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Front Immunol ; 12: 679344, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325528


Recently, mRNA vaccines have become a significant type of therapeutic and have created new fields in the biopharmaceutical industry. mRNA vaccines are promising next-generation vaccines that have introduced a new age in vaccinology. The recent approval of two COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2) has accelerated mRNA vaccine technology and boosted the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. These mRNA vaccines will help to tackle COVID-19 pandemic through immunization, offering considerable hope for future mRNA vaccines. Human trials with data both from mRNA cancer vaccines and mRNA infectious disease vaccines have provided encouraging results, inspiring the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries to focus on this area of research. In this article, we discuss current mRNA vaccines broadly in two parts. In the first part, mRNA vaccines in general and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are discussed. We presented the mRNA vaccine structure in general, the different delivery systems, the immune response, and the recent clinical trials for mRNA vaccines (both for cancer mRNA vaccines and different infectious diseases mRNA vaccines). In the second part, different COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are explained. Finally, we illustrated a snapshot of the different leading mRNA vaccine developers, challenges, and future prospects of mRNA vaccines.

COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug Development , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/genetics , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Immunity , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 52, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136226


In vitro-transcribed messenger RNA-based therapeutics represent a relatively novel and highly efficient class of drugs. Several recently published studies emphasize the potential efficacy of mRNA vaccines in treating different types of malignant and infectious diseases where conventional vaccine strategies and platforms fail to elicit protective immune responses. mRNA vaccines have lately raised high interest as potent vaccines against SARS-CoV2. Direct application of mRNA or its electroporation into dendritic cells was shown to induce polyclonal CD4+ and CD8+ mediated antigen-specific T cell responses as well as the production of protective antibodies with the ability to eliminate transformed or infected cells. More importantly, the vaccine composition may include two or more mRNAs coding for different proteins or long peptides. This enables the induction of polyclonal immune responses against a broad variety of epitopes within the encoded antigens that are presented on various MHC complexes, thus avoiding the restriction to a certain HLA molecule or possible immune escape due to antigen-loss. The development and design of mRNA therapies was recently boosted by several critical innovations including the development of technologies for the production and delivery of high quality and stable mRNA. Several technical obstacles such as stability, delivery and immunogenicity were addressed in the past and gradually solved in the recent years.This review will summarize the most recent technological developments and application of mRNA vaccines in clinical trials and discusses the results, challenges and future directions with a special focus on the induced innate and adaptive immune responses.

Cancer Vaccines/genetics , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms/therapy , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Animals , Antigens, Neoplasm/genetics , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Transfer Techniques , Humans , Immunity , Immunotherapy , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/metabolism , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/pathology , Neoplasms/pathology , RNA Stability , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology