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1.
Virulence ; 13(1): 1315-1330, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238606

ABSTRACT

Porcine rotavirus (PoRV) is an important pathogen, leading to the occurrence of viral diarrhoea . As the infection displays obvious enterotropism, intestinal mucosal immunity is the significant line of defence against pathogen invasion. Moreover, as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) show acid resistance, bile salt resistance and immune regulation, it is of great significance to develop an oral vaccine. Most traditional plasmid delivery vectors use antibiotic genes as selective markers, easily leading to antibiotic accumulation. Therefore, to select a food-grade marker in genetically engineering food-grade microorganisms is vital. Based on the CRISPR-Cas9D10A system, we constructed a stable auxotrophic Lactobacillus paracasei HLJ-27 (Lactobacillus △Alr HLJ-27) strain. In addition, as many plasmids replicate in the host bacteria, resulting in internal gene deletions. In this study,we used a temperature-sensitive gene editing plasmidto insert the VP4 gene into the genome, yielding the insertion mutant strains VP4/△Alr HLJ-27, VP4/△Alr W56, and VP4/W56. This recombinant bacterium efficiently induced secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA)-based mucosal and immunoglobulin G (IgG)-based humoral immune responses. These oral mucosal vaccines have the potential to act as an alternative to the application of antibiotics in the future and induce efficient immune responses against PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins , Lactobacillus , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Lactobacillus/genetics , Rotavirus , Swine
2.
Virol J ; 19(1): 203, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10) is a leading cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). It is necessary to identify neutralizing epitopes to investigate and develop an epitope-based vaccine against CV-A10. The viral protein VP1 is the immunodominant capsid protein and contains the critical neutralizing epitope. However, neutralizing epitopes within VP1 protein of CV-A10 have not been well characterized. METHODS: Bioinformatics techniques were applied to predict linear epitopes on the CV-A10 VP1 protein. The advanced structural features of epitopes were analyzed by three-dimensional (3D) modeling. The anticipated epitope peptides were synthesized and used to immunize mice as antigens. ELISA and micro-neutralization assay were used to determine the specific IgG antibody and neutralizing antibody titers. The protective efficacy of the epitope peptides in vivo was evaluated using a passive immunization/challenge assay. RESULTS: Three linear epitopes (EP3, EP4, and EP5) were predicted on CV-A10 VP1, all spatially exposed on the capsid surface, and exhibited adequate immunogenicity. However, only EP4, corresponding to residues 162-176 of VP1, demonstrated potent neutralization against CV-A10. To determine the neutralizing capacity of EP4 further, EP4 double-peptide was synthesized and injected into mice. The mean neutralizing antibody titer of the anti-EP4 double-peptide sera was 1:50.79, which provided 40% protection against lethal infection with CV-A10 in neonatal mice. In addition, sequence and advanced structural analysis revealed that EP4 was highly conserved among representative strains of CV-A10 and localized in the EF loop region of VP1, like EV-A71 SP55 or CV-A16 PEP55. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that EP4 is a specific linear neutralizing epitope on CV-A10 VP1. Its protective efficacy can be enhanced by increasing its copy number, which will be the foundation for developing a CV-A10 epitope-based vaccine.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins , Computational Biology , Enterovirus , Animals , Mice , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Epitopes
3.
Sci Adv ; 9(2): eade0869, 2023 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193381

ABSTRACT

Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infects human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) and causes several hematological disorders and fetal hydrops. Amino acid (aa) 5-68 of minor capsid protein VP1 (VP1u5-68aa) is the minimal receptor binding domain for B19V to enter EPCs. Here, we carried out a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 guide RNA screen and identified tyrosine protein kinase receptor UFO (AXL) as a proteinaceous receptor for B19V infection of EPCs. AXL gene silencing in ex vivo expanded EPCs remarkably decreased B19V internalization and replication. Additions of the recombinant AXL extracellular domain or a polyclonal antibody against it upon infection efficiently inhibited B19V infection of ex vivo expanded EPCs. Moreover, B19V VP1u interacted with the recombinant AXL extracellular domain in vitro at a relatively high affinity (KD = 103 nM). Collectively, we provide evidence that AXL is a co-receptor for B19V infection of EPCs.


Subject(s)
Axl Receptor Tyrosine Kinase , Erythema Infectiosum , Parvovirus B19, Human , Humans , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Erythema Infectiosum/metabolism , Parvovirus B19, Human/genetics , Parvovirus B19, Human/metabolism , Protein Binding , Axl Receptor Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism
4.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143731

ABSTRACT

Positive-strand RNA virus RNA genome replication occurs in membrane-associated RNA replication complexes (RCs). Nodavirus RCs are outer mitochondrial membrane invaginations whose necked openings to the cytosol are "crowned" by a 12-fold symmetrical proteinaceous ring that functions as the main engine of RNA replication. Similar protein crowns recently visualized at the openings of alphavirus and coronavirus RCs highlight their broad conservation and functional importance. Using cryo-EM tomography, we earlier showed that the major nodavirus crown constituent is viral protein A, whose polymerase, RNA capping, membrane interaction and multimerization domains drive RC formation and function. Other viral proteins are strong candidates for unassigned EM density in the crown. RNA-binding RNAi inhibitor protein B2 co-immunoprecipitates with protein A and could form crown subdomains that protect nascent viral RNA and dsRNA templates. Capsid protein may interact with the crown since nodavirus virion assembly has spatial and other links to RNA replication. Using cryoelectron tomography and complementary approaches, we show that, even when formed in mammalian cells, nodavirus RC crowns generated without B2 and capsid proteins are functional and structurally indistinguishable from mature crowns in infected Drosophila cells expressing all viral proteins. Thus, the only nodaviral factors essential to form functional RCs and crowns are RNA replication protein A and an RNA template. We also resolve apparent conflicts in prior results on B2 localization in infected cells, revealing at least two distinguishable pools of B2. The results have significant implications for crown structure, assembly, function and control as an antiviral target.


Subject(s)
RNA Replication , Viral Proteins , Animals , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication , Virus Assembly , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Drosophila/genetics , RNA, Double-Stranded , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Mammals
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 213: 1007-1017, 2022 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121014

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for new vaccine platforms to rapidly develop solutions against emerging pathogens. In particular, some plant viruses offer several advantages for developing subunit vaccines, such as high expression rates in E. coli, high immunogenicity and safety, and absence of pre-immunity that could interfere with the vaccine's efficacy. Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is a model system that has been extensively characterized, with key advantages for its use as an epitope carrier. In the present study, three relevant epitopes from the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein were genetically inserted into the CCMV CP and expressed in E. coli cultures, resulting in the CCMV1, CCMV2, and CCMV3 chimeras. The recombinant CP mutants were purified from the formed inclusion bodies and refolded, and their immunogenicity as a subunit vaccine was assessed in BALB/c mice. The three mutants are immunogenic as they induce high IgG antibody titers that recognize the recombinant full-length S protein. This study supports the application of CCMV CP as an attractive carrier for the clinical evaluation of vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, it suggests that VLPs assembled from these chimeric proteins could result in antigens with better immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
Bromovirus , COVID-19 , Animals , Bromovirus/genetics , Bromovirus/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Chimera/metabolism , Epitopes , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Subunit
6.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 32(10): 1335-1343, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115579

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an emerging disease that poses a severe threat to global public health. As such, there is an urgent demand for vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Here, we describe a virus-like nanoparticle candidate vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 produced by an E. coli expression system. The fusion protein of a truncated ORF2-encoded protein of aa 439~608 (p170) from hepatitis E virus CCJD-517 and the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 were expressed, purified and characterized. The antigenicity and immunogenicity of p170-RBD were evaluated in vitro and in Kunming mice. Our investigation revealed that p170-RBD self-assembled into approximately 24 nm virus-like particles, which could bind to serum from vaccinated people (p < 0.001) and receptors on cells. Immunization with p170-RBD induced the titer of IgG antibody vaccine increased from 14 days post-immunization and was significantly enhanced after a booster immunization at 28 dpi, ultimately reaching a peak level on 42 dpi with a titer of 4.97 log10. Pseudovirus neutralization tests showed that the candidate vaccine induced a strong neutralizing antibody response in mice. In this research, we demonstrated that p170-RBD possesses strong antigenicity and immunogenicity and could be a potential candidate for use in future SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis E virus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Capsid Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Escherichia coli , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/genetics
7.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066551

