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1.
Mol Pharm ; 19(7): 2175-2182, 2022 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873399

ABSTRACT

Ionizable cationic lipids are essential for efficient in vivo delivery of RNA by lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). DLin-MC3-DMA (MC3), ALC-0315, and SM-102 are the only ionizable cationic lipids currently clinically approved for RNA therapies. ALC-0315 and SM-102 are structurally similar lipids used in SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, while MC3 is used in siRNA therapy to knock down transthyretin in hepatocytes. Hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are particularly attractive targets for RNA therapy because they synthesize many plasma proteins, including those that influence blood coagulation. While LNPs preferentially accumulate in the liver, evaluating the ability of different ionizable cationic lipids to deliver RNA cargo into distinct cell populations is important for designing RNA-LNP therapies with minimal hepatotoxicity. Here, we directly compared LNPs containing either ALC-0315 or MC3 to knock-down coagulation factor VII (FVII) in hepatocytes and ADAMTS13 in HSCs. At a dose of 1 mg/kg siRNA in mice, LNPs with ALC-0315 achieved a 2- and 10-fold greater knockdown of FVII and ADAMTS13, respectively, compared to LNPs with MC3. At a high dose (5 mg/kg), ALC-0315 LNPs increased markers of liver toxicity (ALT and bile acids), while the same dose of MC3 LNPs did not. These results demonstrate that ALC-0315 LNPs achieves potent siRNA-mediated knockdown of target proteins in hepatocytes and HSCs, in mice, though markers of liver toxicity can be observed after a high dose. This study provides an initial comparison that may inform the development of ionizable cationic LNP therapeutics with maximal efficacy and limited toxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Amino Alcohols , Animals , Caprylates , Cations/metabolism , Decanoates , Hepatic Stellate Cells/metabolism , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Lipids , Liposomes , Mice , RNA, Small Interfering , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Mol Pharm ; 19(6): 1892-1905, 2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860276

ABSTRACT

Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are the leading technology for RNA delivery, given the success of the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 mRNA (mRNA) vaccines, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapies (patisiran). However, optimization of LNP process parameters and compositions for larger RNA payloads such as self-amplifying RNA (saRNA), which can have complex secondary structures, have not been carried out. Furthermore, the interactions between process parameters, critical quality attributes (CQAs), and function, such as protein expression and cellular activation, are not well understood. Here, we used two iterations of design of experiments (DoE) (definitive screening design and Box-Behnken design) to optimize saRNA formulations using the leading, FDA-approved ionizable lipids (MC3, ALC-0315, and SM-102). We observed that PEG is required to preserve the CQAs and that saRNA is more challenging to encapsulate and preserve than mRNA. We identified three formulations to minimize cellular activation, maximize cellular activation, or meet a CQA profile while maximizing protein expression. The significant parameters and design of the response surface modeling and multiple response optimization may be useful for designing formulations for a range of applications, such as vaccines or protein replacement therapies, for larger RNA cargoes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Amino Alcohols , COVID-19/therapy , Caprylates , Decanoates , Humans , Liposomes , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering
3.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732129

ABSTRACT

Quality control of human immunoglobulin formulations produced by caprylic acid precipitation necessitates a simple, rapid, and accurate method for determination of residual caprylic acid. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for that purpose was developed and validated. The method involves depletion of immunoglobulins, the major interfering components that produce high background noise, by precipitation with acetonitrile (1:1, v/v). Chromatographic analysis of caprylic acid, preserved in supernatant with no loss, was performed using a reverse-phase C18 column (2.1 × 150 mm, 3 µm) as a stationary phase and water with 0.05% TFA-acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min and run time of 10 min. The developed method was successfully validated according to the ICH guidelines. The validation parameters confirmed that method was linear, accurate, precise, specific, and able to provide excellent separation of peaks corresponding to caprylic acid and the fraction of remaining immunoglobulins. Furthermore, a 24-1 fractional factorial design was applied in order to test the robustness of developed method. As such, the method is highly suitable for the quantification of residual caprylic acid in formulations of human immunoglobulins for therapeutic use, as demonstrated on samples produced by fractionation of convalescent anti-SARS-CoV-2 human plasma at a laboratory scale. The obtained results confirmed that the method is convenient for routine quality control.


