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1.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1097, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic constitutes a social crisis that will have long-term health consequences for much of the global population, especially for adolescents. Adolescents are triply affected as they: 1) are experiencing its immediate, direct effects, 2) will carry forward health habits they develop now into adulthood, and 3) as future parents, will shape the early life health of the next generation. It is therefore imperative to assess how the pandemic is influencing adolescent wellbeing, identify sources of resilience, and outline strategies for attenuating its negative impacts. METHODS: We report the results of longitudinal analyses of qualitative data from 28 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 39 Canadian adolescents and of cross-sectional analyses of survey data from 482 Canadian adolescents gathered between September 2020 and August 2021. FGD participants and survey respondents reported on their: socio-demographic characteristics; mental health and wellbeing before and during the pandemic; pre- and during-pandemic health behaviours; experiences living through a crisis; current perceptions of their school, work, social, media, and governmental environments; and ideas about pandemic coping and mutual aid. We plotted themes emerging from FGDs along a pandemic timeline, noting socio-demographic variations. Following assessment for internal reliability and dimension reduction, quantitative health/wellbeing indicators were analyzed as functions of composite socio-demographic, health-behavioural, and health-environmental indicators. RESULTS: Our mixed methods analyses indicate that adolescents faced considerable mental and physical health challenges due to the pandemic, and were generally in poorer health than expected in non-crisis times. Nevertheless, some participants showed significantly better outcomes than others, specifically those who: got more exercise; slept better; were food secure; had clearer routines; spent more time in nature, deep in-person social relationships, and leisure; and spent less time on social media. CONCLUSIONS: Support for youth during times of crisis is essential to future population health because adolescence is a period in the life course which shapes the health behaviours, socio-economic capacities, and neurophysiology of these future parents/carers and leaders. Efforts to promote resilience in adolescents should leverage the factors identified above: helping them find structure and senses of purpose through strong social connections, well-supported work and leisure environments, and opportunities to engage with nature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Canada/epidemiology
2.
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 175, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233667

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Students pursuing higher education and health professional (HP) programs (e.g., nursing, pharmacy, social work, medicine) experience stressors including academic pressures, workload, developing professional competencies, professional socialization, the hidden curriculum, entering clinical practice and navigating relationships with colleagues. Such stress can have detrimental effects on HP students physical and psychological functioning and can adversely affect patient care. This study examined the role of perceived social support and resilience in predicting distress of Atlantic Canadian HP students during the COVID-19 pandemic and compared the findings to a pre-COVID population of age and sex matched Canadians. METHOD: Second year HP students (N = 93) completed a survey assessing distress, perceived social support, and resilience and open-ended questions on student awareness of supports and counselling available to them, their use/barriers to the services, and the impact of COVID-19 on their personal functioning. HP student responses were also compared with age and sex matched Canadian peers from data collected prior to COVID-19. RESULTS: It was found that HP students reported moderate to severe psychological distress, and while they reported high levels of social support on a measure of perceived social support they also reported that the COVID-19 pandemic made them feel isolated and that they lacked social support. It was found that the sample of HP students reported significantly higher psychological distress than the mean scores of the age and sex matched sample of Canadian peers. CONCLUSIONS: These findings call for creation of more tailored interventions and supports for HP students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Canada/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Students/psychology , Social Support
4.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 22(1): 520-527, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination in pregnancy is important for preventing illness for mothers and babies; however, vaccine uptake in pregnant individuals is lower than non-pregnant females of fertile age. Given the devastating effects of COVID-19 and the increased morbidity and mortality risk for pregnant individuals, it is important to understand the determinants of vaccine hesitancy in pregnancy. The focus of our study was to explore COVID-19 vaccination among pregnant and breastfeeding individuals and its association with their reasons (psychological factors) for vaccination using the 5C scale and other factors. METHODS: An online survey investigating prior vaccinations, level of trust in healthcare providers, demographic information, and the 5C scale was used for, pregnant and breastfeeding individuals in a Canadian province. RESULTS: Prior vaccinations, higher levels of trust in medical professionals, education, confidence, and collective responsibility predicted increased vaccine uptake pregnant and breastfeeding individuals. CONCLUSIONS: There are specific psychological and socio-demographic determinants that affect COVID-19 vaccine uptake in pregnant populations. Implications of these findings include targeting these determinants when informing and developing intervention and educational programs for both pregnant and breastfeeding individuals, as well as healthcare professionals who are making vaccine recommendations to patients. Study limitations include a small sample and lack of ethnic and socioeconomic diversity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Infant , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Vaccination
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(7): 1386-1396, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237258

