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1.
Inflammopharmacology ; 31(1): 543-545, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248677
2.
ACS Chem Biol ; 17(5): 1239-1248, 2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805550

ABSTRACT

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major threat to human health, as the US mortality rate outweighs those from HIV, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis combined. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections acquired during hospital stays have increased. Antibiotic adjuvants are a key strategy to combat these bacteria. We have evaluated several small molecule antibiotic adjuvants that have strong potentiation with ß-lactam antibiotics and are likely inhibiting a master regulatory kinase, Stk1. Here, we investigated how the lead adjuvant (compound 8) exerts its effects in a more comprehensive manner. We hypothesized that the expression levels of key resistance genes would decrease once cotreated with oxacillin and the adjuvant. Furthermore, bioinformatic analyses would reveal biochemical pathways enriched in differentially expressed genes. RNA-seq analysis showed 176 and 233 genes significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, in response to cotreatment. Gene ontology categories and biochemical pathways that were significantly enriched with downregulated genes involved carbohydrate utilization, such as the citrate cycle and the phosphotransferase system. One of the most populated pathways was S. aureus infection. Results from an interaction network constructed with affected gene products supported the hypothesis that Stk1 is a target of compound 8. This study revealed a dramatic impact of our lead adjuvant on the transcriptome that is consistent with a pleiotropic effect due to Stk1 inhibition. These results point to this antibiotic adjuvant having potential broad therapeutic use in combatting MRSA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Staphylococcus aureus , Transcriptome
3.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 26(1): 13-28, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650476

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In COVID-19 pneumonia, there is a massive increase in fatty acid levels and lipid mediators with a predominance of cyclooxygenase metabolites, notably TxB2 ≫ PGE2 > PGD2 in the lungs, and 11-dehydro-TxB2, a TxA2 metabolite, in the systemic circulation. While TxA2 stimulates thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptors, 11-dehydro-TxB2 is a full agonist of DP2 (formerly known as the CRTh2) receptors for PGD2. Anecdotal experience of using ramatroban, a dual receptor antagonist of the TxA2/TP and PGD2/DP2 receptors, demonstrated rapid symptomatic relief from acute respiratory distress and hypoxemia while avoiding hospitalization. AREAS COVERED: Evidence supporting the role of TxA2/TP receptors and PGD2/DP2 receptors in causing rapidly progressive lung injury associated with hypoxemia, a maladaptive immune response and thromboinflammation is discussed. An innovative perspective on the dual antagonism of TxA2/TP and PGD2/DP2 receptor signaling as a therapeutic approach in COVID-19 is presented. This paper examines ramatroban an anti-platelet, immunomodulator, and antifibrotic agent for acute and long-haul COVID-19. EXPERT OPINION: Ramatroban, a dual blocker of TP and DP2 receptors, has demonstrated efficacy in animal models of respiratory dysfunction, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and sepsis, as well as preliminary evidence for rapid relief from dyspnea and hypoxemia in COVID-19 pneumonia. Ramatroban merits investigation as a promising antithrombotic and immunomodulatory agent for chemoprophylaxis and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thrombosis , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Chemoprevention , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
4.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576965

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteric coronavirus, causes neonatal pig acute gastrointestinal infection with a characterization of severe diarrhea, vomiting, high morbidity, and high mortality, resulting in tremendous damages to the swine industry. Neither specific antiviral drugs nor effective vaccines are available, posing a high priority to screen antiviral drugs. The aim of this study is to investigate anti-PEDV effects of carbazole alkaloid derivatives. Eighteen carbazole derivatives (No.1 to No.18) were synthesized, and No.5, No.7, and No.18 were identified to markedly reduce the replication of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) inserted-PEDV, and the mRNA level of PEDV N. Flow cytometry assay, coupled with CCK8 assay, confirmed No.7 and No.18 carbazole derivatives displayed high inhibition effects with low cell toxicity. Furthermore, time course analysis indicated No.7 and No.18 carbazole derivatives exerted inhibition at the early stage of the viral life cycle. Collectively, the analysis underlines the benefit of carbazole derivatives as potential inhibitors of PEDV, and provides candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Carbazoles/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Molecular Structure , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Xenobiotica ; 52(2): 152-164, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541325