ABSTRACT

Molecular therapies exploiting mRNA vectors embody enormous potential, as evidenced by the utility of this technology for the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nonetheless, broad implementation of these promising strategies has been restricted by the limited repertoires of delivery vehicles capable of mRNA transport. On this basis, we explored a strategy based on exploiting the well characterized entry biology of adenovirus. To this end, we studied an adenovirus-polylysine (AdpL) that embodied "piggyback" transport of the mRNA on the capsid exterior of adenovirus. We hypothesized that the efficient steps of Ad binding, receptor-mediated entry, and capsid-mediated endosome escape could provide an effective pathway for transport of mRNA to the cellular cytosol for transgene expression. Our studies confirmed that AdpL could mediate effective gene transfer of mRNA vectors in vitro and in vivo. Facets of this method may offer key utilities to actualize the promise of mRNA-based therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , COVID-19 , Humans , Adenoviridae/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Gene Transfer Techniques , Polylysine , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Pandemics , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Biology
8.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(10)2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066493

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak and spread of COVID-19, a deep investigation of SARS-CoV-2 is urgent. Direct usage of this virus for scientific research could provide reliable results and authenticity. However, it is strictly constrained and unrealistic due to its high pathogenicity and infectiousness. Considering its biosafety, different systems and technologies have been employed in immunology and biomedical studies. In this study, phage display technology was used to construct a nonpathogenic model for COVID-19 research. The nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 was fused with the M13 phage capsid p3 protein and expressed on the M13 phages. After validation of its successful expression, its potential as the standard for qPCR quantification and affinity with antibodies were confirmed, which may show the possibility of using this nonpathogenic bacteriophage to replace the pathogenic virus in scientific research concerning SARS-CoV-2. In addition, the model was used to develop a system for the classification and identification of different samples using ATR-FTIR, which may provide an idea for the development and evaluation of virus monitoring equipment in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Bacteriophage M13/genetics , Bacteriophage M13/metabolism , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism
9.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024294

ABSTRACT

Viruses can evolve to respond to immune pressures conferred by specific antibodies generated after vaccination and/or infection. In this study, an in vitro system was developed to investigate the impact of serum-neutralising antibodies upon the evolution of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) isolate. The presence of sub-neutralising dilutions of specific antisera delayed the onset of virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) by up to 44 h compared to the untreated control cultures. Continued virus passage with sub-neutralising dilutions of these sera resulted in a decrease in time to complete CPE, suggesting that FMDV in these cultures adapted to escape immune pressure. These phenotypic changes were associated with three separate consensus-level non-synonymous mutations that accrued in the viral RNA-encoding amino acids at positions VP266, VP280 and VP1155, corresponding to known epitope sites. High-throughput sequencing also identified further nucleotide substitutions within the regions encoding the leader (Lpro), VP4, VP2 and VP3 proteins. While association of the later mutations with the adaptation to immune pressure must be further verified, these results highlight the multiple routes by which FMDV populations can escape neutralising antibodies and support the application of a simple in vitro approach to assess the impact of the humoral immune system on the evolution of FMDV and potentially other viruses.


Subject(s)
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Epitopes/genetics
10.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024293

ABSTRACT

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious and devastating virus that infects cloven-hoofed livestock and various wildlife species. Vaccination is the best measure to prevent FMD. ADDomer, as a kind of non-infectious adenovirus-inspired nanoparticle, has the advantage of high thermal stability. In this study, two dominant B-cell antigen epitopes (residues 129~160 and 200~213) and a dominant T-cell antigen epitope (residues 16~44) of type O FMDV were inserted into the ADDomer variable loop (VL) and arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) loop. The 3D structure of the recombinant protein (ADDomer-RBT) was simulated by homology modeling. First, the recombinant proteins were expressed by the baculovirus expression system and detected by western blot and Q Exactive mass spectrometry. Then the formation of VLPs was observed under a transmission electron micrograph (TEM). Finally, we evaluated the immunogenicity of chimeric VLPs with a murine model. Bioinformatic software analysis preliminarily corroborated that the chosen epitopes were successfully exposed on the surface of ADDomer VLPs. The TEM assay demonstrated the structural integrity of the VLPs. After immunizing, it was found that FMDV-specific antibodies can be produced in mice to induce humoral and cellular immune responses. To sum up, the ADDomer platform can be used as an effective antigen carrier to deliver antigen epitopes. This study presents one of the candidate vaccines to prevent and control FMDV.