ABSTRACT

Isolating and characterizing emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is key to understanding virus pathogenesis. In this study, we isolated samples of the SARS-CoV-2 R.1 lineage, categorized as a variant under monitoring by the World Health Organization, and evaluated their sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies and type I interferons. We used convalescent serum samples from persons in Canada infected either with ancestral virus (wave 1) or the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant of concern (wave 3) for testing neutralization sensitivity. The R.1 isolates were potently neutralized by both the wave 1 and wave 3 convalescent serum samples, unlike the B.1.351 (Beta) variant of concern. Of note, the R.1 variant was significantly more resistant to type I interferons (IFN-α/ß) than was the ancestral isolate. Our study demonstrates that the R.1 variant retained sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies but evolved resistance to type I interferons. This critical driving force will influence the trajectory of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Interferon Type I/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Canada/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 362, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The precautions and restrictions imposed by the recent Covid-19 pandemic drew attention to the criticality of quality of care in long-term care facilities internationally, and in Canada. They also underscored the importance of residents' quality of life. In deference to the risk mitigation measures in Canadian long-term care settings during Covid-19, some person-centred, quality of life policies were paused, unused, or under-utilised. This study aimed to interrogate these existing but latent policies, to capture their potentiality in terms of positively influencing the quality of life of residents in long-term care in Canada. METHODS: The study analysed policies related to quality of life of long-term care residents in four Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Nova Scotia). Three policy orientations were framed utilising a comparative approach: situational (environmental conditions), structural (organisational content), and temporal (developmental trajectories). 84 long term care policies were reviewed, relating to different policy jurisdictions, policy types, and quality of life domains. RESULTS: Overall, the intersection of jurisdiction, policy types, and quality of life domains confirms that some policies, particularly safety, security and order, may be prioritised in different types of policy documents, and over other quality of life domains. Alternatively, the presence of a resident focused quality of life in many policies affirms the cultural shift towards greater person-centredness. These findings are both explicit and implicit, and mediated through the expression of individual policy excerpts. CONCLUSION: The analysis provides substantive evidence of three key policy levers: situations-providing specific examples of resident focused quality of life policy overshadowing in each jurisdiction; structures-identifying which types of policy and quality of life expressions are more vulnerable to dominance by others; and trajectories-confirming the cultural shift towards more person-centredness in Canadian long-term care related policies over time. It also demonstrates and contextualises examples of policy slippage, differential policy weights, and cultural shifts across existing policies. When applied within a resident focused, quality of life lens, these policies can be leveraged to improve extant resource utilisation. Consequently, the study provides a timely, positive, forward-facing roadmap upon which to enhance and build policies that capitalise and enable person-centredness in the provision of long-term care in Canada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long-Term Care , Humans , Canada/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , British Columbia , Policy
7.
Vaccine ; 41(27): 4031-4041, 2023 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236473

