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3.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 302-305, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596279

ABSTRACT

Rhino-orbital mucormycosis has seen a huge resurgence in patients post COVID-19 infection. In patients with minimal orbital disease and especially with preserved vision, retrobulbar injections of amphotericin B can be of great help in controlling the disease. Instead of giving daily injections of amphotericin B using needles every time, we used an 18-gauge intravenous (IV) cannula with injection port and suture holes to deliver the amphotericin into the orbital space for a period of 5 days. Patients were more compliant and less distressed with this method compared with being given an injection with a needle daily. We got a good response in terms of orbital disease regression with this method. In our review of the literature, we did not come across any such case of amphotericin B injection using an IV cannula. Injection of amphotericin B into the orbit using an IV cannula is a viable and easy treatment option for cases of rhino-orbital mucormycosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Amphotericin B , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cannula , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Am J Emerg Med ; 49: 352-359, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544688

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a noninvasive ventilation (NIV) system that has demonstrated promise in the emergency department (ED) setting. OBJECTIVE: This narrative review evaluates the utility of HFNC in adult patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in the ED setting. DISCUSSION: HFNC provides warm (37 °C), humidified (100% relative humidity) oxygen at high flows with a reliable fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2). HFNC can improve oxygenation, reduce airway resistance, provide humidified flow that can flush anatomical dead space, and provide a low amount of positive end expiratory pressure. Recent literature has demonstrated efficacy in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), interstitial lung disease, immunocompromised states, the peri-intubation state, and palliative care, with reduced need for intubation, length of stay, and mortality in some of these conditions. Individual patient factors play an important role in infection control risks with respect to the use of HFNC in patients with COVID-19. Appropriate personal protective equipment, adherence to hand hygiene, surgical mask placement over the HFNC device, and environmental controls promoting adequate room ventilation are the foundation for protecting healthcare personnel. Frequent reassessment of the patient placed on HFNC is necessary; those with severe end organ dysfunction, thoracoabdominal asynchrony, significantly increased respiratory rate, poor oxygenation despite HFNC, and tachycardia are at increased risk of HFNC failure and need for further intervention. CONCLUSIONS: HFNC demonstrates promise in several conditions requiring respiratory support. Further randomized trials are needed in the ED setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , Cannula , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(9): 1217-1248, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536371

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We conducted two World Health Organization-commissioned reviews to inform use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We synthesized the evidence regarding efficacy and safety (review 1), as well as risks of droplet dispersion, aerosol generation, and associated transmission (review 2) of viral products. SOURCE: Literature searches were performed in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese databases, and medRxiv. Review 1: we synthesized results from randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HFNC to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) in critically ill patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Review 2: we narratively summarized findings from studies evaluating droplet dispersion, aerosol generation, or infection transmission associated with HFNC. For both reviews, paired reviewers independently conducted screening, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. We evaluated certainty of evidence using GRADE methodology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: No eligible studies included COVID-19 patients. Review 1: 12 RCTs (n = 1,989 patients) provided low-certainty evidence that HFNC may reduce invasive ventilation (relative risk [RR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 0.99) and escalation of oxygen therapy (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.98) in patients with respiratory failure. Results provided no support for differences in mortality (moderate certainty), or in-hospital or intensive care length of stay (moderate and low certainty, respectively). Review 2: four studies evaluating droplet dispersion and three evaluating aerosol generation and dispersion provided very low certainty evidence. Two simulation studies and a crossover study showed mixed findings regarding the effect of HFNC on droplet dispersion. Although two simulation studies reported no associated increase in aerosol dispersion, one reported that higher flow rates were associated with increased regions of aerosol density. CONCLUSIONS: High-flow nasal cannula may reduce the need for invasive ventilation and escalation of therapy compared with COT in COVID-19 patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. This benefit must be balanced against the unknown risk of airborne transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aerosols , COVID-19 , Cannula , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology
6.
Air Med J ; 40(6): 380-384, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525661