Subject(s)
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/genetics , Mice , Viral Vaccines/genetics
11.
Mol Microbiol ; 118(4): 309-320, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794603

ABSTRACT

Adenoviruses (AdVs) are widespread in vertebrates. They infect the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, the eyes, heart, liver, and kidney, and are lethal to immunosuppressed people. Mastadenoviruses infecting mammals comprise several hundred different types, and many specifically infect humans. Human adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in clinical applications, including cancer treatment and COVID-19 vaccination. AdV vectors are physically and genetically stable and generally safe in humans. The particles have an icosahedral coat and a nucleoprotein core with a DNA genome. We describe the concept of AdV cell entry and highlight recent advances in cytoplasmic transport, uncoating, and nuclear import of the viral DNA. We highlight a recently discovered "linchpin" function of the virion protein V ensuring cytoplasmic particle stability, which is relaxed at the nuclear pore complex by cues from the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mind bomb 1 (MIB1) and the proteasome triggering disruption. Capsid disruption by kinesin motor proteins and microtubules exposes the linchpin and renders protein V a target for MIB1 ubiquitination, which dissociates V from viral DNA and enhances DNA nuclear import. These advances uncover mechanisms controlling capsid stability and premature uncoating and provide insight into nuclear transport of nucleic acids.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviridae/metabolism , DNA, Viral/genetics , DNA, Viral/metabolism , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Kinesins , COVID-19 Vaccines , Nuclear Pore/genetics , Nuclear Pore/metabolism , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Nucleoproteins/metabolism , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/metabolism
12.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786043

ABSTRACT

Various adenoviruses are being used as viral vectors for the generation of vaccines against chronic and emerging diseases (e.g., AIDS, COVID-19). Here, we report the improved capsid structure for one of these vectors, human adenovirus D26 (HAdV-D26), at 3.4 Å resolution, by reprocessing the previous cryo-electron microscopy dataset and obtaining a refined model. In addition to overall improvements in the model, the highlights of the structure include (1) locating a segment of the processed peptide of VIII that was previously believed to be released from the mature virions, (2) reorientation of the helical appendage domain (APD) of IIIa situated underneath the vertex region relative to its counterpart observed in the cleavage defective (ts1) mutant of HAdV-C5 that resulted in the loss of interactions between the APD and hexon bases, and (3) the revised conformation of the cleaved N-terminal segments of pre-protein VI (pVIn), located in the hexon cavities, is highly conserved, with notable stacking interactions between the conserved His13 and Phe18 residues. Taken together, the improved model of HAdV-D26 capsid provides a better understanding of protein-protein interactions in HAdV capsids and facilitates the efforts to modify and/or design adenoviral vectors with altered properties. Last but not least, we provide some insights into clotting factors (e.g., FX and PF4) binding to AdV vectors.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human/chemistry , Capsid/chemistry , Capsid/ultrastructure , Cryoelectron Microscopy/methods , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Humans , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Virus Assembly , Virus Internalization
13.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625824

ABSTRACT

Infection with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been linked with severe neurological disease such as acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) in recent years. However, active surveillance for EV-D68 is lacking, which makes full assessment of this association difficult. Although a high number of EV-D68 infections were expected in 2020 based on the EV-D68's known biannual circulation patterns, no apparent increase in EV-D68 detections or AFM cases was observed during 2020. We describe an upsurge of EV-D68 detections in wastewater samples from the United Kingdom between July and November 2021 mirroring the recently reported rise in EV-D68 detections in clinical samples from various European countries. We provide the first publicly available 2021 EV-D68 sequences showing co-circulation of EV-D68 strains from genetic clade D and sub-clade B3 as in previous years. Our results show the value of environmental surveillance (ES) for the early detection of circulating and clinically relevant human viruses. The use of a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach helped us to estimate the prevalence of EV-D68 viruses among EV strains from other EV serotypes and to detect EV-D68 minor variants. The utility of ES at reducing gaps in virus surveillance for EV-D68 and the possible impact of nonpharmaceutical interventions introduced to control the COVID-19 pandemic on EV-D68 transmission dynamics are discussed.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus D, Human/isolation & purification , Wastewater/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Enterovirus D, Human/classification , Enterovirus D, Human/genetics , Humans , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, DNA , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Water Microbiology
14.
Cell ; 184(25): 6037-6051.e14, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520752

