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1.
J Emerg Manag ; 20(7): 77-102, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786202

ABSTRACT

This paper utilized a new novel framework, the Initialization, Distribution, Explanation, and Action (IDEA) model, for Instructional Health Risk and Crisis Communication (IHRCC) to investigate the effectiveness of the COVID-19 crisis communication (CC) in Cameroon. This contemporary research is empirical, qualitative, exploratory, and novel in the field of CC. Based on the findings, the COVID-19 CC in Cameroon could be ranked mediocre-fair. This is informed by an analysis of the IDEA elements in the framework that reveals that "Internalization" (messages on timeliness, compassion, and impact) was poor, "Distribution" (messages, guidance/protocols, and sources/distribution of messages) and "Explanation" (accuracy of messages, updated messages, and CC languages) were fair, and "Action" (instructional messages on infection control) considered as mediocre. This paper contributes to literature in the field, including concept development in health CC. The novel IDEA framework for IHRCC can enable health crisis managers gain context and better apply best practices to health CC. A structured recommendation on how this can be done has been proffered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cameroon/epidemiology , Communication , Humans
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 32, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771773

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the emergence of more transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants like Delta and Omicron have triggered the next wave of COVID-19 in many parts of the world. Here we report a surge in COVID-19 cases and deaths in the Northwest (NW) Region of Cameroon, which is plagued with low immunization coverage and armed conflict. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in September 2021 and data on COVID-19 cases and vaccination were reviewed from the Ministry of Health database from January 1st, 2020 to September 4th, 2021. The security situation of the region was obtained from the districts and regional health managers. Data were analyzed with MS Excel and results presented as trends and proportions. Results: since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic, there is an increasing prevalence in cases in the NW. Between epidemiological week 34-35 of 2021, there was a surge in COVID-19 cases in the NW. More than 70% of all COVID-19 related deaths reported in the country during epidemiological week-35 were recorded in this region. Despite this high mortality, COVID-19 vaccine uptake remains very low in the region. Indeed, just 0.6% of the 962,036-target population 18-years and above are fully immunized after 6-months of vaccination. Conclusion: though the country´s epi-curve does not suggest a third wave currently, the NW is experiencing a steady COVID-19 case surge amid insecurity and the circulation of the Delta variant. There is therefore a need to adopt innovative strategies to improve immunization and strengthen other SARS-CoV-2 preventive measures in this region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Armed Conflicts , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cameroon/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(3)2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Cameroon was recorded in March 2020. In response to the pandemic, most countries like Cameroon instituted a number of control measures to curb its spread accross the country. These COVID-19 control measures added to the fear of this disease within the population may have led to other detrimental health effects like: the pattern of hospitalizations and hospital outcomes. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional study with data from in-patient admission records of children admitted to the pediatric ward of the Regional Hospital Bamenda over a 24 months period (1st of March 2019 to the 28th of February 2021). The pre-pandemic period in Cameroon (that is, the first 12 months, from March 2019 to February 2020) and the pandemic period (that is, the last 12 months, from March 2020 to February 2021) were compared. RESULTS: A total of 2282 hospitalization records were included in the study. Most of the hospitalized children were males (57.23%). There was a 19.03% decline in pediatric hospitalizations during the first 12 months of the pandemic, which was statistically significant (p = 0.00024). The causes of hospitalizations and mortality remained similar over both periods, with severe malaria, the leading cause of admissions. Hospital deaths before and during the pandemic were 1.6% and 1.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION: There was a statistically significant decline in pediatric hospitalizations during the first 12 months of the pandemic as compared to the same period before the pandemic. Hospital mortality and causes of hospitalizations remained similar over both the periods.


