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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792708

ABSTRACT

Geogenic and anthropogenic sources of atmospheric particulate and CO2 can lead to threats to human health in volcanic areas. Although the volcanic CO2 hazard is a topic frequently debated in the related scientific literature, space and time distribution of PM2.5 are poorly known. The results of combined CO2/PM2.5 surveys, carried out at Salina, Stromboli, and Vulcano islands (Aeolian archipelago, Italy) in the years 2020-2021, and integrated with investigations on bioaccumulation of metallic particulate matter by the mean of data on the magnetic properties of oleander leaves, are presented in this work. The retrieved results indicate that no significant anthropogenic sources for both CO2 and PM2.5 are active in these islands, at the net of a minor contribution due to vehicular traffic. Conversely, increments in volcanic activity, as the unrest experienced by Vulcano island since the second half of 2021, pose serious threats to human health, due to the near-ground accumulation of CO2, and the presence of suspended micro-droplets of condensed hydrothermal vapor, fostering the diffusion of atmophile viruses, such as the COVID-19. Gas hazard conditions can be generated, not only by volcanic vents or fumarolic fields, but also by unconventional sources, such as the outgassing from shallow hydrothermal aquifers through drilled or hand-carved wells.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Groundwater , Air Pollution/analysis , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Humans , Italy , Particulate Matter
2.
Eval Rev ; 46(3): 266-295, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775061

ABSTRACT

This study attempts to explore the causal linkage of the COVID-19 pandemic, economic policy uncertainty, geopolitical risk, and tourism arrivals in the United States taking data from January to November 2020. In order to analyze the above relationship, this study uses a novel time-varying granger causality test developed by Shi et al. (2018), which incorporates its three causality algorithms such as forward recursive causality, rolling causality, and recursive evolving causality. The findings from forward recursive causality could not confirm any significant causal relationship between COVID-19 and tourism, geopolitical risk (GPR) and tourism, economic policy uncertainty and tourism, and geopolitical risk and COVID-19 but found causality between economic policy uncertainty and COVID-19. The rolling window causality reported bidirectional causality between COVID-19 and tourism and unidirectional causality running from tourism to geopolitical risk. However, the recursive evolving causality identified a significant bidirectional causal relationship between all the variables. Based on the findings, policy implications for the tourism sector are provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Economic Development , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , Uncertainty , United States/epidemiology
3.
Environ Pollut ; 304: 119210, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763722

ABSTRACT

Cities constitute an important source of greenhouse gases, but few results originating from long-term, direct CO2 emission monitoring efforts have been reported. In this study, CO2 emissions were quasi-continuously measured in an urban center in Sakai, Osaka, Japan by the eddy covariance method from 2010 to 2021. Long-term CO2 emissions reached 22.2 ± 2.0 kg CO2 m-2 yr-1 from 2010 to 2019 (± denotes the standard deviation) in the western sector from the tower representing the densely built-up area. Throughout the decade, the annual CO2 emissions remained stable. According to an emission inventory, traffic emissions represented the major source of CO2 emissions within the flux footprint. The interannual variations in the annual CO2 flux were positively correlated with the mean annual traffic counts at two highway entrances and exits. The CO2 emissions decreased suddenly, by 32% ± 3.1%, in April and May 2020 during the period in which the first state of emergency associated with COVID-19 was declared. The annual CO2 emissions also decreased by 25% ± 3.1% in 2020. Direct long-term observations of CO2 emissions comprise a useful tool to monitor future emission reductions and sudden disruptions in emissions, such as those beginning in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732012

ABSTRACT

Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, guaranteeing thermal comfort and low CO2 levels in classrooms through efficient ventilation has become vitally important. This study presents three-dimensional simulations based on computational fluid dynamics of airflow inside an air-conditioned classroom located in Veracruz, Mexico. The analysis included various positions of an air extractor, Reynolds numbers up to 3.5 × 104, four different concentrations of pollutant sources, and three different times of the day. The simulations produced velocity, air temperature, and CO2 concentrations fields, and we calculated average air temperatures, average CO2 concentrations, and overall ventilation effectiveness. Our results revealed an optimal extractor position and Reynolds number conducive to thermal comfort and low CO2 levels due to an adequate ventilation configuration. At high pollutant concentrations, it is necessary to reduce the number of students in the classroom to achieve safe CO2 levels.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1165, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730283