ABSTRACT

Emvododstat was identified as a potent inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and is now in clinical development for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia and COVID-19. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and drug interaction potentials of emvododstat.Emvododstat showed high binding to plasma protein with minimal distribution into blood cells in mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human whole blood.O-Demethylation followed by glucuronidation appeared to be the major metabolic pathway in rat, dog, monkey, and human hepatocytes. CYP2C8, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 were involved in O-desmethyl emvododstat metabolite formation. Both emvododstat and O-desmethyl emvododstat inhibited CYP2D6 activity and induced CYP expression to different extents in vitro.Emvododstat and O-desmethyl emvododstat inhibited BCRP transporter activity but did not inhibit bile salt transporters and other efflux or uptake transporters. Neither emvododstat nor O-desmethyl emvododstat was a substrate for common efflux or uptake transporters investigated.Emvododstat is bioavailable in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys following a single oral dose. The absorption was generally slow with the mean plasma Tmax ranging from 2 to 5 h; plasma exposure of O-desmethyl emvododstat was lower in rodents, but relatively higher in dogs and monkeys.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microsomes, Liver , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2/metabolism , Animals , Carbamates , Carbazoles , Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase , Dogs , Drug Interactions , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Rats
6.
Antiviral Res ; 194: 105167, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370440

ABSTRACT

Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) receptor is an endosomal membrane protein that regulates intracellular cholesterol traffic. This protein has been shown to play an important role for several viruses. It has been reported that SARS-CoV-2 enters the cell through plasma membrane fusion and/or endosomal entry upon availability of proteases. However, the whole process is not fully understood yet and additional viral/host factors might be required for viral fusion and subsequent viral replication. Here, we report a novel interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein (N) and the cholesterol transporter NPC1. Furthermore, we have found that some compounds reported to interact with NPC1, carbazole SC816 and sulfides SC198 and SC073, were able to reduce SARS-CoV-2 viral infection with a good selectivity index in human cell infection models. These findings suggest the importance of NPC1 for SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and a new possible potential therapeutic target to fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Transport , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Endosomes/virology , Niemann-Pick C1 Protein/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endosomes/chemistry , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Membrane Fusion , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
7.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 27(7): 1810, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367652
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16629, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361646

ABSTRACT

Since understanding molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection is extremely important for developing effective therapies against COVID-19, we focused on the internalization mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 via ACE2. Although cigarette smoke is generally believed to be harmful to the pathogenesis of COVID-19, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) treatments were surprisingly found to suppress the expression of ACE2 in HepG2 cells. We thus tried to clarify the mechanism of CSE effects on expression of ACE2 in mammalian cells. Because RNA-seq analysis suggested that suppressive effects on ACE2 might be inversely correlated with induction of the genes regulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), the AHR agonists 6-formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ) and omeprazole (OMP) were tested to assess whether those treatments affected ACE2 expression. Both FICZ and OMP clearly suppressed ACE2 expression in a dose-dependent manner along with inducing CYP1A1. Knock-down experiments indicated a reduction of ACE2 by FICZ treatment in an AHR-dependent manner. Finally, treatments of AHR agonists inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection into Vero E6 cells as determined with immunoblotting analyses detecting SARS-CoV-2 specific nucleocapsid protein. We here demonstrate that treatment with AHR agonists, including FICZ, and OMP, decreases expression of ACE2 via AHR activation, resulting in suppression of SARS-CoV-2 infection in mammalian cells.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/agonists , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Omeprazole/pharmacology , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/agonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Omeprazole/therapeutic use , RNA-Seq , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects
9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 99: 108012, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330894

ABSTRACT

ALK targeting with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is a highly potent treatment option for the therapy of ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, pharmacokinetics of TKIs leads to clinically significant drug interactions, and the interfering co-medication may hamper the anti-cancer therapeutic management. Here, we present for the first time a drug interaction profile of ALK-TKIs, crizotinib and alectinib, and immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A in kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with ALK+ lung cancer. Based on therapeutic drug monitoring of cyclosporin A plasma level, the dose of cyclosporine A has been adjusted to achieve a safe and effective therapeutic level in terms of both cancer treatment and kidney transplant condition. Particularly, 15 years upon the kidney transplantation, the stage IV lung cancer patient was treated with the 1st-line chemotherapy, the 2nd-line ALK-TKI crizotinib followed by ALK-TKI alectinib. The successful therapy with ALK-TKIs has been continuing for more than 36 months, including the period when the patient was treated for COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia. Hence, the therapy of ALK+ NSCLC with ALK-TKIs in organ transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine A may be feasible and effective.


Subject(s)
Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Crizotinib/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Piperidines/pharmacology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/secondary , Drug Interactions , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
10.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 27(5): 1251-1254, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243778

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Serious Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2) has led to COVID 19 pandemic a year ago and it has not been globally taken under control yet. COVID 19 tends to have poorer prognosis in cancer patients. Additionally, we have no well-established guidelines for management of these patients during pandemic, in terms of treatment of 'cancer' and treatment of 'COVID 19'. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are given without any break in cancer patients to have better survival outcomes in daily routine. However, there is no well-established data to continue or delay ALK inhibitors in lung cancer patients infected with SARS-CoV2. Concomittant use of ALK inhibitors and COVID 19 antiviral treatment is a dilemma because of the lack of data in this area. CASE REPORT: A 47-year old female metastatic ALK positive nonsquamous cell lung cancer patient on alectinib, a second generation ALK inhibitor was diagnosed with symptomatic COVID 19. She was given favipiravir for COVID 19 while continuing alectinib.Management and outcome: The patient continued alectinib during COVID 19 antiviral treatment without any break. She tolerated 'concomittant' alectinib & favipiravir. She had partial remission after three months of alectinib without any dose adjustment despite active COVID 19 medication. DISCUSSION: To best of our knowledge, this is the first case who continued alectinib without dose adjustment during antiviral COVID-19 medication without clinically worsening. There is limited data about 'concomittant' use of TKIs and antiviral COVID 19 medication in the literature. There are some case reports, but they generally tended to delay or suspend TKIs during COVID 19 antiviral medication. Our case differs from them in terms of continuation of alectinib without any break or additional side effects during favipiravir for symptomatic COVID 19. We consider that our case might contribute to the literature in terms of management of cancer patients on targeted therapy during COVID 19 antiviral treatment. However, clinical trials are needed in this area.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Carbazoles/administration & dosage , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
12.
Virus Res ; 292: 198246, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974719

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created an urgent need for therapeutics that inhibit the SARS-COV-2 virus and suppress the fulminant inflammation characteristic of advanced illness. Here, we describe the anti-COVID-19 potential of PTC299, an orally bioavailable compound that is a potent inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), the rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. In tissue culture, PTC299 manifests robust, dose-dependent, and DHODH-dependent inhibition of SARS-COV-2 replication (EC50 range, 2.0-31.6 nM) with a selectivity index >3,800. PTC299 also blocked replication of other RNA viruses, including Ebola virus. Consistent with known DHODH requirements for immunomodulatory cytokine production, PTC299 inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A (also called IL-17), IL-17 F, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tissue culture models. The combination of anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, cytokine inhibitory activity, and previously established favorable pharmacokinetic and human safety profiles render PTC299 a promising therapeutic for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Carbamates/pharmacology , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/immunology , Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase , HeLa Cells , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/virology , Vero Cells , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
13.
Eur J Cancer ; 138: 109-112, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739806
14.
J Mol Graph Model ; 100: 107697, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665694