Subject(s)
Caprylates/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drug Compounding , Immunoglobulins/chemistry , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Caprylates/chemistry , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Limit of Detection , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
Environ Int ; 153: 106524, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The growing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has heightened the urgency of identifying individuals most at risk of infection. Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are manufactured fluorinated chemicals widely used in many industrial and household products. The objective of this case-control study was to assess the association between PFASs exposure and COVID-19 susceptibility and to elucidate the metabolic dysregulation associated with PFASs exposure in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Total 160 subjects (80 COVID-19 patients and 80 symptom-free controls) were recruited from Shanxi and Shandong provinces, two regions heavily polluted by PFASs in China. Twelve common PFASs were quantified in both urine and serum. Urine metabolome profiling was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). RESULTS: In unadjusted models, the risk of COVID-19 infection was positively associated with urinary levels of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (Odds ratio: 2.29 [95% CI: 1.52-3.22]), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (2.91, [1.95-4.83], and total PFASs (∑ (12) PFASs) (3.31, [2.05-4.65]). After controlling for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), the associations remained statistically significant (Adjusted odds ratio of 1.94 [95% CI: 1.39-2.96] for PFOS, 2.73 [1.71-4.55] for PFOA, and 2.82 [1.97-3.51] for ∑ (12) PFASs). Urine metabolome-PFASs association analysis revealed that 59% of PFASs-associated urinary endogenous metabolites in COVID-19 patients were identified to be produced or largely regulated by mitochondrial function. In addition, the increase of PFASs exposure was associated with the accumulation of key metabolites in kynurenine metabolism, which are involved in immune responses (Combined ß coefficient of 0.60 [95% CI: 0.25-0.95, P = 0.001]). Moreover, alternations in PFASs-associated metabolites in mitochondrial and kynurenine metabolism were also correlated with clinical lab biomarkers for mitochondrial function (serum growth/differentiation factor-15) and immune activity (lymphocyte percentage), respectively. CONCLUSION: Elevated exposure to PFASs was independently associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 infection. PFASs-associated metabolites were implicated in mitochondrial function and immune activity. Larger studies are needed to confirm our findings and further understand the underlying mechanisms of PFASs exposure in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV2 infection.


Subject(s)
Alkanesulfonic Acids , COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Fluorocarbons , Alkanesulfonic Acids/toxicity , Caprylates/toxicity , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Chromatography, Liquid , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Fluorocarbons/analysis , Fluorocarbons/toxicity , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
6.
Immunotherapy ; 13(5): 397-407, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073248

ABSTRACT

Background: This study assesses the feasibility of producing hyperimmune anti-COVID-19 intravenously administrable immunoglobulin (C-IVIG) from pooled convalescent plasma (PCP) to provide a safe and effective passive immunization treatment option for COVID-19. Materials & methods: PCP was fractionated by modified caprylic acid precipitation followed by ultrafiltration/diafiltration to produce hyperimmune C-IVIG. Results: In C-IVIG, the mean SARS-CoV-2 antibody level was found to be threefold (104 ± 30 cut-off index) that of the PCP (36 ± 8.5 cut-off index) and mean protein concentration was found to be 46 ± 3.7 g/l, comprised of 89.5% immunoglobulins. Conclusion: The current method of producing C-IVIG is feasible as it uses locally available PCP and simpler technology and yields a high titer of SARS-CoV-2 antibody. The safety and efficacy of C-IVIG will be evaluated in a registered clinical trial (NCT04521309).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Caprylates/chemistry , Chemical Fractionation , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/immunology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use
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