ABSTRACT

The EU emissions trading system's (ETS) invalidation rule implies that shocks and overlapping policies can change cumulative carbon emissions. This paper explains these mechanisms and simulates the effect of COVID-19, the European Green Deal, and the recovery stimulus package on cumulative EU ETS emissions and allowance prices. Our results indicate that the negative demand shock of the pandemic should have a limited effect on allowance prices and rather translates into lower cumulative carbon emissions. Aligning EU ETS with the 2030 reduction target of -55% might increase allowance prices to 45-94 €/ton CO2 today and reduce cumulative carbon emissions to 14.2-18.3 GtCO2 compared to 23.5-33.1 GtCO2 under a -40% 2030 reduction target. Our results crucially depend on when the waterbed will be sealed again, which is an endogenous market outcome, driven by the EU ETS design, shocks and overlapping climate policies such as the recovery plan.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Conservation of Energy Resources/methods , Air Pollution/economics , Air Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Conservation of Energy Resources/economics , Conservation of Energy Resources/legislation & jurisprudence , Environment , Environmental Policy , European Union , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3473, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721582

ABSTRACT

China's carbon peak greatly impacts global climate targets. Limited studies have comprehensively analyzed the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic, changing emission network, and recent carbon intensity (CI) reduction on the carbon peak and the corresponding mitigation implications. Using a unique dataset at different levels, we project China's CO2 emission by 2035 and analyze the time, volume, driver patterns, complex emission network, and policy implications of China's carbon peak in the post- pandemic era. We develop an ensemble time-series model with machine learning approaches as the projection benchmark, and show that China's carbon peak will be achieved by 2021-2026 with > 80% probability. Most Chinese cities and counties have not achieved carbon peaks response to the priority-peak policy and the current implementation of CI reduction should thus be strengthened. While there is a "trade off" between the application of carbon emission reduction technology and economic recovery in the post-pandemic era, a close cooperation of interprovincial CO2 emission is also warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Climate Change , Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods , Pandemics , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674637

ABSTRACT

CO2 emissions and debt accumulation are twin threats to sustainable development. To fill the gap that few studies can untangle the reasons behind CO2 emissions from the debt perspective, we illustrate debt can cause CO2 emissions through various channels. We then examined how debt-based drivers impact emission trajectories. We use the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method to decompose the emission changes into five factors. We make decomposition analyses between different country groups to identify their respective characteristics. Further, to investigate the potential financial crisis impacts, we consider the full period 2001-2019 and two sub-periods (pre- and post-2008). The results show that the gross domestic product (GDP) is always the biggest contributor to emissions, whose effect on advanced economies saw a bigger decrease after 2008 than that on emerging economies. Debt-GDP is second only to GDP in contributing to emissions. It has a similar impact on emissions before and after 2008 for advanced economies, while it rockets after 2008 for emerging economies. Private debt financing of fossil fuels is the prominent inhibitor for both economies, especially for emerging economies. It has a stronger mitigation impact after 2008 than before for emerging economies, while has the opposite change for advanced economies. Debt structure and fossil CO2 intensity have relatively smaller effects on emissions. The crisis is an opportunity to promote low-carbon development. Since the COVID-19 pandemic is analogous to the 2008 crisis in terms of debt level and emission change, we provide recommendations for emission mitigation in the post-pandemic context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Economic Development , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , China , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Environ Res ; 205: 112451, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654404