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a membrane-bound zinc metallopeptidase that generates the vasodilatory peptide angiotensin 1-7 and thus performs a protective role in heart disease. It is considered an important therapeutic target in controlling the COVID-19 outbreak, since SARS-CoV-2 enters permissive cells via an ACE2-mediated mechanism. The present in silico study attempted to repurpose existing drugs for use as prospective viral-entry inhibitors targeting human ACE2. Initially, a clinically approved drug library of 7,173 ligands was screened against the receptor using molecular docking, followed by energy minimization and rescoring of docked ligands. Finally, potential binders were inspected to ensure molecules with different scaffolds were engaged in favorable contacts with both the metal cofactor and the critical residues lining the receptor's active site. The results of the calculations suggest that lividomycin, burixafor, quisinostat, fluprofylline, pemetrexed, spirofylline, edotecarin, and diniprofylline emerge as promising repositionable drug candidates for stabilizing the closed (substrate/inhibitor-bound) conformation of ACE2, thereby shifting the relative positions of the receptor's critical exterior residues recognized by SARS-CoV-2. This study is among the rare ones in the relevant scientific literature to search for potential ACE2 inhibitors. In practical terms, the drugs, unmodified as they are, may be introduced into the therapeutic armamentarium of the ongoing fight against COVID-19 now, or their scaffolds may serve as rich skeletons for designing novel ACE2 inhibitors in the near future.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Amino Acid Motifs , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , COVID-19 , Carbazoles/chemistry , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Repositioning , Dyphylline/analogs & derivatives , Dyphylline/chemistry , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hydroxamic Acids/chemistry , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Paromomycin/analogs & derivatives , Paromomycin/chemistry , Pemetrexed/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thermodynamics
15.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110122, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663829

ABSTRACT

A characteristic feature of COVID-19 disease is lymphopenia. Lymphopenia occurs early in the clinical course and is a predictor of disease severity and outcomes. The mechanism of lymphopenia in COVID-19 is uncertain. It has been variously attributed to the release of inflammatory cytokines including IL-6 and TNF-α; direct infection of the lymphocytes by the virus; and rapid sequestration of lymphocytes in the tissues. Additionally, we postulate that prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is a key meditator of lymphopenia in COVID-19. First, SARS-CoV infection is known to stimulate the production of PGD2 in the airways, which inhibits the host dendritic cell response via the DP1 receptor signaling. Second, PGD2 is known to upregulate monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) via the DP2 receptor signaling in group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2). We propose targeting PGD2/DP2 signaling using a receptor antagonist such as ramatroban as an immunotherapy for immune dysfunction and lymphopenia in COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Lymphopenia/physiopathology , Models, Immunological , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prostaglandin D2/physiology , Respiratory System/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19 , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Humans , Lymphopenia/etiology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Prostaglandin D2/biosynthesis , Receptors, Immunologic/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Receptors, Prostaglandin/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Prostaglandin/metabolism , Receptors, Prostaglandin/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Thromboxane A2/antagonists & inhibitors
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-382045

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2019 and its rapid spread worldwide, the scientific community has been under pressure to react and make progress in the development of an effective treatment against the virus responsible for the disease. Here, we implement an original virtual screening (VS) protocol for repositioning approved drugs in order to predict which of them could inhibit the main protease of the virus (M-pro), a key target for antiviral drugs given its essential role in the virus' replication. Two different libraries of approved drugs were docked against the structure of M-pro using Glide, FRED and AutoDock Vina, and only the equivalent high affinity binding modes predicted simultaneously by the three docking programs were considered to correspond to bioactive poses. In this way, we took advantage of the three sampling algorithms to generate hypothetic binding modes without relying on a single scoring function to rank the results. Seven possible SARS-CoV-2 M-pro inhibitors were predicted using this approach: Perampanel, Carprofen, Celecoxib, Alprazolam, Trovafloxacin, Sarafloxacin and ethyl biscoumacetate. Carprofen and Celecoxib have been selected by the COVID Moonshot initiative for in vitro testing; they show 3.97 and 11.90% M-pro inhibition at 50 µM, respectively.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Subtilisins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Carbazoles/chemistry , Carbazoles/metabolism , Celecoxib/chemistry , Celecoxib/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mutation, Missense , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2 , Subtilisins/genetics , Subtilisins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
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