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a public health emergency and a challenge to the health systems of most countries worldwide. The initial response of the Cameroon government to the COVID-19 pandemic was to put a number of measures in place to stop the spread of the virus across the country. These measures, though beneficial in the fight against COVID-19 could have led to other detrimental health effects on the population, through a change in the pattern of hospitalizations and hospital outcomes, and all these were made worse by the fear of COVID within the population. We carried out a descriptive and retrospective cross-sectional study using hospitalization and mortality data from the pediatric ward of the Regional Hospital Bamenda, in Cameroon. We compared the data for the last 12 months before the pandemic (March 2019­February 2020) to that of the first 12 months during the pandemic in Cameroon (March 2020­February 2021). The comparison of the two periods showed that there was a statistically significant decline in pediatric hospitalizations during the first 12 months of the pandemic, by 19.03% (p = 0.00024). The hospital mortality rates before and during the pandemic were 1.6% and 1.9%, respectively, and the causes of these hospitalizations and mortality remained similar over both the periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cameroon/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
4.
Math Med Biol ; 39(1): 1-48, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636003

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we propose and analyse a compartmental model of COVID-19 to predict and control the outbreak. We first formulate a comprehensive mathematical model for the dynamical transmission of COVID-19 in the context of sub-Saharan Africa. We provide the basic properties of the model and compute the basic reproduction number $\mathcal {R}_0$ when the parameter values are constant. After, assuming continuous measurement of the weekly number of newly COVID-19 detected cases, newly deceased individuals and newly recovered individuals, the Ensemble of Kalman filter (EnKf) approach is used to estimate the unmeasured variables and unknown parameters, which are assumed to be time-dependent using real data of COVID-19. We calibrated the proposed model to fit the weekly data in Cameroon and Gabon before, during and after the lockdown. We present the forecasts of the current pandemic in these countries using the estimated parameter values and the estimated variables as initial conditions. During the estimation period, our findings suggest that $\mathcal {R}_0 \approx 1.8377 $ in Cameroon, while $\mathcal {R}_0 \approx 1.0379$ in Gabon meaning that the disease will not die out without any control measures in theses countries. Also, the number of undetected cases remains high in both countries, which could be the source of the new wave of COVID-19 pandemic. Short-term predictions firstly show that one can use the EnKf to predict the COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa and that the second vague of the COVID-19 pandemic will still increase in the future in Gabon and in Cameroon. A comparison between the basic reproduction number from human individuals $\mathcal {R}_{0h}$ and from the SARS-CoV-2 in the environment $\mathcal {R}_{0v}$ has been done in Cameroon and Gabon. A comparative study during the estimation period shows that the transmissions from the free SARS-CoV-2 in the environment is greater than that from the infected individuals in Cameroon with $\mathcal {R}_{0h}$ = 0.05721 and $\mathcal {R}_{0v}$ = 1.78051. This imply that Cameroonian apply distancing measures between individual more than with the free SARS-CoV-2 in the environment. But, the opposite is observed in Gabon with $\mathcal {R}_{0h}$ = 0.63899 and $\mathcal {R}_{0v}$ = 0.39894. So, it is important to increase the awareness campaigns to reduce contacts from individual to individual in Gabon. However, long-term predictions reveal that the COVID-19 detected cases will play an important role in the spread of the disease. Further, we found that there is a necessity to increase timely the surveillance by using an awareness program and a detection process, and the eradication of the pandemic is highly dependent on the control measures taken by each government.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cameroon/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Gabon/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 348, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547772

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: since its appearance, the COVID-19 has exhausted global health systems. It was predictable that countries with weak health systems will be severly wiped out by the pandemic. Countries across Europe faced severe human loses and it was foreseable that Africa will experience an even worse tragedy. Suprisingly, since the evolution of the pandemic, there has been remarkable resistance from African countries, including Cameroon. METHOD: the study was phenomenographic. The data were collected successively from media observations (in particular the WHO site, national TV (CRTV) programs 'Parlons COVID'), social networks - Facebook and Whatsapp) and direct observations of some quarters of Garoua (Roumdé-Adjia, Foulbéré, Kakataré) and Mora for the Far North and the southern zone of Yaoundé (Ngoa-Ekelé, Nkolondom, Mokolo). These observations were associated with individual interview, reviews and note-taking around places of public circulation (places of worship, markets and discussion sites (Faada). The theory of functionalism was mobilized in this study. RESULTS: the results show that Cameroonians perceive the pandemic as an eminently metasocial phenomenon which explains their tendency to use prayers, nature to counter this attack. CONCLUSION: the study suggests that a multidimensional approach is capable of offering avenues of « liberation ¼. Also, the study once again raises the place of traditional medecine in health systems and shows the close link that exists between traditional medicine and spirituality.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anthropology, Cultural , Cameroon/epidemiology , Humans , Poverty , Religion , Sociological Factors , Urban Health
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260819, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546969

