the potentials of Nanobodies in Covid-19 treatment. We have also discussed the properties of these biotherapeutics that make them very suitable for pulmonary drug delivery, which seems to be very important route of administration in this disease. Major conclusion Nanobodies with their special biological and biophysical characteristics and their resistance against harsh manufacturing condition, can be considered as promising, targeted biotherapeutics which can be administered by pulmonary delivery pharmaceutical systems against Covid-19. General significance Covid-19 has become a global problem during the last two years and with emerging mutant strains, prophylactic and therapeutic approaches are still highly needed. Nanobodies with their specific properties can be considered as valuable and promising candidates in Covid-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Single-Domain Antibodies/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelus , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/biosynthesis , Immunologic Factors/isolation & purification , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Peptide Library , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/biosynthesis , Single-Domain Antibodies/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2099: 89-97, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292547

ABSTRACT

The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is the second novel zoonotic disease infecting humans caused by coronavirus (CoV) in this century. To date, more than 2200 laboratory-confirmed human cases have been identified in 27 countries, and more than 800 MERS-CoV associated deaths have been reported since its outbreak in 2012. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of MERS-CoV is the key to successful containment and prevention of the spread of infection. Though the gold standard for diagnosing MERS-CoV infection in humans is still nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) of the up-E region, an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) could also be of use for early diagnosis in less developed locations. In the present method, a step-by-step guide to perform a MERS-CoV nucleocapsid protein (NP) capture ELISA using two NP-specific monoclonal antibodies is provided for readers to develop their in-house workflow or diagnostic kit for clinical use and for mass-screening project of animals (e.g., dromedaries and bats) to better understand the spread and evolution of the virus.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Animals , Camelus/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Zoonoses
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(7): 1964-1968, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274600

ABSTRACT

Free-roaming camels, especially those crossing national borders, pose a high risk for spreading Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). To prevent outbreaks, active surveillance is necessary. We found that a high percentage of dromedaries in Tunisia are MERS-CoV seropositive (80.4%) or actively infected (19.8%), indicating extensive MERS-CoV circulation in Northern Africa.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Prevalence , Tunisia/epidemiology , Zoonoses
17.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243956

ABSTRACT

The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has refocused attention to the betacoronaviruses, only eight years after the emergence of another zoonotic betacoronavirus, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). While the wild source of SARS-CoV-2 may be disputed, for MERS-CoV, dromedaries are considered as source of zoonotic human infections. Testing 100 immune-response genes in 121 dromedaries from United Arab Emirates (UAE) for potential association with present MERS-CoV infection, we identified candidate genes with important functions in the adaptive, MHC-class I (HLA-A-24-like) and II (HLA-DPB1-like), and innate immune response (PTPN4, MAGOHB), and in cilia coating the respiratory tract (DNAH7). Some of these genes previously have been associated with viral replication in SARS-CoV-1/-2 in humans, others have an important role in the movement of bronchial cilia. These results suggest similar host genetic pathways associated with these betacoronaviruses, although further work is required to better understand the MERS-CoV disease dynamics in both dromedaries and humans.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Camelus/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Zoonoses/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Bronchi/cytology , Bronchi/physiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelus/genetics , Camelus/immunology , Cilia/physiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/genetics , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Respiratory Mucosa/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United Arab Emirates , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology , Zoonoses/genetics , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
18.
Int Rev Immunol ; 40(1-2): 5-53, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236148

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infections are responsible for mild, moderate, and severe infections in birds and mammals. These were first isolated in humans as causal microorganisms responsible for common cold. The 2002-2003 SARS epidemic caused by SARS-CoV and 2012 MERS epidemic (64 countries affected) caused by MERS-CoV showed their acute and fatal side. These two CoV infections killed thousands of patients infected worldwide. However, WHO has still reported the MERS case in December 2019 in middle-eastern country (Saudi Arabia), indicating the MERS epidemic has not ended completely yet. Although we have not yet understood completely these two CoV epidemics, a third most dangerous and severe CoV infection has been originated in the Wuhan city, Hubei district of China in December 2019. This CoV infection called COVID-19 or SARS-CoV2 infection has now spread to 210 countries and territories around the world. COVID-19 has now been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). It has infected more than 16.69 million people with more than 663,540 deaths across the world. Thus the current manuscript aims to describe all three (SARS, MERS, and COVID-19) in terms of their causal organisms (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV2), similarities and differences in their clinical symptoms, outcomes, immunology, and immunopathogenesis, and possible future therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Coronaviridae/ultrastructure , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Camelus/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae/classification , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Virus Replication/physiology
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200875

ABSTRACT

Understanding the immune response to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is crucial for disease prevention and vaccine development. We studied the antibody responses in 48 human MERS-CoV infection survivors who had variable disease severity in Saudi Arabia. MERS-CoV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected for 6 years postinfection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antibody Formation , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 741-754, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196488

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses highly pathogenic to humans. Some CoVs are known to cause respiratory and intestinal diseases, posing a threat to the global public health. Against this backdrop, it is of critical importance to develop safe and effective vaccines against these CoVs. This review discusses human vaccine candidates in any stage of development and explores the viral characteristics, molecular epidemiology, and immunology associated with CoV vaccine development. At present, there are many obstacles and challenges to vaccine research and development, including the lack of knowledge about virus transmission, pathogenesis, and immune response, absence of the most appropriate animal models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cricetulus , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit , Vaccines, Synthetic/biosynthesis , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/biosynthesis
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