ABSTRACT

The use of oxygen via a heated high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) in transport of the adult patient experiencing hypoxemic respiratory failure is an emerging and successful adjunct. Although early intubation was thought to be the safest intervention early in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, what we have learned over the past year was that it would serve the patient best to avoid intubation. We discuss an individual case study of a coronavirus disease 2019-infected patient who required subsequent interfacility air transport to our quaternary care facility. This patient presented to the receiving air medical team on HHFNC. Before January 2021, the capability of this program to transport these patients on HHFNC was not possible because our current ventilation platforms had to be upgraded to include the high-flow option and because of the relative infancy of the HHFNC platforms available for adult air transport. The previously noted approach to not intubate these patients, or to certainly use caution when making the decision to intubate, was not the common theme until late in 2020. Presented in this case discussion will be pertinent positive and negatives as they relate to transporting the patient on HHFNC to include the all-important issue of oxygen supply and demand. The authors would emphasize that the named products in this case are simply products used by the receiving air medical program and do not in any way support an endorsement of these products over any other platforms used to provide positive patient interventions and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Cannula , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Oxygen , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Respir Care ; 66(12): 1831-1839, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The roles of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and CPAP in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are controversial. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of the application of a noninvasive respiratory support algorithm on clinical outcomes in subjects with COVID-19 and with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: We performed a single-center prospective observational study of subjects with respiratory failure from COVID-19 managed with HFNC and with CPAP plus HFNC (combined therapy). The main outcome was the intubation rate, which defined failure of therapy. We also analyzed the role of the ROX index ([[Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text]]/breathing frequency) to predict the need for intubation. RESULTS: From June to December 2020, 113 subjects with COVID-19 respiratory failure were admitted to our respiratory intermediate care unit. HFNC was applied in 65 subjects (57.52%) and combined therapy in 48 subjects (42.47%). A total of 83 subjects (73.45%) were successfully treated with noninvasive respiratory support. The intubation rate was 26.54%, and the overall mortality rate was 14.15%. The mortality rate in subjects who were intubated was 55.2%. An ROX index of 6.28 at 12 h predicted noninvasive respiratory support failure, with 97.6% sensitivity and 51.8% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Data from our cohort managed in a respiratory intermediate care unit showed that combined noninvasive respiratory support was feasible, with favorable outcomes. Further prospective studies are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Cannula , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470926

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which was revealed an official pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020. The current pandemic, the third of this decade, is the worst in terms of suffering and deaths related. COVID-19 represents an unprecedented challenge for medical communities and patients around the world. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest (HRCT) is a fundamental tool in both management and diagnosis of the disease. Imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis of all the manifestations of the disease and its complications and the correct use and interpretation of imaging tests are essential. Pneumomediastinum has been reported rarely in COVID-19 patients. We were one of the first groups to share our experiences in uncommon parenchymal complications of COVID-19 with spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum, but also with new-onset bronchiectasis and cysts. A finding of pneumopericardium is also unusual. We hereby report a rare case of spontaneous pneumopericardium in a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia treated only with a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumopericardium , Cannula , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumopericardium/diagnostic imaging , Pneumopericardium/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Respir Care ; 66(12): 1824-1830, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efficacy of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) over noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is not known. We aimed to assess the incidence of invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 treated with either HFNC or NIV. METHODS: This was a single-center randomized controlled trial performed in the COVID-19 ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. One hundred and nine subjects with severe COVID-19 pneumonia presenting with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure were recruited and allocated to either HFNC (n = 55) or NIV (n = 54) arm. Primary outcome was intubation by 48 h. Secondary outcomes were improvement in oxygenation by 48 h, intubation rate at day 7, and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics and [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] ratio were similar in both the groups. Intubation rate at 48 h was similar between the groups (33% NIV vs 20% HFNC, relative risk 0.6, 95% CI 0.31-1.15, P = .12). Intubation rate at day 7 was lower in the HFNC (27.27%) compared to the NIV group (46.29%) (relative risk 0.59, 95% CI 0.35-0.99, P = .045), and this difference remained significant after adjustment for the incidence of chronic kidney disease and the arterial pH (adjusted OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.93, P = .03). Hospital mortality was similar between HFNC (29.1%) and NIV (46.2%) group (relative risk 0.6, 95% CI 0.38-1.04, P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: We were not able to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement of oxygenation parameters nor of the intubation rate at 48 h between NIV and HFNC. These findings should be further tested in a larger randomized controlled trial. The study was registered at the Clinical Trials Registry of India (www.ctri.nic.in; reference number: CTRI/2020/07/026835) on July 27, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Cannula , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Respir Care ; 66(3): 531-532, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436180