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases like COVID-19 will remain a concern for the foreseeable future, and determinants of vaccination and other mitigation behaviors are therefore critical to understand. Using data from the first two waves of the Canadian COVID-19 Experiences Survey (CCES; N = 1,958; 66.56 % female), we examined social cognitive predictors of vaccination status, transition to acceptance and mitigation behaviors in a population-representative sample. Findings indicated that all social cognitive variables were strong predictors of mitigation behavior performance at each wave, particularly among unvaccinated individuals. Among those who were vaccine hesitant at baseline, most social cognitive variables predicted transition to fully vaccinated status at follow-up. After controlling for demographic factors and geographic region, greater odds of transitioning from unvaccinated at CCES Wave 1 to fully vaccinated at CCES Wave 2 was predicted most strongly by a perception that one's valued peers were taking up the vaccine (e.g., dynamic norms (OR = 2.13 (CI: 1.54,2.93)), perceived effectiveness of the vaccine (OR = 3.71 (CI: 2.43,5.66)), favorable attitudes toward the vaccine (OR = 2.80 (CI: 1.99,3.95)), greater perceived severity of COVID-19 (OR = 2.02 (CI: 1.42,2.86)), and stronger behavioral intention to become vaccinated (OR = 2.99 (CI: 2.16,4.14)). As a group, social cognitive variables improved prediction of COVID-19 mitigation behaviors (masking, distancing, hand hygiene) by a factor of 5 compared to demographic factors, and improved prediction of vaccination status by a factor of nearly 20. Social cognitive processes appear to be important leverage points for health communications to encourage COVID-19 vaccination and other mitigation behaviors, particularly among initially hesitant members of the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Vaccination , Cognition
8.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e064058, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235059

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) were at high risk of infection due to their exposure to COVID infections. HCWs were the backbone of our healthcare response to this pandemic; every HCW withdrawn or lost due to infection had a substantial impact on our capacity to deliver care. Primary prevention was a key approach to reduce infection. Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in Canadians and worldwide. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to significantly decrease the risk of respiratory infections. Whether this risk reduction would apply to COVID-19 infections remained to be determined. This study aimed to determine the impact of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on incidence of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection rate and severity in HCWs working in high COVID incidence areas. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PROTECT was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group multicentre trial of vitamin D supplementation in HCWs. Participants were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio in variable block size to intervention (one oral loading dose of 100 000 IU vitamin D3+10 000 IU weekly vitamin D3) or control (identical placebo loading dose+weekly placebo). The primary outcome was the incidence of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection, documented by RT-qPCR on salivary (or nasopharyngeal) specimens obtained for screening or diagnostic purposes, as well as self-obtained salivary specimens and COVID-19 seroconversion at endpoint. Secondary outcomes included disease severity; duration of COVID-19-related symptoms; COVID-19 seroconversion documented at endpoint; duration of work absenteeism; duration of unemployment support; and adverse health events. The trial was terminated prematurely, due to recruitment difficulty. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study involves human participants and was approved by the Research Ethics Board (REB) of the Centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine serving as central committee for participating institutions (#MP-21-2021-3044). Participants provided written informed consent to participate in the study before taking part. Results are being disseminated to the medical community via national/international conferences and publications in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04483635.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
10.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1020, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243486

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: People who use drugs (PWUD) experience disproportionately high rates of violent victimization. Emerging research has demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated violence against some priority populations (e.g., women), however there is limited research examining the impact of the pandemic on the experiences of violence of PWUD. METHODS: Using data collected between July and November 2020 from three prospective cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver, Canada, we employed multivariable logistic regression stratified by gender to identify factors associated with recent experiences of violence, including the receipt of COVID-19 emergency income support. RESULTS: In total, 77 (17.3%) of 446 men, and 54 (18.8%) of 288 women experienced violence in the previous six months. Further, 33% of men and 48% of women who experienced violence reported that their experience of violence was intensified since the COVID-19 pandemic began. In the multivariable analyses, sex work (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-4.35) and moderate to severe anxiety or depression (AOR = 3.00, 95% CI: 1.37-6.57) were associated with experiencing violence among women. Among men, drug dealing (AOR = 1.93, 95%CI: 1.10-3.38), street-based income sources (AOR = 1.93, 95%CI: 1.10-3.38), homelessness (AOR = 2.54, 95%CI: 1.40-4.62), and regular employment (AOR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.75-5.04) were associated with experiencing violence. CONCLUSION: Our study results suggest economic conditions and gender were major factors associated with experiencing violence among our sample of PWUD during COVID-19. These findings highlight criminalization of drug use and widespread socioeconomic challenges as barriers to addressing violence among PWUD during periods of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Humans , Female , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Violence
11.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(4): 222-225, 2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242950