ABSTRACT

Studies assessing the mental health of patients with COVID-19 infection remain limited. Disasters and major emergencies, not just COVID-19, undoubtedly lead to greater incidence of mental health problems. Previous studies indicate that the novel Coronavirus disease can cause panic and stress in patients. Our literature search didn't reveal any previous published data from Cameroon and the Central African sub-region. In order to bridge this gap, we assessed the prevalence and factors associated with depression and anxiety in COVID-19 patients. We carried out a cross-sectional study in a secondary hospital in the Littoral Region of Cameroon. We recruited hospitalised COVID-19 patients during a 4-month period. We collected data on sociodemographic characteristics. The HADS score was used to assess levels of anxiety and depression. All analysis were done using Stata 14. A P value of <0.05 was used as the cut-off for statistical significance. A total number of 285 patients took part in this study with a mean age of 48.47 years. The prevalence of anxiety in COVID-19 patients was 60.35% while the prevalence of depression was 81.40%. At multivariate logistic regression male gender (OR: 1.89, P = 0.04), hypoxaemia (OR: 2.20, P = 0.01), presence of COVID-19 complications (OR: 1.61, P = 0.02) and current episode of depression (OR: 4.14, P<0.01) were independently associated with anxiety. Similarly, age > 35 years (OR:2.03, P = 0.02), presence of comorbidity (OR: 1.68, P = 0.01), BMI > = 30kg/m2 (OR: 1.78, P = 0.02), presence of COVID-19 complications (OR: 1.28, P = 0.01) and anxiety (OR: 4.60, P<0.001) were independently associated with depression. Hospitalised patients with COVID-19 experienced high levels of anxiety and depression. Treatment of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 should therefore include psychotherapy and psychiatric support.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Inpatients/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cameroon/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5851, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454760

ABSTRACT

The extent of SARS-CoV-2 circulation in many African countries remains unclear, underlining the need for antibody sero-surveys to assess the cumulative attack rate. Here, we present the results of a cross-sectional sero-survey of a random sample of residents of a health district in Yaounde, Cameroon, conducted from October 14 to November 26, 2020. Among the 971 participants, the test-adjusted seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was 29·2% (95% CI 24·3-34·1). This is about 322 times greater than the 0.09% nationwide attack rate implied by COVID-19 case counts at the time. Men, obese individuals and those living in large households were significantly more likely to be seropositive, and the majority (64·2% [58·7-69·4]) of seropositive individuals reported no symptoms. Despite the high seroprevalence, most of the population had not been infected with SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the importance of continued measures to control viral spread and quick vaccine deployment to protect the vulnerable.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Urban Population , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Cameroon/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Geography , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252507, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388918

ABSTRACT

We recently developed 'cellular' reagents-lyophilized bacteria overexpressing proteins of interest-that can replace commercial pure enzymes in typical diagnostic and molecular biology reactions. To make cellular reagent technology widely accessible and amenable to local production with minimal instrumentation, we now report a significantly simplified method for preparing cellular reagents that requires only a common bacterial incubator to grow and subsequently dry enzyme-expressing bacteria at 37°C with the aid of inexpensive chemical desiccants. We demonstrate application of such dried cellular reagents in common molecular and synthetic biology processes, such as PCR, qPCR, reverse transcription, isothermal amplification, and Golden Gate DNA assembly, in building easy-to-use testing kits, and in rapid reagent production for meeting extraordinary diagnostic demands such as those being faced in the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Furthermore, we demonstrate feasibility of local production by successfully implementing this minimized procedure and preparing cellular reagents in several countries, including the United Kingdom, Cameroon, and Ghana. Our results demonstrate possibilities for readily scalable local and distributed reagent production, and further instantiate the opportunities available via synthetic biology in general.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/standards , Indicators and Reagents/standards , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cameroon/epidemiology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Gene Expression , Geobacillus stearothermophilus/genetics , Geobacillus stearothermophilus/metabolism , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Indicators and Reagents/chemistry , Indicators and Reagents/metabolism , Indicators and Reagents/supply & distribution , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Plasmids/chemistry , Plasmids/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Synthetic Biology/methods , Transformation, Bacterial , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
Vox Sang ; 116(6): 637-644, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319365

