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N Engl J Med ; 386(14): 1327-1338, 2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778677


BACKGROUND: There is a need for oral antibiotic agents that are effective against multidrug-resistant gram-negative uropathogens. Tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide is an orally bioavailable carbapenem with activity against uropathogenic Enterobacterales, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. METHODS: In this phase 3, international, double-blind, double-dummy trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of orally administered tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide as compared with intravenous ertapenem in patients with complicated urinary tract infection or acute pyelonephritis. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive oral tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide (at a dose of 600 mg every 8 hours) or intravenous ertapenem (at a dose of 1 g every 24 hours) for 7 to 10 days (or up to 14 days in patients with bacteremia). The primary efficacy end point was overall response (a composite of clinical cure and favorable microbiologic response) at a test-of-cure visit (on day 19, within a ±2-day window) in the microbiologic intention-to-treat population. The noninferiority margin was 12.5%. RESULTS: A total of 1372 hospitalized adult patients were enrolled; 868 patients (63.3%) were included in the microbiologic intention-to-treat population (50.8% of whom had complicated urinary tract infections and 49.2% of whom had pyelonephritis). An overall response was seen in 264 of 449 patients (58.8%) who received tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide, as compared with 258 of 419 patients (61.6%) who received ertapenem (weighted difference, -3.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -9.7 to 3.2). Clinical cure at the test-of-cure visit was observed in 93.1% of the patients in the microbiologic intention-to-treat population who received tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide and 93.6% of patients who received ertapenem (weighted difference, -0.6 percentage point; 95% CI, -4.0 to 2.8); the majority of patients with microbiologic response failures at the test-of-cure visit were asymptomatic patients with recurrent bacteriuria. Secondary and subgroup analyses were supportive of the primary analysis. Adverse events were observed in 25.7% of patients who received tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide and in 25.6% of patients who received ertapenem; the most common adverse events were mild diarrhea and headache. CONCLUSIONS: Oral tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide was noninferior to intravenous ertapenem in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection and acute pyelonephritis and had a similar safety profile. (Funded by Spero Therapeutics and the Department of Health and Human Services; ADAPT-PO number, NCT03788967.).

Anti-Bacterial Agents , Carbapenems , Pyelonephritis , Urinary Tract Infections , Administration, Intravenous , Administration, Oral , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Carbapenems/administration & dosage , Carbapenems/adverse effects , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Ertapenem/administration & dosage , Ertapenem/adverse effects , Ertapenem/therapeutic use , Humans , Pyelonephritis/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534089


Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) infection can cause acute host reactions that lead to high-fatality sepsis, making it important to develop new therapeutic options. Previously, we developed a short 9-meric peptide, Pro9-3D, with significant antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. In this study, we attempted to produce safer peptide antibiotics against CRAB by reversing the parent sequence to generate R-Pro9-3 and R-Pro9-3D. Among the tested peptides, R-Pro9-3D had the most rapid and effective antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly clinical CRAB isolates. Analyses of antimicrobial mechanisms based on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-neutralization, LPS binding, and membrane depolarization, as well as SEM ultrastructural investigations, revealed that R-Pro9-3D binds strongly to LPS and impairs the membrane integrity of CRAB by effectively permeabilizing its outer membrane. R-Pro9-3D was also less cytotoxic and had better proteolytic stability than Pro9-3D and killed biofilm forming CRAB. As an LPS-neutralizing peptide, R-Pro9-3D effectively reduced LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in RAW 264.7 cells. The antiseptic abilities of R-Pro9-3D were also investigated using a mouse model of CRAB-induced sepsis, which revealed that R-Pro9-3D reduced multiple organ damage and attenuated systemic infection by acting as an antibacterial and immunosuppressive agent. Thus, R-Pro9-3D displays potential as a novel antiseptic peptide for treating Gram-negative CRAB infections.

Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Peptides/pharmacology , Acinetobacter Infections/genetics , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Carbapenems/adverse effects , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests