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1.
Acc Chem Res ; 55(18): 2708-2727, 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008235

ABSTRACT

ConspectusAsymmetric organocatalysis has been considered to be an efficient and reliable strategy for the stereoselective preparation of optically active chemicals. In particular, chiral tertiary amines as Lewis base organocatalysts bearing core structures including quinuclidine, dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), N-methylimidazole (NMI), amidine, etc. have provided new and powerful tools for various chemical transformations. However, due to the limitations in structural complexity, synthetic difficulty, low catalytic efficiency, and high cost, the industrial application of such catalysts is still far from being widely adopted. Therefore, the development of new chiral tertiary amine catalysts with higher activity and selectivity is greatly desired.In order to address the contradiction between activity and selectivity caused by the ortho group, a bicyclic imidazole structure bearing a relatively large bond angle ∠θ was designed as the skeleton of our new catalysts. 6,7-Dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]imidazole (abbreviated as DPI) and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (abbreviated as TIP) are two of the utilized skeletons. In addition to obtaining satisfactory catalytic activity, excellent enantioselectivity would also be expected because the stereocontrol R group is neither far nor close to the catalytic active site (sp2-N atom) and is adjustable. Based on this skeleton, a family of chiral bicyclic imidazole catalysts were easily prepared and successfully applied in several enantioselective reactions for the synthesis of a variety of valuable chiral compounds.6,7-Dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]imidazole (abbreviated as DPI) is the predominantly utilized skeleton. First, HO-DPI, the key intermediate of the designed chiral bicyclic imidazole catalysts, could be efficiently synthesized from imidazole and acrolein, then separated by kinetic resolution or optical resolution. Second, Alkoxy-DPI, the alkyloxy-substituted chiral bicyclic imidazole catalysts, were synthesized by a one-step alkylation from HO-DPI. This type of catalyst has been successfully applied in asymmetric Steglich rearrangement (C-acylation rearrangement of O-acylated azlactones), asymmetric phosphorylation of lactams, and a sequential four-step acylation reaction. Third, Acyloxy-DPI, the acyloxy-substituted chiral bicyclic imidazole catalysts, were synthesized with a one-step acetylative kinetic resolution from racemic HO-DPI or acylation from enantiopure HO-DPI. The catalyst AcO-DPI has been successfully applied in enantioselective Black rearrangement and in direct enantioselective C-acylation of 3-substituted benzofuran-2(3H)-ones and 2-oxindoles. Fourth, Alkyl-DPI was synthesized via a two-step reaction from racemic HO-DPI and separated easily by resolution. The catalyst Cy-DPI has been successfully applied in dynamic kinetic resolution of 3-hydroxyphthalides through enantioselective O-acylation. Cy-PDPI was synthesized through a Cu-catalyzed amidation from Cy-DPI and successfully applied in the kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols with good to excellent enantioselectivities. Finally, the carbamate type chiral bicyclic imidazole catalysts, Carbamate-DPI, were readily synthesized from HO-DPI, and the catalyst Ad-DPI bearing a bulky adamantyl group was successfully applied in the synthesis of the anti-COVID-19 drug remdesivir via asymmetric phosphorylation. Alongside our initial work, this Account also introduces four elegant studies by other groups concerning asymmetric phosphorylation utilizing chiral bicyclic imidazole catalysts.In summary, this Account focuses on the chiral bicyclic imidazole catalysts developed in our group and provides an overview on their design, synthesis, and application that will serve as inspiration for the exploration of new organocatalysts and related reactions.


Subject(s)
Benzofurans , Lewis Bases , Acrolein , Amidines , Amines , Carbamates , Catalysis , Imidazoles/chemistry , Lactams/chemistry , Oxindoles , Pyridines , Quinuclidines , Stereoisomerism
2.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(10): 2706-2712, 2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVER trial evaluated whether nitazoxanide or sofosbuvir/daclatasvir could lower the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nitazoxanide was selected given its favourable pharmacokinetics and in vitro antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2. Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir had shown favourable results in early clinical trials. METHODS: In this clinical trial in Johannesburg, South Africa, healthcare workers and others at high risk of infection were randomized to 24 weeks of either nitazoxanide or sofosbuvir/daclatasvir as prevention, or standard prevention advice only. Participants were evaluated every 4 weeks for COVID-19 symptoms and had antibody and PCR testing. The primary endpoint was positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR and/or serology ≥7 days after randomization, regardless of symptoms. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate the incidence rate ratios of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 between each experimental arm and control. RESULTS: Between December 2020 and January 2022, 828 participants were enrolled. COVID-19 infections were confirmed in 100 participants on nitazoxanide (2234 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI 1837-2718), 87 on sofosbuvir/daclatasvir (2125 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI 1722-2622) and 111 in the control arm (1849 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI 1535-2227). There were no significant differences in the primary endpoint between the treatment arms, and the results met the criteria for futility. In the safety analysis, the frequency of grade 3 or 4 adverse events was low and similar across arms. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized trial, nitazoxanide and sofosbuvir/daclatasvir had no significant preventative effect on infection with SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers and others at high risk of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbamates , Humans , Imidazoles , Nitro Compounds , Pyrrolidines , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , South Africa , Thiazoles , Treatment Outcome , Valine/analogs & derivatives
3.
Eur J Med Chem ; 240: 114596, 2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982959

ABSTRACT

Boceprevir is an HCV NSP3 inhibitor that was explored as a repurposed drug for COVID-19. It inhibits the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MPro) and contains an α-ketoamide warhead, a P1 ß-cyclobutylalanyl moiety, a P2 dimethylcyclopropylproline, a P3 tert-butylglycine, and a P4 N-terminal tert-butylcarbamide. By introducing modifications at all four positions, we synthesized 20 boceprevir-based MPro inhibitors including PF-07321332 and characterized their MPro inhibition potency in test tubes (in vitro) and 293T cells (in cellulo). Crystal structures of MPro bound with 10 inhibitors and cytotoxicity and antiviral potency of 4 inhibitors were characterized as well. Replacing the P1 site with a ß-(S-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl)-alanyl (Opal) residue and the warhead with an aldehyde leads to high in vitro potency. The original moieties at P2, P3 and the P4 N-terminal cap positions in boceprevir are better than other tested chemical moieties for high in vitro potency. In crystal structures, all inhibitors form a covalent adduct with the MPro active site cysteine. The P1 Opal residue, P2 dimethylcyclopropylproline and P4 N-terminal tert-butylcarbamide make strong hydrophobic interactions with MPro, explaining high in vitro potency of inhibitors that contain these moieties. A unique observation was made with an inhibitor that contains a P4 N-terminal isovaleramide. In its MPro complex structure, the P4 N-terminal isovaleramide is tucked deep in a small pocket of MPro that originally recognizes a P4 alanine side chain in a substrate. Although all inhibitors show high in vitro potency, they have drastically different in cellulo potency to inhibit ectopically expressed MPro in human 293T cells. In general, inhibitors with a P4 N-terminal carbamide or amide have low in cellulo potency. This trend is reversed when the P4 N-terminal cap is changed to a carbamate. The installation of a P3 O-tert-butyl-threonine improves in cellulo potency. Three molecules that contain a P4 N-terminal carbamate were advanced to cytotoxicity tests on 293T cells and antiviral potency tests on three SARS-CoV-2 variants. They all have relatively low cytotoxicity and high antiviral potency with EC50 values around 1 µM. A control compound with a nitrile warhead and a P4 N-terminal amide has undetectable antiviral potency. Based on all observations, we conclude that a P4 N-terminal carbamate in a boceprevir derivative is key for high antiviral potency against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbutamide , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbamates , Humans , Lactams , Leucine , Nitriles , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 15(8): 997-1002, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937599

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the clinical efficacy sofosbuvir/daclatasvir (SOF-DCV) in patients with COVID-19. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched for relevant articles written before January 6, 2022. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the clinical efficacy of SOF-DCV (study group) with alternative treatments (control group) in patients with COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: A total of 9 RCTs were included. The all-cause mortality rate in the study group was 10.7% (96/898), which was lower than that in the control group (12.3%, 108/871). However, this difference was not statistically significant (odds ratio [OR] = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.62-1.12; I2 = 49%). The overall clinical recovery rate was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group (OR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.47-3.72; I2 = 20%). Furthermore, the average length of hospital stay was shorter in the study group than in the control group (mean deviation = -1.84; 95% CI, -3.42 to -0.26, I2 = 68%). CONCLUSIONS: Although SOF-DCV did not confer a survival benefit in patients with COVID-19, it may increase a patient's odds of clinical recovery, and shorten the length of their hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sofosbuvir , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbamates , Drug Therapy, Combination , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Humans , Imidazoles , Pyrrolidines , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Valine/analogs & derivatives
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5771, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778635

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is still a health problem worldwide despite the availability of vaccines. Therefore, there is a need for effective and safe antiviral. SARS-CoV-2 and HCV necessitate RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for replication; therefore, it has been hypothesized that RdRp inhibitors used to treat HCV may be effective treating SARS-CoV-2. Accordingly, we evaluated the effect of the sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) combination in early SARS-CoV-2 infection. A multicenter case-control study was conducted, enrolling 120 patients with mild or moderate COVID-19, of whom 30, HCV coinfected or not, received SOF/VEL tablets (400/100 mg) once daily for 9 days within a median of 6 days from the beginning of infection and 90 controls were treated with standard care. The primary endpoint was the effect on viral clearance, and the secondary endpoint was the improvement of clinical outcomes. Nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR were performed every 5-7 days. Between 5-14 days after starting SOF/VEL treatment, SAS-CoV-2 clearance was observed in 83% of patients, while spontaneous clearance in the control was 13% (p < 0.001). An earlier SARS-CoV-2 clearance was observed in the SOF/VEL group than in the control group (median 14 vs 22 days, respectively, p < 0.001) also when the first positivity was considered. None of the patients in the SOF/VEL group showed disease progression, while in the control group, 24% required more intensive treatment (high flow oxygen or noninvasive/invasive ventilation), and one patient died (p < 0.01). No significant side effects were observed in the SOF/VEL group. Early SOF/VEL treatment in mild/moderate COVID-19 seems to be safe and effective for faster elimination of SARS-CoV-2 and to prevent disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbamates , Case-Control Studies , Disease Progression , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings/adverse effects , Humans , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir , Treatment Outcome
6.
Neuropharmacology ; 207: 108935, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586929