ABSTRACT

Measurements of CO2 and counting of occupants were carried out in 37 public bus trips during commuting rush hours in Barcelona (NE Spain) with the aim of evaluating parameters governing ventilation inside the vehicles and proposing actions to improve it. The results show that CO2 concentrations (1039 and 934 ± 386 ppm, as average and median, during rush hours but with average reduced occupancy due to the fair to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the measurement period, and measured in the middle of the busses) are in the lower range of values recorded in the literature for public buses, however an improvement in ventilation is required in a significant proportion of the journeys. Thus, we found better ventilation in the older Euro 3+ (retrofitted with filter traps and selective catalytic reduction) and Euro 5 buses (average 918 ± 257 ppm) than in the hermetically closed new Euro 6 ones (1111 ± 432 ppm). The opening of the windows in the older buses yielded higher ventilation rates (778 ± 432 ppm). The opening of all doors at all stops increases the ventilation by causing a fall in concentrations of 200-350 ppm below inter-stop concentrations, with this effect typically lasting 40-50 s in the hermetically closed new Euro 6 hybrid buses. Based on these results a number of recommendations are offered in order to improve ventilation, including measurement of CO2 and occupancy, and installation of ventilation fans on the top of the hermetically closed new buses, introducing outdoor air when a given concentration threshold is exceeded. In these cases, a CO2 sensor installed in the outdoor air intake is also recommended to take into account external CO2 contributions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Humans , Motor Vehicles , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation , Ventilation
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(4): 2153-2162, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655411

ABSTRACT

The Paris metropolitan area, the largest urban region in the European Union, has experienced two national COVID-19 confinements in 2020 with different levels of restrictions on mobility and economic activity, which caused reductions in CO2 emissions. To quantify the timing and magnitude of daily emission reductions during the two lockdowns, we used continuous atmospheric CO2 monitoring, a new high-resolution near-real-time emission inventory, and an atmospheric Bayesian inverse model. The atmospheric inversion estimated the changes in fossil fuel CO2 emissions over the Greater Paris region during the two lockdowns, in comparison with the same periods in 2018 and 2019. It shows decreases by 42-53% during the first lockdown with stringent measures and by only 20% during the second lockdown when traffic reduction was weaker. Both lockdown emission reductions are mainly due to decreases in traffic. These results are consistent with independent estimates based on activity data made by the city environmental agency. We also show that unusual persistent anticyclonic weather patterns with north-easterly winds that prevailed at the start of the first lockdown period contributed a substantial drop in measured CO2 concentration enhancements over Paris, superimposed on the reduction of urban CO2 emissions. We conclude that atmospheric CO2 monitoring makes it possible to identify significant emission changes (>20%) at subannual time scales over an urban region.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Bayes Theorem , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Paris , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 72, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616984

ABSTRACT

The use of facemasks by the general population is recommended worldwide to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Despite the evidence in favour of facemasks to reduce community transmission, there is also agreement on the potential adverse effects of their prolonged usage, mainly caused by CO2 rebreathing. Herein we report the development of a sensing platform for gaseous CO2 real-time determination inside FFP2 facemasks. The system consists of an opto-chemical sensor combined with a flexible, battery-less, near-field-enabled tag with resolution and limit of detection of 103 and 140 ppm respectively, and sensor lifetime of 8 h, which is comparable with recommended FFP2 facemask usage times. We include a custom smartphone application for wireless powering, data processing, alert management, results displaying and sharing. Through performance tests during daily activity and exercise monitoring, we demonstrate its utility for non-invasive, wearable health assessment and its potential applicability for preclinical research and diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Masks , Personal Protective Equipment , Wearable Electronic Devices , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Design , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
11.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 240: 113910, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587645

ABSTRACT

Current evidence and recent publications have led to the recognition that aerosol-borne transmission of COVID-19 is possible in indoor areas such as educational centers. A crucial measure to reduce the risk of infection in high occupancy indoors is ventilation. In this global pandemic context of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, a study has been carried out with the main objective of analyzing the effects of natural ventilation conditions through windows on indoor air quality and thermal comfort during on-site examinations in higher education centers during the winter season, as this implies situations of unusual occupation and the impossibility in many cases of taking breaks or leaving classrooms, as well as the existence of unfavorable outdoor weather conditions in terms of low temperatures. For this purpose, in situ measurements of the environmental variables were taken during different evaluation tests. As the main results of the study, ventilation conditions were generally adequate in all the tests carried out, regardless of the ventilation strategy used, with average CO2 concentration levels of between 450 and 670 ppm. The maximum CO2 concentration value recorded in one of the tests was 808 ppm. On this basis, the limit for category IDA 2 buildings, corresponding to educational establishments, was not exceeded in any case. However, these measures affected the thermal comfort of the occupants, especially when the outside temperature was below 6 °C, with a dissatisfaction rate of between 25 and 72%. Examinations carried out with outside temperatures above 12 °C were conducted in acceptable comfort conditions regardless of outside air supply and classroom occupancy. In these cases, the dissatisfaction rate was less than 10%. The results obtained have made it possible to establish strategies for ventilation in the implementation of future exams, depending on the climatic conditions outside.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Ventilation
12.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(2): 229-232, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536409

ABSTRACT

Poorly ventilated indoor spaces pose a risk for airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We measured carbon dioxide levels in a multiple areas in an acute care hospital to assess the adequacy of ventilation. Carbon dioxide levels remained below 800 parts per million in most areas but exceeded this level in a small conference room with 8 occupants, an office with 3 occupants, and a bathroom with 2 occupants. Measuring carbon dioxide levels could provide a simple means for healthcare facilities to assess the adequacy of ventilation.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilation
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 751, 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491264

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have reported that CO2 emissions have decreased because of global lockdown during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, previous estimates of the global CO2 concentration before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic are limited because they are based on energy consumption statistics or local specific in-situ observations. The aim of the study was to explore objective evidence for various previous studies that have claimed the global CO2 concentration decreased during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. There are two ways to measure the global CO2 concentration: from the top-down using satellites and the bottom-up using ground stations. We implemented the time-series analysis by comparing the before and after the inflection point (first wave of COVID-19) with the long-term CO2 concentration data obtained from World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO GAW) and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). Measurements from the GOSAT and GAW global monitoring stations show that the CO2 concentrations in Europe, China, and the USA have continuously risen in March and April 2020 compared with the same months in 2019. These data confirm that the global lockdown during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic did not change the vertical CO2 profile at the global level from the ground surface to the upper layer of the atmosphere. The results of this study provide an important foundation for the international community to explore policy directions to mitigate climate change in the upcoming post-COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbon Dioxide , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151349, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ventilation has emerged as an important strategy to reduce indoor aerosol transmission of coronavirus disease 2019. Indoor air carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are a surrogate measure of respiratory pathogen transmission risk. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether CO2 monitors are necessary and effective to improve ventilation in hospitals. METHODS: A randomized, placebo (sham)-controlled, crossover, open label trial. Between February and May 2021, we placed CO2 monitors in twelve double-bed patient rooms across two geriatric wards. Staff were instructed to open windows, increase the air exchange rate and reduce room crowding to maintain indoor air CO2 concentrations ≤800 parts per million (ppm). RESULTS: CO2 levels increased during morning care and especially in rooms housing couples (rooming-in). The median (interquartile range, IQR) time/day with CO2 concentration > 800 ppm (primary outcome) was 110 min (IQR 47-207) at baseline, 82 min (IQR 12-226.5) during sham periods, 78 min (IQR 20-154) during intervention periods and 140 min (IQR 19.5-612.5) post-intervention. The intervention period only differed significantly from the post-intervention period (P = 0.02), mainly due to an imbalance in rooming-in. Significant but small differences were observed in secondary outcomes of time/day with CO2 concentrations > 1000 ppm and daily peak CO2 concentrations during the intervention vs. baseline and vs. the post-intervention period, but not vs. sham. Staff reported cold discomfort for patients as the main barrier towards increasing ventilation. DISCUSSION: Indoor air CO2 concentrations in hospital rooms commonly peaked above recommended levels, especially during morning care and rooming-in. There are many possible barriers towards implementing CO2 monitors to improve ventilation in a real-world hospital setting. A paradigm shift in hospital infection control towards adequate ventilation is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04770597.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Aged , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Cross-Over Studies , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilation
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1694, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for the betterment of health status, while also considering health expenditure, energy, and environmental issues. This paper examines the nexus between health status and health expenditure (both public and private), energy consumption and environmental pollution in the SAARC-BIMSTEC region. METHODS: We utilized the panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, the heterogeneous panel causality test, the cross sectional dependence test, the cointegration test and the Pesaran cross sectional dependent (CADF) unit root test for obtaining estimated results from data over 16 years (2002-2017). RESULTS: Our results authorize the cointegration among the variables used, where the coefficients of energy consumption, public and private health expenditures, and economic growth are 0.027, 0.014, 0.030, and 0.029, respectively, and indicating positive and statistically significant effects. The coefficient of environmental pollution is - 0.085, implying significant negative effect on the health status of these regions in the long-run. However, no panel wise significant impact is found in the short-run. Bidirectional and unidirectional causal links between the studied variables and the health status are also identified.. CONCLUSIONS: The improved health status in the SAARC-BIMSTEC region needs to be protected by articulating the effective policies. The attained results are theoretically and empirically consistent, and have important policy implications in the health sector.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Expenditures , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Economic Development , Energy Metabolism , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Health Status , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(12): 17530-17543, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474081