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses generate defective viral genomes (DVGs) that can interfere with replication of the parental wild-type virus. To examine their therapeutic potential, we created a DVG by deleting the capsid-coding region of poliovirus. Strikingly, intraperitoneal or intranasal administration of this genome, which we termed eTIP1, elicits an antiviral response, inhibits replication, and protects mice from several RNA viruses, including enteroviruses, influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. While eTIP1 replication following intranasal administration is limited to the nasal cavity, its antiviral action extends non-cell-autonomously to the lungs. eTIP1 broad-spectrum antiviral effects are mediated by both local and distal type I interferon responses. Importantly, while a single eTIP1 dose protects animals from SARS-CoV-2 infection, it also stimulates production of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies that afford long-lasting protection from SARS-CoV-2 reinfection. Thus, eTIP1 is a safe and effective broad-spectrum antiviral generating short- and long-term protection against SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory infections in animal models.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins/genetics , Defective Interfering Viruses/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line , Defective Interfering Viruses/pathogenicity , Disease Models, Animal , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Influenza, Human , Interferons/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389547

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus vector-based genetic vaccines have emerged as a powerful strategy against the SARS-CoV-2 health crisis. This success is not unexpected because adenoviruses combine many desirable features of a genetic vaccine. They are highly immunogenic and have a low and well characterized pathogenic profile paired with technological approachability. Ongoing efforts to improve adenovirus-vaccine vectors include the use of rare serotypes and non-human adenoviruses. In this review, we focus on the viral capsid and how the choice of genotypes influences the uptake and subsequent subcellular sorting. We describe how understanding capsid properties, such as stability during the entry process, can change the fate of the entering particles and how this translates into differences in immunity outcomes. We discuss in detail how mutating the membrane lytic capsid protein VI affects species C viruses' post-entry sorting and briefly discuss if such approaches could have a wider implication in vaccine and/or vector development.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human/immunology , Adenoviruses, Human/physiology , Capsid/metabolism , Genetic Vectors , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Internalization , Adaptive Immunity , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Capsid/immunology , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Capsid Proteins/immunology , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
16.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389524

ABSTRACT

We describe the complete capsid of a genotype C1-like Enterovirus A71 variant recovered from wastewater in a neighborhood in the greater Tempe, Arizona area (Southwest United States) in May 2020 using a pan-enterovirus amplicon-based high-throughput sequencing strategy. The variant seems to have been circulating for over two years, but its sequence has not been documented in that period. As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in changes in health-seeking behavior and overwhelmed pathogen diagnostics, our findings highlight the importance of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE ) as an early warning system for virus surveillance.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins/genetics , Enterovirus A, Human/genetics , Enterovirus A, Human/isolation & purification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Wastewater/virology , Arizona/epidemiology , Capsid/chemistry , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Pandemics , Phylogeny
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120219

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus-based gene transfer vectors are the most frequently used vector type in gene therapy clinical trials to date, and they play an important role as genetic vaccine candidates during the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Immediately upon delivery, adenovirus-based vectors exhibit multiple complex vector-host interactions and induce innate and adaptive immune responses. This can severely limit their safety and efficacy, particularly after delivery through the blood stream. In this review article we summarize two strategies to modulate Ad vector-induced immune responses: extensive genomic and chemical capsid modifications. Both strategies have shown beneficial effects in a number of preclinical studies while potential synergistic effects warrant further investigations.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviridae/immunology , Capsid/immunology , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Animals , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Humans , Immunity , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
18.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 50: 151645, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064802

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiology that underlies severe COVID-19 by assessing the histopathology and the in situ detection of infectious SARS-CoV-2 and viral capsid proteins along with the cellular target(s) and host response from twelve autopsies. There were three key findings: 1) high copy infectious virus was limited mostly to the alveolar macrophages and endothelial cells of the septal capillaries; 2) viral spike protein without viral RNA localized to ACE2+ endothelial cells in microvessels that were most abundant in the subcutaneous fat and brain; 3) although both infectious virus and docked viral spike protein was associated with complement activation, only the endocytosed pseudovirions induced a marked up-regulation of the key COVID-19 associated proteins IL6, TNF alpha, IL1 beta, p38, IL8, and caspase 3. Importantly, this microvasculitis was associated with characteristic findings on hematoxylin and eosin examination that included endothelial degeneration and resultant basement membrane zone disruption and reduplication. It is concluded that serious COVID-19 infection has two distinct mechanisms: 1) a microangiopathy of pulmonary capillaries associated with a high infectious viral load where endothelial cell death releases pseudovirions into the circulation, and 2) the pseudovirions dock on ACE2+ endothelial cells most prevalent in the skin/subcutaneous fat and brain that activates the complement pathway/coagulation cascade resulting in a systemic procoagulant state as well as the expression of cytokines that produce the cytokine storm. The data predicts a favorable response to therapies based on either removal of circulating viral proteins and/or blunting of the endothelial-induced response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/physiopathology , Vascular Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Endothelial Cells/enzymology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Male , Microvessels/physiopathology , Microvessels/virology , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/virology , Vascular Diseases/virology , Virion
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(3)2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003394

ABSTRACT

Human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D) types are currently being explored as vaccine vectors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other severe infectious diseases. The efficacy of such vector-based vaccines depends on functional interactions with receptors on host cells. Adenoviruses of different species are assumed to enter host cells mainly by interactions between the knob domain of the protruding fiber capsid protein and cellular receptors. Using a cell-based receptor-screening assay, we identified CD46 as a receptor for HAdV-D56. The function of CD46 was validated in infection experiments using cells lacking and overexpressing CD46, and by competition infection experiments using soluble CD46. Remarkably, unlike HAdV-B types that engage CD46 through interactions with the knob domain of the fiber protein, HAdV-D types infect host cells through a direct interaction between CD46 and the hexon protein. Soluble hexon proteins (but not fiber knob) inhibited HAdV-D56 infection, and surface plasmon analyses demonstrated that CD46 binds to HAdV-D hexon (but not fiber knob) proteins. Cryoelectron microscopy analysis of the HAdV-D56 virion-CD46 complex confirmed the interaction and showed that CD46 binds to the central cavity of hexon trimers. Finally, soluble CD46 inhibited infection by 16 out of 17 investigated HAdV-D types, suggesting that CD46 is an important receptor for a large group of adenoviruses. In conclusion, this study identifies a noncanonical entry mechanism used by human adenoviruses, which adds to the knowledge of adenovirus biology and can also be useful for development of adenovirus-based vaccine vectors.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , COVID-19 Vaccines , Capsid Proteins , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Internalization , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , Capsid Proteins/biosynthesis , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Cell Line , Humans
20.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(11): 624, 2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888208

ABSTRACT

A label-free electrochemical strategy is proposed combining equivalent substitution effect with AuNPs-assisted signal amplification. According to the differences of S1 protein in various infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains, a target DNA sequence that can specifically recognize H120 RNA forming a DNA-RNA hybridized double-strand structure has been designed. Then, the residual single-stranded target DNA is hydrolyzed by S1 nuclease. Therefore, the content of target DNA becomes equal to the content of virus RNA. After equivalent coronavirus, the target DNA is separated from DNA-RNA hybridized double strand by heating, which can partly hybridize with probe 2 modified on the electrode surface and probe 1 on AuNPs' surface. Thus, AuNPs are pulled to the surface of the electrode and the abundant DNA on AuNPs' surface could adsorb a large amount of hexaammineruthenium (III) chloride (RuHex) molecules, which produce a remarkably amplified electrochemical response. The voltammetric signal of RuHex with a peak near - 0.28 V vs. Ag/AgCl is used as the signal output. The proposed method shows a detection range of 1.56e-9 to 1.56e-6 µM with the detection limit of 2.96e-10 µM for IBV H120 strain selective quantification detection, exhibiting good accuracy, stability, and simplicity, which shows a great potential for IBV detection in vaccine research and avian infectious bronchitis diagnosis. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Infectious bronchitis virus/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Animals , Biosensing Techniques/standards , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Chickens , Coronavirus/genetics , DNA Probes , Gold , In Situ Hybridization , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Limit of Detection , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Species Specificity
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