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Acetaminophen or paracetamol (PAR), the recommended antipyretic in COVID-19 and clinically used to alleviate stroke-associated hyperthermia interestingly activates cannabinoid receptor (CB1) through its AM404 metabolite, however, to date, no study reports the in vivo activation of PAR/AM404/CB1 axis in stroke. The current study deciphers the neuroprotective effect off PAR in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) rat model and unmasks its link with AM404/CB1/PI3K/Akt axis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were allocated into 5 groups: (I) sham-operated (SO), (II) IR, (III) IR + PAR (100 mg/kg), (IV) IR + PAR (100 mg/kg) + URB597; anandamide degradation inhibitor (0.3 mg/kg) and (V) IR + PAR (100 mg/kg) + AM4113; CB1 Blocker (5 mg/kg). All drugs were intraperitoneally administered at the inception of the reperfusion period. KEY FINDINGS: PAR administration alleviated the cognitive impairment in the Morris Water Maze as well as hippocampal histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of GFAP. The PAR signaling was associated with elevation of anandamide level, CB1 receptor expression and survival proteins as pS473-Akt. P(tyr202/thr204)-ERK1/2 and pS9-GSK3ß. Simultaneously, PAR increased hippocampal BDNF and ß-arrestin1 levels and decreased glutamate level. PAR restores the deranged redox milieu induced by IR Injury, by reducing lipid peroxides, myeloperoxidase activity and NF-κB and increasing NPSH, total antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide and Nrf2 levels. The pre-administration of AM4113 reversed PAR effects, while URB597 potentiated them. SIGNIFICANCE: PAR poses a significant neuroprotective effect which may be mediated, at least in part, via activation of anandamide/CB1/PI3K/Akt pathway in the IR rat model.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/pharmacology , Antipyretics/pharmacology , Benzamides/pharmacology , Carbamates/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/drug effects , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Amidohydrolases/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Arachidonic Acids/metabolism , Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Endocannabinoids/metabolism , Hippocampus/blood supply , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hippocampus/physiopathology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology
7.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(3): 758-766, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The combination of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir has shown preliminary efficacy for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in four open-label studies with small sample sizes. This larger trial aimed to assess if the addition of sofosbuvir/daclatasvir to standard care improved clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial in adults hospitalized with COVID-19 at 19 hospitals in Iran. Patients were randomized to oral sofosbuvir/daclatasvir 400/60 mg once-daily or placebo in addition to standard of care. Patients were included if they had positive PCR or diagnostic chest CT, O2 saturation <95% and compatible symptoms. The primary outcome was hospital discharge within 10 days of randomization. Secondary outcomes included mortality and time to clinical events. The trial is registered on the Iran Registry of Clinical Trials under IRCT20200624047908N1. RESULTS: Between July and October 2020, 1083 patients were randomized to either the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir arm (n = 541) or the placebo arm (n = 542). No significant difference was observed in the primary outcome of hospital discharge within 10 days, which was achieved by 415/541 (77%) in the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir arm and 411/542 (76%) in the placebo arm [risk ratio (RR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.95-1.08, P = 0.734]. In-hospital mortality was 60/541 (11%) in the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir arm versus 55/542 (10%) in the placebo arm (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.77-1.54, P = 0.615). No differences were observed in time to hospital discharge or time to in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We observed no significant effect of sofosbuvir/daclatasvir versus placebo on hospital discharge or survival in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sofosbuvir , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Carbamates , Humans , Imidazoles , Pyrrolidines , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Valine/analogs & derivatives
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6750-6759, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544329

ABSTRACT

Only a few treatments are approved for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infections, with continuous debate about their clinical impact. Repurposing antiviral treatments might prove the fastest way to identify effective therapy. This trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir (SOF) plus daclatasvir (DCV) or ravidasvir (RDV) added to standard care (SOC) for patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 infection. Multicentre parallel randomized controlled open-label trial. One hundred and twenty eligible patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 infection were randomized to one of the study arms. Ten days of treatment with SOF plus DCV or RDV in addition to the standard of care compared to SOC. Follow up in 7 days. Sum of the counted symptoms at 7 and 10 days, mean change in oxygen saturation level, viral negativity, and rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Compared to SOC, the SOF-DCV group experienced a significantly lower sum of the counted symptoms (fever, headache, generalized aches, or respiratory distress) combined with no evidence of deterioration (ICU admission and mechanical ventilation) on Days 7 and 10 of treatment. Oxygen saturation also significantly improved among the SOF-DCV group compared to SOC starting from Day 4. The study also showed positive trends regarding the efficacy of SOF-DCV with a lower incidence of mortality. On the other hand, adding SOF-RDV to SOC did not show significant improvements in endpoints. The results support the efficacy and safety of SOF-DCV as an add-on to SOC for the treatment of moderate to severe COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbamates/therapeutic use , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrrolidines/therapeutic use , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Valine/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Genotype , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Valine/therapeutic use
9.
Xenobiotica ; 52(2): 152-164, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541325