Subject(s)
Cannula , Critical Care , Humans
12.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435063

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Use of non-invasive respiratory modalities in COVID-19 has the potential to reduce rates of intubation and mortality in severe disease however data regarding the use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in this population is limited. OBJECTIVE: To interrogate clinical and laboratory features of SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with high-flow failure. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate characteristics of high-flow therapy use early in the pandemic and interrogate factors associated with respiratory therapy failure. SETTING: Multisite single centre hospital system within the metropolitan Detroit region. PARTICIPANTS: Patients from within the Detroit Medical Center (n=104, 89% African American) who received HFNC therapy during a COVID-19 admission between March and May of 2020. PRIMARY OUTCOME: HFNC failure is defined as death or intubation while on therapy. RESULTS: Therapy failure occurred in 57% of the patient population, factors significantly associated with failure centred around markers of multiorgan failure including hepatic dysfunction/transaminitis (OR=6.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 19.4, p<0.01), kidney injury (OR=7.0, 95% CI 2.7 to 17.8, p<0.01) and coagulation dysfunction (OR=4.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 17.1, p=0.03). Conversely, comorbidities, admission characteristics, early oxygen requirements and evaluation just prior to HFNC therapy initiation were not significantly associated with success or failure of therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In a population disproportionately affected by COVID-19, we present key indicators of likely HFNC failure and highlight a patient population in which aggressive monitoring and intervention are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency , African Americans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Cannula , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Retrospective Studies
14.
J Crit Care ; 66: 102-108, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401595

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Prediction of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) failure in COVID-19 patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) may improve clinical management and stratification of patients for optimal treatment. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine performance of ROX index as a predictor of HFNC failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic search was performed in electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Cochrane Library) for articles published till 15 June 2021 investigating ROX index as a predictor for HFNC failure. Quality In Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool was used to analyze risk of bias for prognostic factors, by two independent authors. RESULTS: Eight retrospective or prospective cohort studies involving 1301 patients showed a good discriminatory value, summary area under the curve (sAUC) 0.81 (95% CI, 0.77-0.84) with sensitivity of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.59-0.80) and specificity of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.67-0.88) for predicting HNFC failure. The positive and negative likelihood ratio were 3.0 (95% CI, 2.2-5.3) and 0.37 (95% CI, 0.28-0.50) respectively, and was strongly associated with a promising predictive accuracy (Diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) 9, 95% CI, 5-16). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests ROX index has good discriminating power for prediction of HFNC failure in COVID-19 patients with AHRF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Cannula , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257137, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394558

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: High-speed tooth preparation requires effective cooling to avoid thermal damage, which generates spray mist, which is a mixture of an aerosol, droplets and particles of different sizes. The aim of this experimental study was to analyze the efficacy of spray mist reduction with an intraoral high-volume evacuation system (HVE) during simulated high-speed tooth preparation for suboptimal versus optimal suction positions of 16 mm sized cannulas and different flow rates of the HVE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a manikin head, the upper first premolar was prepared with a dental turbine, and generated particles of 5-50 microns were analyzed fifty millimeters above the mouth opening with the shadow imaging technique (frame: 6.6×5.3×1.1 mm). This setup was chosen to generate a reproducible spray mist in a vertical direction towards an imaginary operator head (worst case scenario). The flow rate (FR) of the HVE was categorized into five levels (≤120 l/min up to 330 l/min). The number of particles per second (NP; p/s) was counted, and the mass volume flow of particles per second (MVF; µg/s*cm3) was calculated for 10 sec. Statistical tests were nonparametric and two-sided (p≤0.05). RESULTS: With increasing flow rate, the NP/MVF values decreased significantly (eta: 0.671/0.678; p≤0.001). Using a suboptimally positioned cannula with an FR≤160 l/min, significantly higher NP values (mean±SD) of 731.67±54.24 p/s (p≤0.019) and an MVF of 3.72±0.42 µg/s*cm3 (p≤0.010) were measured compared to those of the optimal cannula position and FR≥300 l/min (NP/MVF: 0/0). No significant difference in NP and MVF was measurable between FR≥250 l/min and FR>300 l/min (p = 0.652, p = 0.664). CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of the current experimental study, intraoral high-flow rate suction with ≥300 l/min with an HVE effectively reduced 5-50 µm sized particles of the spray mist induced by high-speed tooth preparation with a dental turbine.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , Cannula , Humans , Rheology , Suction
16.
Respir Med ; 187: 106554, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331213