ABSTRACT

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) among children remains a concerning cause of morbidity in hospital settings. We present epidemiological and molecular trends in healthcare- and community-associated CDI among children in Canadian inpatient and outpatient settings, including those who experienced recurrent infections.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Cross Infection , Humans , Child , Canada/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/etiology , Health Facilities , Delivery of Health Care , Cross Infection/epidemiology
12.
Vaccine ; 41(29): 4327-4334, 2023 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230772

ABSTRACT

We prospectively examined the association between COVID-19 vaccination and menstrual cycle characteristics in an internet-based prospective cohort study. We included a sample of 1,137 participants who enrolled in Pregnancy Study Online (PRESTO), a preconception cohort study of couples trying to conceive, during January 2021-August 2022. Eligible participants were aged 21-45 years, United States or Canadian residents, and trying to conceive without fertility treatment. At baseline and every 8 weeks for up to 12 months, participants completed questionnaires on which they provided information on COVID-19 vaccination and menstrual cycle characteristics, including cycle regularity, cycle length, bleed length, heaviness of bleed, and menstrual pain. We fit generalized estimating equation (GEE) models with a log link function and Poisson distribution to estimate the adjusted risk ratio (RR) for irregular cycles associated with COVID-19 vaccination. We used linear regression with GEE to estimate adjusted mean differences in menstrual cycle length associated with COVID-19 vaccination. We adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, medical and reproductive factors. Participants had 1.1 day longer menstrual cycles after receiving the first dose of COVID-19 vaccine (95 % CI: 0.4, 1.9) and 1.3 day longer cycles after receiving the second dose (95 % CI: 0.2, 2.5). Associations were attenuated at the second cycle post-vaccination. We did not observe strong associations between COVID-19 vaccination and cycle regularity, bleed length, heaviness of bleed, or menstrual pain. In conclusion, COVID-19 vaccination was associated with a ∼1 day temporary increase in menstrual cycle length, but was not appreciably associated with other menstrual cycle characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Dysmenorrhea , Canada/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Menstrual Cycle , Vaccination
14.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 43(5): 260-266, 2023 May.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324518

ABSTRACT

Using data from the 2020 and 2021 cycles of the Survey on COVID-19 and Mental Health,we examined suicidal ideation among adults in Canada aged 18 to 34 years. The prevalence of suicidal ideation among adults aged 18 to 34 years was 4.2% in fall 2020 and 8.0% in spring 2021. The subgroup of adults aged 18 to 24 years had the highest prevalence of suicidal ideation, 10.7%, in spring 2021. Prevalence varied by sociodemographic characteristics and tended to be higher among people living in materially deprived areas. Suicidal ideation was strongly associated with pandemic-related stressors respondents experienced.


In spring 2021, the prevalence of suicidal ideation among young adults aged 18 to 34 years was 8.0%. At 10.7%, the prevalence of suicidal ideation was highest in the subgroup of young adults aged 18 to 24 years, in spring 2021. The odds of suicidal ideation were higher among young adults who were White versus racialized, born in Canada versus immigrated to Canada, living with low or middle income, with high school education or less, or living in a materially deprived area. Pandemic-related experiences, stressful events and mental illness were strongly associated with suicidal ideation.


La prévalence des idées suicidaires chez les jeunes adultes de 18 à 34 ans était de 8,0 % au printemps 2021. La prévalence la plus élevée d'idées suicidaires, soit 10,7 %, correspond au sous-groupe des jeunes adultes de 18 à 24 ans au printemps 2021. Les probabilités d'idées suicidaires étaient plus élevées chez les jeunes adultes qui étaient d'origine blanche (par opposition aux membres d'un groupe « racisé ¼), ceux nés au Canada (par opposition à ceux ayant immigré au Canada), ceux vivant avec un revenu faible ou moyen, ceux ayant fait des études de niveau secondaire ou moins et ceux vivant dans un milieu défavorisé sur le plan matériel. Les expériences liées à la pandémie, les événements stressants et la maladie mentale étaient fortement associés aux idées suicidaires.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Humans , Young Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Risk Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology
15.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7972, 2023 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324386

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted the mental health of children, youth, and their families which must be addressed and prevented in future public health crises. Our objective was to measure how self-reported mental health symptoms of children/youth and their parents evolved during COVID-19 and to identify associated factors for children/youth and their parents including sources accessed for information on mental health. We conducted a nationally representative, multi-informant cross-sectional survey administered online to collect data from April to May 2022 across 10 Canadian provinces among dyads of children (11-14 years) or youth (15-18 years) and a parent (> 18 years). Self-report questions on mental health were based on The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health and the World Health Organization of the United Nations H6+ Technical Working Group on Adolescent Health and Well-Being consensus framework and the Coronavirus Health and Impact Survey. McNemar's test and the test of homogeneity of stratum effects were used to assess differences between children-parent and youth-parent dyads, and interaction by stratification factors, respectively. Among 933 dyads (N = 1866), 349 (37.4%) parents were aged 35-44 years and 485 (52.0%) parents were women; 227 (47.0%) children and 204 (45.3%) youth were girls; 174 (18.6%) dyads had resided in Canada < 10 years. Anxiety and irritability were reported most frequently among child (44, 9.1%; 37, 7.7%) and parent (82, 17.0%; 67, 13.9%) dyads, as well as among youth (44, 9.8%; 35, 7.8%) and parent (68, 15.1%; 49, 10.9%) dyads; children and youth were significantly less likely to report worsened anxiety (p < 0.001, p = 0.006, respectively) or inattention (p < 0.001, p = 0.028, respectively) compared to parents. Dyads who reported financial or housing instability or identified as living with a disability more frequently reported worsened mental health. Children (96, 57.1%), youth (113, 62.5%), and their parents (253, 62.5%; 239, 62.6%, respectively) most frequently accessed the internet for mental health information. This cross-national survey contextualizes pandemic-related changes to self-reported mental health symptoms of children, youth, and families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Canada/epidemiology , Parent-Child Relations
16.
BMC Genom Data ; 24(1): 26, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320700

ABSTRACT

HostSeq was launched in April 2020 as a national initiative to integrate whole genome sequencing data from 10,000 Canadians infected with SARS-CoV-2 with clinical information related to their disease experience. The mandate of HostSeq is to support the Canadian and international research communities in their efforts to understand the risk factors for disease and associated health outcomes and support the development of interventions such as vaccines and therapeutics. HostSeq is a collaboration among 13 independent epidemiological studies of SARS-CoV-2 across five provinces in Canada. Aggregated data collected by HostSeq are made available to the public through two data portals: a phenotype portal showing summaries of major variables and their distributions, and a variant search portal enabling queries in a genomic region. Individual-level data is available to the global research community for health research through a Data Access Agreement and Data Access Compliance Office approval. Here we provide an overview of the collective project design along with summary level information for HostSeq. We highlight several statistical considerations for researchers using the HostSeq platform regarding data aggregation, sampling mechanism, covariate adjustment, and X chromosome analysis. In addition to serving as a rich data source, the diversity of study designs, sample sizes, and research objectives among the participating studies provides unique opportunities for the research community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Genomics , Whole Genome Sequencing
17.
Can J Occup Ther ; 90(2): 173-184, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320167