ABSTRACT

Emvododstat was identified as a potent inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and is now in clinical development for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia and COVID-19. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and drug interaction potentials of emvododstat.Emvododstat showed high binding to plasma protein with minimal distribution into blood cells in mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human whole blood.O-Demethylation followed by glucuronidation appeared to be the major metabolic pathway in rat, dog, monkey, and human hepatocytes. CYP2C8, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 were involved in O-desmethyl emvododstat metabolite formation. Both emvododstat and O-desmethyl emvododstat inhibited CYP2D6 activity and induced CYP expression to different extents in vitro.Emvododstat and O-desmethyl emvododstat inhibited BCRP transporter activity but did not inhibit bile salt transporters and other efflux or uptake transporters. Neither emvododstat nor O-desmethyl emvododstat was a substrate for common efflux or uptake transporters investigated.Emvododstat is bioavailable in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys following a single oral dose. The absorption was generally slow with the mean plasma Tmax ranging from 2 to 5 h; plasma exposure of O-desmethyl emvododstat was lower in rodents, but relatively higher in dogs and monkeys.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microsomes, Liver , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2/metabolism , Animals , Carbamates , Carbazoles , Dogs , Drug Interactions , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Rats
11.
Nursing ; 51(10): 18-29, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440656

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The second of a two-part series, this article describes eight recently approved drugs, including the first drug approved for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, a first-in-class HIV attachment inhibitor, and a new intravenous injection indicated for the treatment of acute pain in adults for whom other treatments are ineffective.


Subject(s)
Drug Approval , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amisulpride/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbamates/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Chlorophenols/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Fumarates/therapeutic use , Humans , Indans/therapeutic use , Organophosphates/therapeutic use , Oxadiazoles/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Spiro Compounds/therapeutic use , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Thiophenes/therapeutic use , Tromethamine/therapeutic use , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
12.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(8): 284, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397013

ABSTRACT

An aptasensor for electrochemical detection of carbendazim is reported with mulberry fruit-like gold nanocrystal (MF-Au)/multiple graphene aerogel (MGA) and DNA cycle amplification. HAuCl4 was reduced by ascorbic acid in a CTAC solution containing KBr and KI and formed trioctahedron gold nanocrystal. The gold nanocrystal underwent structural evolution under enantioselective direction of L-cysteine. The resulting MF-Au shows a mulberry fruit-like nanostructure composed of gold nanocrystals of about 200 nm as the core and many irregular gold nanoparticles of about 30 nm as the shell. The exposure of high-index facets improves the catalytic activity of MF-Au. MF-Au/MGA was used for the construction of an aptasensor for electrochemical detection of carbendazim. The aptamer hybridizes with assistant strand DNA to form duplex DNA. Carbendazim binds with the formed duplex DNA to release assistant strand DNA, triggering one three-cascade DNA cycle. The utilization of a DNA cycle allows one carbendazim molecule to bring many methylene blue-labeled DNA fragments to the electrode surface. This promotes significant signal amplification due to the redox reaction of methylene blue. The detection signal is further enhanced by the catalysis of MF-Au and MGA towards the redox of methylene blue. A differential pulse voltammetric signal, best measured at - 0.32 V vs. Ag/AgCl, increases linearly with the carbendazim concentration ranging from 1.0 × 10-16 to 1.0 × 10-11 M with a detection limit of 4.4 × 10-17 M. The method provides ultrahigh sensitivity and selectivity and was successfully applied to the electrochemical detection of carbendazim in cucumber. This study reports on an ultrasensitive aptasensor for electrochemical detection of carbendazim in cucumber based on mulberry fruit-like gold nanocrystal-multiple graphene aerogel and DNA cycle double amplification.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Benzimidazoles/analysis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Carbamates/analysis , DNA/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Benzimidazoles/chemistry , Carbamates/chemistry , Cysteine/chemistry , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Gels/chemistry , Gold/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry , Immobilized Nucleic Acids/chemistry , Limit of Detection , Methylene Blue/chemistry , Oxidation-Reduction
13.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 571: 26-31, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312941

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has necessitated expedited research efforts towards finding potential antiviral targets and drug development measures. While new drug discovery is time consuming, drug repurposing has been a promising area for elaborate virtual screening and identification of existing FDA approved drugs that could possibly be used for targeting against functions of various proteins of SARS-CoV-2 virus. RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is an important enzyme for the virus that mediates replication of the viral RNA. Inhibition of RdRp could inhibit viral RNA replication and thus new virus particle production. Here, we screened non-nucleoside antivirals and found three out of them to be strongest in binding to RdRp out of which two retained binding even using molecular dynamic simulations. We propose these two drugs as potential RdRp inhibitors which need further in-depth testing.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Amides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Carbamates/pharmacology , Catalytic Domain , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , Fluorenes/pharmacology , Humans , Lactams, Macrocyclic/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Proline/pharmacology , Protein Conformation , Quinoxalines/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
14.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(2): 291-295, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited experimental and clinical evidence suggests a potential role for sofosbuvir/daclatasvir in treating COVID19. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of generic sofosbuvir/daclatasvir in treating COVID-19 patients with pneumonia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This multicenter prospective study involved 174 patients with COVID-19. Patients were randomized into two groups. Group A (96 patients) received sofosbuvir (400 mg)/daclatasvir (60 mg) for 14 days in combination with conventional therapy. Group B (78 patients) received conventional therapy alone. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were collected at baseline, after 7, 14, and 28 days of therapy. Primary endpoint was rate of clinical/virological cure. RESULTS: A lower mortality rate was observed in group (A) (14% vs 21%, P = 0.07). After 1 month of therapy, no differences were found in rates of ICU admission, oxygen therapy, or ventilation. Additionally, a statistically significant shorter duration of hospital stay (9% vs 12%, P < 0.01) and a faster achievement of PCR negativity at day 14 (84% versus 47%, P < 0.01) were noticed in group (A). CONCLUSION: Adding sofosbuvir/daclatasvir to conventional therapy of COVID-19 is promising. Their use is associated with shorter hospital stay, faster PCR negativity and may be reduced mortality.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Carbamates , Imidazoles , Pyrrolidines , Sofosbuvir , Valine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Carbamates/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Egypt/epidemiology , Humans , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Length of Stay , Prospective Studies , Pyrrolidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Valine/therapeutic use
15.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(5): 767-775, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284232

ABSTRACT

Despite aggressive efforts on containment measures for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic around the world, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is continuously spreading. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an effective antiviral agent. To date, considerable research has been conducted to develop different approaches to COVID-19 therapy. In addition to early observational studies, which could be limited by study design, small sample size, non-randomized design, or different timings of treatment, an increasing number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the clinical efficacy and safety of antiviral agents are being carried out. This study reviews the updated findings of RCTs regarding the clinical efficacy of eight antiviral agents against COVID-19, including remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, sofosbuvir/daclatasvir, sofosbuvir/ledipasvir, baloxavir, umifenovir, darunavir/cobicistat, and their combinations. Treatment with remdesivir could accelerate clinical improvement; however, it lacked additional survival benefits. Moreover, 5-day regimen of remdesivir might show adequate effectiveness in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Favipiravir was only marginally effective regarding clinical improvement and virological assessment based on the results of small RCTs. The present evidence suggests that sofosbuvir/daclatasvir may improve survival and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. However, the sample sizes for analysis were relatively small, and all studies were exclusively conducted in Iran. Further larger RCTs in other countries are warranted to support these findings. In contrast, the present findings of limited RCTs did not indicate the use of lopinavir/ritonavir, sofosbuvir/ledipasvir, baloxavir, umifenovir, and darunavir/cobicistat in the treatment of patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/therapeutic use , Carbamates/therapeutic use , Cobicistat/therapeutic use , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Dibenzothiepins/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Indoles/therapeutic use , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Morpholines/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Pyrrolidines/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Triazines/therapeutic use , Valine/analogs & derivatives , Valine/therapeutic use
16.
Postgrad Med J ; 98(1161): 509-514, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262407