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: High-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) has traditionally only been used in intensive care units (ICU) especially in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: We studied the use of HFNO at Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, in patients with moderate to severe ARDS related to Covid-19 as well as its benefits both for patients and to offload the ICU. The patients were observed with frequent controls to assess the need of ICU in case of deterioration. RESULTS: We studied 41 patients with HFNO treatment either as primarily treatment (Step-Up) or after stabilizing in the ICU (Step-Down). The average duration for treatment with HFNO was 5.6 days. Of these patients 55% were discharged home or to geriatric rehabilitation and 10% avoided ICU completely. The usage of HFNO saved in total 229 days in the ICU. Mortality was higher among elderly patients, and patients with comorbidities (mainly hypertension and obesity). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: HFNO treatment is feasible and efficient for patients with Covid-19, saving resources in the ICU and offering additional advantages as waken proning and fewer complications compared to traditional ICU care. It requires however frequent controls as deterioration is recurrent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cannula , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Sweden , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(6): 708-713, 2021 Jun.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323329

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) on the prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) accompanied with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology when authors worked as medical team members for treating COVID-19. COVID-19 patients with pulse oxygen saturation/fraction of inspiration oxygen (SpO2/FiO2, S/F) ratio < 235, managed by medical teams [using S/F ratio instead of oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) to diagnose ARDS] from February to April 2020 were included. The patients were divided into NIPPV group and HFNC group according to their oxygen therapy modes. Clinical data of patients were collected, including general characteristics, respiratory rate (RR), fraction of FiO2, SpO2, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), S/F ratio in the first 72 hours, lymphocyte count (LYM), percentage of lymphocyte (LYM%) and white blood cell count (WBC) at admission and discharge or death, the duration of dyspnea before NIPPV and HFNC, and the length from onset to admission. The differences of intubation rate, all-cause mortality, S/F ratio and RR were analyzed, and single factor analysis and generalized estimation equation (GEE) were used to analyze the risk factors affecting S/F ratio. RESULTS: Among the 41 patients, the proportion of males was high (68.3%, 28 cases), the median age was 68 (58-74) years old, 28 cases had complications (68.3%), and 34 cases had multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, 82.9%). Compared with HFNC group, the proportion of complications in NIPPV group was higher [87.5% (21/24) vs. 41.2% (7/17), P < 0.05], and the value of LYM% was lower [5.3% (3.4%-7.8%) vs. 10.0% (3.9%-19.7%), P < 0.05], the need of blood purification was also significantly lower [0% (0/24) vs. 29.4% (5/17), P < 0.05]. The S/F ratio of NIPPV group gradually increased after 2 hours treatment and RR gradually decreased with over time, S/F ratio decreased and RR increased in HFNC group compared with baseline, but there was no significant difference in S/F ratio between the two groups at each time point. RR in NIPPV group was significantly higher than that in HFNC group after 2 hours treatment [time/min: 30 (27-33) vs. 24 (21-27), P < 0.05]. There was no significant difference in rate need intubation and hospital mortality between NIPPV group and HFNC group [66.7% (16/24) vs. 70.6% (12/17), 58.3% (14/24) vs. 52.9% (9/17), both P > 0.05]. Analysis of the factors affecting the S/Fratio in the course of oxygen therapy showed that the oxygen therapy mode and the course of illness at admission were the factors affecting the S/F ratio of patients [ßvalues were -15.827, 1.202, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were -29.102 to -2.552 and 0.247-2.156, P values were 0.019 and 0.014, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with HFNC, NIPPV doesn't significantly reduce the intubation rate and mortality of patients with COVID-19 accompanied with ARDS, but it significantly increases the S/F ratio of those patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , Cannula , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
18.
Respir Care ; 66(12): 1831-1839, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The roles of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and CPAP in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are controversial. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of the application of a noninvasive respiratory support algorithm on clinical outcomes in subjects with COVID-19 and with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: We performed a single-center prospective observational study of subjects with respiratory failure from COVID-19 managed with HFNC and with CPAP plus HFNC (combined therapy). The main outcome was the intubation rate, which defined failure of therapy. We also analyzed the role of the ROX index ([[Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text]]/breathing frequency) to predict the need for intubation. RESULTS: From June to December 2020, 113 subjects with COVID-19 respiratory failure were admitted to our respiratory intermediate care unit. HFNC was applied in 65 subjects (57.52%) and combined therapy in 48 subjects (42.47%). A total of 83 subjects (73.45%) were successfully treated with noninvasive respiratory support. The intubation rate was 26.54%, and the overall mortality rate was 14.15%. The mortality rate in subjects who were intubated was 55.2%. An ROX index of 6.28 at 12 h predicted noninvasive respiratory support failure, with 97.6% sensitivity and 51.8% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Data from our cohort managed in a respiratory intermediate care unit showed that combined noninvasive respiratory support was feasible, with favorable outcomes. Further prospective studies are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Cannula , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Respir Care ; 66(7): 1128-1135, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314842

