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1.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(5): 477-481, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak in the COVID intensive care unit of a community hospital was contained using multidrug resistant organism guidelines. The purpose of this study is to report on an outbreak investigation and containment strategy that was used, and to discuss prevention strategy. METHODS: A multidisciplinary approach contained the spread of infection. Strategies implemented included consultation with experts, screening, and reversal of personal protective equipment conservation. Ensuring infection control best practices are maintained remain important efforts to reduce the spread of multidrug resistant organisms. RESULTS: Five patients with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were identified from routine clinical cultures within one week and one patient was identified from active surveillance cultures. DISCUSSION: Personal protective equipment conservation, strategies to prevent health care personnel exposure, and patient surge staffing protocols may have increased the likelihood of multidrug resistant organism transmission. Environmental and behavioral infection control regulations with effective administrative guidance, active surveillance cultures, and antimicrobial stewardship are critical to prevent future outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: After outbreak containment strategies were implemented, no additional patients were identified with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Conventional infection prevention and control strategies were re-instituted. A multidisciplinary approach with continued focus on hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and correct use of personal protective equipment needs to be put in place to successfully contain and prevent the spread of carbapenem resistant infections.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/prevention & control , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Intensive Care Units
2.
N Engl J Med ; 386(14): 1327-1338, 2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a need for oral antibiotic agents that are effective against multidrug-resistant gram-negative uropathogens. Tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide is an orally bioavailable carbapenem with activity against uropathogenic Enterobacterales, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. METHODS: In this phase 3, international, double-blind, double-dummy trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of orally administered tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide as compared with intravenous ertapenem in patients with complicated urinary tract infection or acute pyelonephritis. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive oral tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide (at a dose of 600 mg every 8 hours) or intravenous ertapenem (at a dose of 1 g every 24 hours) for 7 to 10 days (or up to 14 days in patients with bacteremia). The primary efficacy end point was overall response (a composite of clinical cure and favorable microbiologic response) at a test-of-cure visit (on day 19, within a ±2-day window) in the microbiologic intention-to-treat population. The noninferiority margin was 12.5%. RESULTS: A total of 1372 hospitalized adult patients were enrolled; 868 patients (63.3%) were included in the microbiologic intention-to-treat population (50.8% of whom had complicated urinary tract infections and 49.2% of whom had pyelonephritis). An overall response was seen in 264 of 449 patients (58.8%) who received tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide, as compared with 258 of 419 patients (61.6%) who received ertapenem (weighted difference, -3.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -9.7 to 3.2). Clinical cure at the test-of-cure visit was observed in 93.1% of the patients in the microbiologic intention-to-treat population who received tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide and 93.6% of patients who received ertapenem (weighted difference, -0.6 percentage point; 95% CI, -4.0 to 2.8); the majority of patients with microbiologic response failures at the test-of-cure visit were asymptomatic patients with recurrent bacteriuria. Secondary and subgroup analyses were supportive of the primary analysis. Adverse events were observed in 25.7% of patients who received tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide and in 25.6% of patients who received ertapenem; the most common adverse events were mild diarrhea and headache. CONCLUSIONS: Oral tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide was noninferior to intravenous ertapenem in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection and acute pyelonephritis and had a similar safety profile. (Funded by Spero Therapeutics and the Department of Health and Human Services; ADAPT-PO ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03788967.).


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Carbapenems , Pyelonephritis , Urinary Tract Infections , Administration, Intravenous , Administration, Oral , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Carbapenems/administration & dosage , Carbapenems/adverse effects , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Ertapenem/administration & dosage , Ertapenem/adverse effects , Ertapenem/therapeutic use , Humans , Pyelonephritis/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology
3.
Am J Emerg Med ; 53: 284.e1-284.e3, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682857

ABSTRACT

Valproic acid (VPA) and derivatives are effective anticonvulsants that are also used for numerous mood disorders. VPA toxicity can cause central nervous system (CNS) depression, dose related hyperammonemia, and eventually hepatotoxicity. While traditional treatment of VPA toxicity often includes l-carnitine, activated charcoal, and hemodialysis; an interaction with carbapenem class antibiotics has been well established in literature and may offer a different avenue of treatment. This case describes a 38 year-old female with a past medical history of epilepsy effectively treated with meropenem to rapidly and safely lower toxic VPA levels after an acute ingestion. A review of four VPA poisoning case reports and the interaction with carbapenem class antibiotics is also included.


Subject(s)
Drug Overdose , Epilepsy , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Drug Overdose/therapy , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Valproic Acid
4.
Microb Drug Resist ; 27(9): 1167-1175, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406451

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the drivers of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection development in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on patient outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis on data from 32 consecutive patients with COVID-19, admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March to May 2020. Outcomes considered were MDR infection and ICU mortality. Results: Fifty percent of patients developed an MDR infection during ICU stay after a median time of 8 [4-11] days. Most common MDR pathogens were carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, causing bloodstream infections and pneumonia. MDR infections were linked to a higher length of ICU stay (p = 0.002), steroid therapy (p = 0.011), and associated with a lower ICU mortality (odds ratio: 0.439, 95% confidence interval: 0.251-0.763; p < 0.001). Low-dose aspirin intake was associated with both MDR infection (p = 0.043) and survival (p = 0.015). Among MDR patients, mortality was related with piperacillin-tazobactam use (p = 0.035) and an earlier onset of MDR infection (p = 0.042). Conclusions: MDR infections were a common complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients at our center. MDR risk was higher among those dwelling longer in the ICU and receiving steroids. However, MDR infections were not associated with a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Klebsiella Infections/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/virology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/virology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
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