ABSTRACT

Background. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted daily life with corresponding implications on levels of distress. Purpose. To describe factors associated with high distress among community-dwelling older adults during the first lockdown and explore how occupational participation was managed. Methods. A mixed methods design whereby multivariate regression analysis of a survey (N = 263) identified factors associated with high distress, as per the Impact of Events of Scale-Revised (IES-R). Follow-up interviews with a sub-sample of those surveyed who reflected a range of IES-R scores were conducted (N = 32). Findings. Those with lower resilience and anxiety/depression had 6.84 and 4.09 greater odds respectively of high distress. From the interviews, the main theme, "Lost and Found," and subthemes (Interruption and Disruption; Surving, not Thriving; Moving Forward, Finding Meaning) highlighted the process and corresponding stages, including adaptive strategies, by which participants navigated changes in their occupational participation. Implications. While the results suggest that many older adults, including those with high distress, were able to manage daily life under lockdown, some experienced ongoing challenges in doing so. Future studies should focus on those who experienced or who are at-higher risk for such challenges to identify supports that mitigate adverse consequences if another event of this magnitude occurs again.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Therapy , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , Canada/epidemiology
18.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 14(2): 2205332, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318650

ABSTRACT

Background: Moral injury (MI) has become a research and organizational priority as frontline personnel have, both during and in the years preceding the COVID-19 pandemic, raised concerns about repeated expectations to make choices that transgress their deeply held morals, values, and beliefs. As awareness of MI grows, so, too, does attention on its presence and impacts in related occupations such as those in public safety, given that codes of conduct, morally and ethically complex decisions, and high-stakes situations are inherent features of such occupations.Objective: This paper shares the results of a study of the presence of potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) in the lived experiences of 38 public safety personnel (PSP) in Ontario, Canada.Method: Through qualitative interviews, this study explored the types of events PSP identify as PMIEs, how PSP make sense of these events, and the psychological, professional, and interpersonal impacts of these events. Thematic analysis supported the interpretation of PSP descriptions of events and experiences.Results: PMIEs do arise in the context of PSP work, namely during the performance of role-specific responsibilities, within the organizational climate, and because of inadequacies in the broader healthcare system. PMIEs are as such because they violate core beliefs commonly held by PSP and compromise their ability to act in accordance with the principles that motivate them in their work. PSP associate PMIEs, in combination with traumatic experiences and routine stress, with adverse psychological, professional and personal outcomes.Conclusion: The findings provide additional empirical evidence to the growing literature on MI in PSP, offering insight into the contextual dimensions that contribute to the sources and effects of PMIEs in diverse frontline populations as well as support for the continued application and exploration of MI in the PSP context.


The objective of this study was to understand the types of events that Canadian public safety personnel (PSP) experience as potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) as well as the impacts that they associate with these events.The findings illuminate that contextual dimensions are significant in the origin of PMIEs, which PSP experience in the completion of routine duties, because of the organizational culture, or as a result of issues in the broader healthcare system, which led to many negative consequences in their personal and professional lives.PMIEs reduced the trust PSP had in their leadership and the healthcare system to protect the public and themselves, were associated with feelings of anger, frustration, resignation, and helplessness, and connected to internal struggles marked by inner conflict and the erosion of self-concept.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Pandemics , Canada/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Occupations
19.
Can J Public Health ; 114(2): 277-286, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318232