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of sofosbuvir/daclatasvir (SOF/DCV) on mortality, the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and clinical recovery in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search through the PubMed, Scopus and Embase from the inception of databases until 6 April 2021. The intervention group was SOF/DCV, and the control group was standard of care. The primary outcome was mortality, defined as clinically validated death. The secondary outcomes were (1) the need for ICU admission or IMV and (2) clinical recovery. The pooled effect estimates were reported as risk ratios (RRs). RESULTS: There were four studies with a total of 231 patients in this meta-analysis. Three studies were randomised controlled trial, and one study was non-randomised. SOF/DCV was associated with lower mortality (RR: 0.31 (0.12, 0.78); p=0.013; I2: 0%) and reduced need for ICU admission or IMV (RR: 0.35 (0.18, 0.69); p=0.002; I2: 0%). Clinical recovery was achieved more frequently in the SOF/DCV (RR: 1.20 (1.04, 1.37); p=0.011; I2: 21.1%). There was a moderate certainty of evidence for mortality and need for ICU/IMV outcome, and a low certainty of evidence for clinical recovery. The absolute risk reductions were 140 fewer per 1000 for mortality and 186 fewer per 1000 for the need for ICU/IMV. The increase in clinical recovery was 146 more per 1000. CONCLUSION: SOF/DCV may reduce mortality rate and need for ICU/IMV in patients with COVID-19 while increasing the chance for clinical recovery. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42021247510.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sofosbuvir , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbamates , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic , GRADE Approach , Humans , Imidazoles , Pyrrolidines , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Valine/analogs & derivatives
17.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(8): 2158-2167, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243491

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of patients experience asymptomatic to mild self-limited disease, but some cases progress to respiratory and multi-organ failure. However, so far, no approved antiviral therapy has been available for treatment of COVID-19. Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) is an approved anti-HCV drug that is capable of suppressing other families of positive-sense RNA viruses with conserved polymerase and may be effective against SARS-CoV-2. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the SOF/VEL combination in addition to the national standard of care versus the national standard of care alone (hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir as well as supportive care) in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This single-centre, randomized, open-labelled, prospective clinical trial was done in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 admitted to Farabi Hospital in Kermanshah Province, Iran. Eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to the SOF/VEL arm (SOF/VEL plus the national standard of care) or the control arm (the national standard of care alone). The main outcome of the study was the mortality on Day 28 after randomization. Secondary outcomes were time from the start of medication to clinical improvement, hospital length of stay, need for mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation and conversion of RT-PCR results from positive to negative from the time of randomization to discharge. Adverse events were evaluated in all patients who started their assigned treatment. RESULTS: Between 11 April and 8 June 2020, 80 patients were recruited and randomly assigned into the SOF/VEL (n = 40) and control (n = 40) arms. The primary outcome was not significantly different between the two arms (P = 1.00). Secondary outcomes, including time to clinical improvement, hospital length of stay, need for mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation and RT-PCR conversion, were not significantly different between arms either (P > 0.05). SOF/VEL treatment and the national standard of care were tolerated similarly. CONCLUSIONS: Although treatment with SOF/VEL was safe, adding SOF/VEL to the standard of care did not improve the clinical status or reduce mortality in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. However, larger randomized clinical trials including more parameters are needed for accurate estimation of the efficacy of SOF/VEL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sofosbuvir , Adult , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Carbamates , Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings , Humans , Iran , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir/adverse effects , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10290, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228274