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a novel coronavirus, has already affected over 99 062 people in 53 African countries and killed 3082. The pandemic threatens blood supply but we do not yet know its impact on blood donations or on the perceptions and expectations of donors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in four hospital-based blood services in Cameroon, using a survey design and focusing on the subjective and cultural aspects of donors. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, we collected the participants' responses as to their understanding of COVID-19 and of current protection measures, and their expectations. Data on trends of blood donations were collected retrospectively for the period from 1st January to 30th April 2019 and the same period in 2020. RESULTS: Of 494 donors included, 432 (87·4%) were enrolled from fixed blood collection sites and 62 (12·6%) were contacted by phone. A total of 464 (93·9%) participants believed that the COVID-19 is a lung disease, but some declared it to be imaginary (7·7%), a foreign disease (8·3%) or a blood-borne disease (3·2%). The participants reported that the distribution of face masks and hydroalcoholic solutions (92·5%), social distancing and hygiene (6·3%) are the most important measures that need to be in place for safe donation. The number of blood donations dropped by 21·5% between 2019 and 2020. CONCLUSION: Most of the donors know COVID-19, its transmission routes and manifestations. In the absence of barrier measures, they perceive blood donation as a threat to their health. Distribution of masks and hydroalcoholic solution might motivate more donors and improve the blood supply.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/psychology , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Cameroon/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 344, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314969

ABSTRACT

Since the first reported case of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan China, the virus has spread to every continent, including sub-Saharan Africa. There exist no cure or vaccine for COVID-19. Classic public health approaches such as hygiene and sanitation, and social distancing are the recommended measures to contain the spread of the causative virus. While it is possible to combine strict lockdown measures in some western countries, this is not practical in almost every country in sub-Saharan Africa. In Cameroon, those without symptoms are encouraged to respect measures of hygiene and sanitation, physical distancing, and to wear a mask in public places. Those who develop symptoms are isolated in accredited COVID-19 management centres until they recover. However, the latter strategy is ineffective in containing the local spread of the virus because testing is not robust. Intuitively, the control of the virus in Cameroon depends largely on how engaged the public is in fighting against the virus. Social media can complement the use of community health workers for community or public engagement. In this viewpoint, we discuss how to optimize public engagement, to combat misinformation and to develop a culture for preparedness amidst the COVID-19 pandemic when time and resources are of the essence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cameroon/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Humans
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 356, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with significant psychological and social distress worldwide. We investigated fear and depression among adults in Cameroon during different phases of the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: An online survey was conducted in Cameroon from June-December 2020 using a structured questionnaire. Socio-demographic data and information regarding COVID-19 history were obtained. Fear and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Fear of COVID-19 score (FCV-19S) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively. Responses were clustered in weeks to better appreciate their evolution over time. RESULTS: Overall, 7381 responses from all ten regions of Cameroon were analysed (median age: 30 years, 73.3% male). The prevalence of depression (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10) was 8.4%, and that of high fear of COVID-19 (FCV-19S scores ≥19) was 57.4%. These rates were similar across genders, age-groups, and region of residence. While mean weekly PHQ-9 scores remained fairly stable throughout the study period (range: 2.53-3.21; p = 0.101), mean FCV-19S scores were highest during the early weeks but decreased significantly thereafter (from 20.31 to 18.34; p <  0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that having a postgraduate degree, a history of quarantine, flu-like symptoms during the past 14 days, and higher FCV-19S scores were associated with more severe depressive symptoms, while obtaining COVID-19 information from various sources reduced the odds for depression. CONCLUSION: Depression amidst the COVID-19 crisis is less prevalent in Cameroon than in other countries. Prompt and widespread dissemination of adequate COVID-19 information may reduce the risks for depression by dispelling fear and anxiety among Cameroonians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cameroon/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 1939620, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291289

ABSTRACT

The discovery and development of vaccines remain one of the major successes of global health with millions of lives saved every year through routine vaccination. Although vaccines provide a safe and cost-effective solution to vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), VPDs are still a serious public health problem in most parts of the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Asia. In this review, we discuss the burden of VPDs and vaccine coverage several decades after the introduction of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Cameroon. We also discuss how different factors affect the implementation of the EPI, highlighting context-specific factors such as the ongoing civil conflict in Cameroon, and the presence of other infectious diseases like COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Vaccines , Cameroon/epidemiology , Humans , Immunization Programs , Vaccination , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 246, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257122

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a disease that originated from Wuhan in December 2019. It rapidly spread across the globe causing high mortality especially among the elderly. Africa though not spared has limited studies regarding its effects on its population. We therefore sought to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in Douala, Cameroon. METHODS: we conducted a single-centre, retrospective, and observational study by reviewing records of patients managed for COVID-19 between the 8th March 2020 and 31st, May 2020. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction and were analysed for epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and radiological features. Outcomes were either clinical improvement by Day-28 or in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: we analyzed 282 case files, 192 were males (M: F=2: 1). The mean age was 52 (+/- 15) years. Hypertension and diabetes accounted for 75% of the chronic medical conditions identified. Main presenting complaints were dyspnea, cough, asthenia, and fever (55-60%). Radiographic analysis showed a ground-glass appearance in 85% of cases. Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine was the most (91.8%) frequently used drug in management protocols, 35% needed oxygen supplementation while 6 patients were intubated. Severe pneumonia (11.3%) was the commonest complication. They were 91 admissions in the intensive care unit. The average length of hospital stay was 10 (+/- 5) days. The mortality rate was 32%. CONCLUSION: our findings are concordant with universally reported data of COVID-19 hospitalised patients. These parameters are essential in designing effective prevention and control programs aimed at reducing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic particularly in countries with limited resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cameroon/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Young Adult
15.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251504, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A year after the COVID-19 pandemic started, there are still few scientific reports on COVID-19 in Africa. This study explores the clinical profiles and factors associated with COVID-19 in Cameroon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we followed patients admitted for suspicion of COVID-19 at Djoungolo Hospital between 01st April and 31st July 2020. Patients were categorised by age groups and disease severity: mild (symptomatic without clinical signs of pneumonia), moderate (with clinical signs of pneumonia without respiratory distress) and severe cases (clinical signs of pneumonia and respiratory distress not requiring invasive ventilation). Demographic information and clinical features were summarised. Multivariable analysis was performed to predict risk. FINDINGS: A total of 313 patients were admitted during the study period; 259 were confirmed cases of COVID-19 by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Among the confirmed cases, the male group aged 40 to 49 years (13.9%) was predominant. Disease severity ranged from mild (26.2%; n = 68) to moderate (59%; n = 153) to severe (14.7%; n = 38); the case fatality rate was 1% (n = 4). Dysgusia (46%; n = 119) and hyposmia/anosmia (37.8%; n = 98) were common features of COVID-19. Nearly one-third of patients had comorbidities (29%; n = 53), of which hypertension was the most common (18.9%; n = 49). Participation in mass gatherings (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.37; P = 0.03) and dysgusia (OR = 2.09, P = 0.02) were predictive of diagnosis of COVID-19. Age groups 60 to 69 (OR = 7.41; P = 0.0001), 50 to 59 (OR = 4.09; P = 0.03), 40 to 49 (OR = 4.54; P = 0.01), male gender (OR = 2.53; P = 0.04), diabetes (OR = 4.05; P = 0.01), HIV infection (OR = 5.57; P = 0.03), lung disease (OR = 6.29; P = 0.01), dyspnoea (OR = 3.70; P = 0.008) and fatigue (OR = 3.35; P = 0.02) significantly predicted COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: Most COVID-19 cases in this study were benign with low fatality. Age (40-70), male gender, HIV infection, lung disease, dyspnoea and fatigue are associated with severe COVID-19. Such findings may guide public health decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Cameroon/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyspnea , Fatigue , Female , HIV Infections , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(3): 899-911, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic indirectly impacts HIV epidemiology in Central/West Africa. We estimated the potential impact of COVID-19-related disruptions to HIV prevention/treatment services and sexual partnerships on HIV incidence and HIV-related deaths among key populations including female sex workers (FSW), their clients, men who have sex with men, and overall. SETTING: Yaoundé (Cameroon) and Cotonou (Benin). METHODS: We used mathematical models of HIV calibrated to city population-specific and risk population-specific demographic/behavioral/epidemic data. We estimated the relative change in 1-year HIV incidence and HIV-related deaths for various disruption scenarios of HIV prevention/treatment services and decreased casual/commercial partnerships, compared with a scenario without COVID-19. RESULTS: A 50% reduction in condom use in all partnerships over 6 months would increase 1-year HIV incidence by 39%, 42%, 31%, and 23% among men who have sex with men, FSW, clients, and overall in Yaoundé, respectively, and 69%, 49%, and 23% among FSW, clients, and overall, respectively, in Cotonou. Combining a 6-month interruption of ART initiation and 50% reduction in HIV prevention/treatment use would increase HIV incidence by 50% and HIV-related deaths by 20%. This increase in HIV infections would be halved by a simultaneous 50% reduction in casual and commercial partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in condom use after COVID-19 would increase infections among key populations disproportionately, particularly FSW in Cotonou, who need uninterrupted condom provision. Disruptions in HIV prevention/treatment services have the biggest impacts on HIV infections and deaths overall, only partially mitigated by equal reductions in casual/commercial sexual partnerships. Maintaining ART provision must be prioritized to minimize short-term excess HIV-related deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1 , SARS-CoV-2 , Benin/epidemiology , Cameroon/epidemiology , Condoms , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Biological , Risk Factors , Safe Sex , Sex Workers , Urban Population
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129703

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, the Cameroonian government implemented nationwide measures to stall COVID-19 transmission. However, little is known about how well these unprecedented measures are being observed as the pandemic evolves. We conducted a six-month online survey to assess the preventive behaviour of Cameroonian adults during the COVID-19 outbreak. A five-point adherence score was constructed based on self-reported observance of the following preventive measures: physical distancing, face mask use, hand hygiene, not touching one's face, and covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing. Predictors of adherence were investigated using ordinal logistic regression models. Of the 7381 responses received from all ten regions, 73.3% were from male respondents and overall mean age was 32.8 ± 10.8 years. Overall mean adherence score was 3.96 ± 1.11 on a scale of 0-5. Mean weekly adherence scores were initially high, but gradually decreased over time accompanied by increasing incidence of COVID-19 during the last study weeks. Predictors for higher adherence included higher age, receiving COVID-19 information from health personnel, and agreeing with the necessity of lockdown measures. Meanwhile, experiencing flu-like symptoms was associated with poor adherence. Continuous observance of preventive measures should be encouraged among Cameroonians in the medium- to long-term to avoid a resurgence in COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cameroon/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
Nephrol Ther ; 17(4): 226-232, 2021 Aug.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of COVID-19 pandemic on end stage renal disease patient who should initiated dialysis are limited in Sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. We sought to describe the epidemiologic and clinical profile of newly admitted patient in chronic haemodialysis during the COVID-19 pandemic in Cameroon and evaluate their survival between 90days of dialysis initiation. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We conducted a cohort study of 6months from April to October 2020. End stage renal disease patients newly admitted in the haemodialysis facility of the General Hospital of Douala were included. Patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 were identified. Socio-demographic, clinical and biological data at dialysis initiation as well as mortality between the 90days of dialysis initiation were registered. RESULTS: A total of 57 incident patients were recorded from April to October 2020 with a monthly mean of 9.5 patients. The mean age was 46.95±13.12years. Twenty-four COVID-19 were identified with a frequency of 49% among emergency admission. Pulmonary œdema (79.2% vs. 42.4%; P=0.006) and uremic encephalopathy (83.4% vs. 53.6%; P=0.022) were more common in COVID-19. The overall survival at 90days was 48% with a tendency to poor survival among COVID-19 and patients with low socioeconomic level. In Cox regression, low socioeconomic level increase the risk of instant death by 3.08. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV2 seem to increase nephrology emergency and poor survival in haemodialysis at 90days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Renal Dialysis , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , Cameroon/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Edema/epidemiology , Pulmonary Edema/virology , Social Class , Uremia/epidemiology , Uremia/virology
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