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the trend of newborn hospitalizations with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in Canada, between 2010 and 2020, and to examine severity indicators for these hospitalizations. METHODS: National hospitalization data (excluding Quebec) from the Canadian Institute for Health Information's Discharge Abstract Database, from January 2010 to March 2021, and Statistics Canada's Vital Statistics Birth Database were used. Analyses were performed to examine NAS hospitalizations by year and quarter, and by severity indicators of length of stay, Special Care Unit admission and status upon discharge. Severity indicators were further stratified by gestational age at birth. RESULTS: An increasing number and rate of NAS hospitalizations in Canada between 2010 (n = 1013, 3.5 per 1000 live births) and 2020 (n = 1755, 6.3 per 1000 live births) were identified. A seasonal pattern was observed, where rates of NAS were lowest from April to June and highest from October to March. Mean length of stay in acute inpatient care was approximately 15 days and 71% of NAS hospitalizations were admitted to the Special Care Unit. Hospitalizations for pre-term births with NAS had longer durations and greater rates of Special Care Unit admissions compared to term births with NAS. CONCLUSION: The number and rate of NAS hospitalizations in Canada increased during the study, and some infants required a significant amount of specialized healthcare. Additional research is required to determine what supports and education for pregnant people can reduce the incidence of NAS hospitalizations.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Le présent article a pour but de décrire la tendance des hospitalisations de nouveau-nés atteints du syndrome d'abstinence néonatale (SAN) au Canada, entre 2010 et 2020, et d'examiner les indicateurs de gravité de ces hospitalisations. MéTHODE: Les données nationales sur les hospitalisations (à l'exclusion du Québec) provenant de la base de données sur les congés des patients de l'Institut canadien d'information sur la santé, de janvier 2010 à mars 2021, ainsi que la base de données sur les naissances des statistiques de l'état civil de Statistique Canada ont été utilisées. Des analyses ont été réalisées pour examiner les hospitalisations liées au SAN par année et par trimestre, et par indicateurs de gravité de la durée du séjour, de l'admission dans une unité de soins spéciaux et de l'état à la sortie de l'hôpital. Les indicateurs de gravité ont en outre été stratifiés en fonction de l'âge gestationnel à la naissance. RéSULTATS: Un nombre et un taux croissants d'hospitalisations liées au SAN au Canada entre 2010 (n=1 013, 3,5 pour 1 000 naissances vivantes) et 2020 (n=1 755, 6,3 pour 1 000 naissances vivantes) ont été identifiés. Une tendance saisonnière a été observée, où les taux de SAN étaient les plus bas d'avril à juin et les plus élevés d'octobre à mars. La durée moyenne du séjour en soins de courte durée était d'environ 15 jours et 71 % des hospitalisations liées au SAN ont été admises à l'unité de soins spéciaux. Les hospitalisations pour les accouchements prématurés de nouveau-nés atteints du SAN avaient des durées plus longues et des taux plus élevés d'admissions dans des unités de soins spéciaux par rapport aux naissances à terme de nouveau-nés atteints du SAN. CONCLUSION: Le nombre et le taux d'hospitalisations liées au SAN au Canada ont augmenté au cours de l'étude, et certains nourrissons nécessitent une quantité importante de soins spécialisés. Des recherches supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour déterminer quels soutiens et quelle éducation pour les personnes enceintes peuvent réduire l'incidence des hospitalisations liées au SAN.


Subject(s)
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome , Opioid-Related Disorders , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Incidence , Time Factors , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology
20.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285549, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318224

ABSTRACT

Health behaviors that do not effectively prevent disease can negatively impact psychological wellbeing and potentially drain motivations to engage in more effective behavior, potentially creating higher health risk. Despite this, studies linking "moral foundations" (i.e., concerns about harm, fairness, purity, authority, ingroup, and/or liberty) to health behaviors have generally been limited to a narrow range of behaviors, specifically effective ones. We therefore explored the degree to which moral foundations predicted a wider range of not only effective but ineffective (overreactive) preventative behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. In Study 1, participants from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States reported their engagement in these preventative behaviors and completed a COVID-specific adaptation of the Moral Foundations Questionnaire during the pandemic peak. While differences occurred across countries, authority considerations consistently predicted increased engagement in both effective preventative behaviors but also ineffective overreactions, even when controlling for political ideology. By contrast, purity and liberty considerations reduced intentions to engage in effective behaviors like vaccination but had no effect on ineffective behaviors. Study 2 revealed that the influence of moral foundations on U.S participants' behavior remained stable 5-months later, after the pandemic peak. These findings demonstrate that the impact of moral foundations on preventative behaviors is similar across a range of western democracies, and that recommendations by authorities can have unexpected consequences in terms of promoting ineffective-and potentially damaging-overreactive behaviors. The findings underscore the importance of moral concerns for the design of health interventions that selectively promote effective preventative behavior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , United States , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Morals , Problem Solving , Canada/epidemiology
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