ABSTRACT

As the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic engulfs millions worldwide, the quest for vaccines or drugs against the virus continues. The helicase protein of SARS-CoV-2 represents an attractive target for drug discovery since inhibition of helicase activity can suppress viral replication. Using in silico approaches, we have identified drugs that interact with SARS-CoV-2 helicase based on the presence of amino acid arrangements matching binding sites of drugs in previously annotated protein structures. The drugs exhibiting an RMSD of ≤ 3.0 Å were further analyzed using molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and post-MD analyses. Using these approaches, we found 12 drugs that showed strong interactions with SARS-CoV-2 helicase amino acids. The analyses were performed using the recently available SARS-CoV-2 helicase structure (PDB ID: 5RL6). Based on the MM-GBSA approach, out of the 12 drugs, two drugs, namely posaconazole and grazoprevir, showed the most favorable binding energy, - 54.8 and - 49.1 kcal/mol, respectively. Furthermore, of the amino acids found conserved among all human coronaviruses, 10/11 and 10/12 were targeted by, respectively, grazoprevir and posaconazole. These residues are part of the crucial DEAD-like helicase C and DEXXQc_Upf1-like/ DEAD-like helicase domains. Strong interactions of posaconazole and grazoprevir with conserved amino acids indicate that the drugs can be potent against SARS-CoV-2. Since the amino acids are conserved among the human coronaviruses, the virus is unlikely to develop resistance mutations against these drugs. Since these drugs are already in use, they may be immediately repurposed for SARS-CoV-2 therapy.


Subject(s)
Amides/pharmacology , Carbamates/pharmacology , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Quinoxalines/pharmacology , RNA Helicases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Domains/drug effects , RNA Helicases/chemistry , RNA Helicases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism
19.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(7): 1874-1885, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current approaches of drug repurposing against COVID-19 have not proven overwhelmingly successful and the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to cause major global mortality. SARS-CoV-2 nsp12, its RNA polymerase, shares homology in the nucleotide uptake channel with the HCV orthologue enzyme NS5B. Besides, HCV enzyme NS5A has pleiotropic activities, such as RNA binding, that are shared with various SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Thus, anti-HCV NS5B and NS5A inhibitors, like sofosbuvir and daclatasvir, respectively, could be endowed with anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero cells, HuH-7 cells, Calu-3 cells, neural stem cells and monocytes were used to investigate the effects of daclatasvir and sofosbuvir. In silico and cell-free based assays were performed with SARS-CoV-2 RNA and nsp12 to better comprehend the mechanism of inhibition of the investigated compounds. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was generated to estimate daclatasvir's dose and schedule to maximize the probability of success for COVID-19. RESULTS: Daclatasvir inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero, HuH-7 and Calu-3 cells, with potencies of 0.8, 0.6 and 1.1 µM, respectively. Although less potent than daclatasvir, sofosbuvir alone and combined with daclatasvir inhibited replication in Calu-3 cells. Sofosbuvir and daclatasvir prevented virus-induced neuronal apoptosis and release of cytokine storm-related inflammatory mediators, respectively. Sofosbuvir inhibited RNA synthesis by chain termination and daclatasvir targeted the folding of secondary RNA structures in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Concentrations required for partial daclatasvir in vitro activity are achieved in plasma at Cmax after administration of the approved dose to humans. CONCLUSIONS: Daclatasvir, alone or in combination with sofosbuvir, at higher doses than used against HCV, may be further fostered as an anti-COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Carbamates , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Imidazoles , Pyrrolidines , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir/pharmacology , Valine/analogs & derivatives , Vero Cells
20.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(4): 49e-52e, 2021 04.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194519

ABSTRACT

Combination treatment with BRAF plus MEK inhibitors is a standard of care in patients with BRAF-mutant advanced melanoma. In addition to dabrafenib+trametinib and vemurafenib+cobimetinib, a new combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors, encorafenib and binimetinib, was recently introduced into clinical practice. Encorafenib plus binimetinib achieved similar efficacy to that observed with previously available combinations, but incidence of some toxicities such as pyrexia and photosensitivity, which have a relevant impact on patients quality of life, is lower. In this article, the case of a patient who received encorafenib and binimetinib within the phase 3 trial COLUMBUS is presented and discussed, with a focus on the clinical management during the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
Benzimidazoles/administration & dosage , Carbamates/administration & dosage , Melanoma/drug therapy , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Aged , COVID-19 , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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