ABSTRACT

Despite its life-saving nature, invasive mechanical ventilation does not come without risk, and the avoidance of invasive mechanical ventilation is the primary goal of noninvasive respiratory support. Noninvasive respiratory support in the form of continuous or bi-level positive airway pressure were considered the only viable options to accomplish this for many years. Innovation and research have led to high-flow nasal cannula being added to the list of specialized therapies clinically shown to reduce escalation of care and intubation rates in patients presenting with acute respiratory failure. The amount of research being performed in this clinical space is impressive, to say the least, and it is rapidly evolving. It is the responsibility of the clinicians trained to use these therapies in the management of respiratory failure to understand the currently available evidence, benefits, and risks associated with the type of noninvasive respiratory support being used to treat our patients.


Subject(s)
Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Cannula , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
20.
Can Respir J ; 2021: 6638048, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301736

ABSTRACT

Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy has been recommended for use in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory failure and many other clinical conditions. HFNC devices produced by different manufacturers may have varied performance. Whether there is a difference in these devices and the extent of the differences in performance remain unknown. Methods: Four HFNC devices (AIRVO 2, TNI softFlow 50, HUMID-BH, and OH-70C) and a ventilator with an HFNC module (bellavista 1000) were evaluated. The flow was set at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, and 80 L/min, and the FiO2 was set at 21%, 26%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%. Then, one side of the cannulas was clipped to simulate the compression, bending, or blocking of the nasal cannulas. The flow and FiO2 of the delivered gas were recorded and compared among settings and devices. Results: The actual-flow and actual-FiO2 delivered by different settings and devices varied. AIRVO 2 had superior performance in flow and FiO2 accuracy. bellavista 1000 and OH-70C had good performance in the accuracy of actual-flows and actual-FiO2, respectively. bellavista 1000 and HUMID-BH had a larger flow range from 10 to 80 L/min, but only bellavista 1000 could provide a stable flow with an excessive resistance up to 60 L/min. TNI softFlow 50 had the best flow compensation and could provide sufficient flow with excessive resistance at 20-50 L/min. Conclusions: The variation in flow, FiO2 settings, and devices could influence the actual-flow and actual-FiO2 delivered. AIRVO 2 and OH-70C showed better FiO2 accuracy. TNI softFlow 50, bellavista 1000, and HUMID-BH could lower the risk of insufficient flow support due to accidental compression or blocking of the cannulas. In addition, ventilators with HFNC modules provided comparable flow and FiO2 and could be an alternative to standalone HFNC devices.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19 , Cannula , Inhalation/physiology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cannula/classification , Cannula/standards , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Humans , Materials Testing/methods , Maximal Respiratory Pressures , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Tidal Volume/physiology
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