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a highly transmitted disease that spreads all over the globe in a short period. Environmental pollutants are considered one of the carriers to spread the COVID-19 pandemic through health damages. Carbon emissions, PM2.5 emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, GHG, and other GHG emissions are mainly judged separately in the earlier studies in different economic settings. The study hypothesizes that environmental pollutants adversely affect healthcare outcomes, likely to infected people by contagious diseases, including coronavirus cases. The subject matter is vital to analyze the preventive healthcare theory by using different environmental pollutants on the COVID-19 factors: total infected cases, total death cases, and case fatality ratio, in a large cross-section of 119 countries. The study employed the generalized least square (GLS) method for robust inferences. The results show that GHG and CO2 emissions are critical factors likely to increase total coronavirus cases and death rates. On the other hand, nitrous oxide, carbon, and transport emissions increase the case fatality ratio through healthcare damages. The study concludes that stringent environmental policies and improving healthcare infrastructure can control coronavirus cases across countries.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Nitrous Oxide/analysis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150349, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415771

ABSTRACT

The global outburst of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has posed severe challenges to human health, environment, energy and economy all over the world. The stringent measures to control the spread of COVID-19 results a significant slowdown in economic activities which in turn affected the environment by reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, specifically lower atmospheric CO2 levels. Considering that, the present study intends to highlight the substantial impact of COVID-19 pandemic on GHG emissions, by systematically reviewing the available scientific literatures. The study further outlined the variation in GHG emissions by comparing the data focused on pre-pandemic, during pandemic, and post-pandemic (predictions) scenarios. Further, the assessment on elevating CO2 levels, global economic, and energy impacts of COVID-19 has also been reviewed. Also, the possible recovery plan for the framework of sustainable environmental and energy development is presented. Finally, the review concludes with an insightful summary involving the challenges and future outlook towards sustainable development goals in a hope that the present study can help the researchers to assess the global environmental and energy related consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Greenhouse Gases , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Greenhouse Effect , Greenhouse Gases/analysis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409607

ABSTRACT

Lockdown measures to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in the plummeting of China's overall electric-power demand and production. To date, power generation remains one of the largest carbon dioxide (CO2) emitting sectors of China on account of its high carbon intensity. Within this context, our study seeks to measure the impacts of COVID-19 lockdown on the electricity-power related carbon footprints on both generation and consumption sides. Built on statistical data of electricity generation and consumption released by the National Bureau of Statistics of China (NBSC), we calculate he nationwide electricity related CO2 emission changes in regional, economic-sectoral and technological dimensions during January-April 2020, when the strictest lock-down measures were taken in China and compare the results with the same months of the year prior. Our results show that both east and central China power grids witnessed drastic reduction (15.0% and 13.8%) in electricity-generation caused CO2 emissions; and the biggest falls of provincial-scale electricity-generation CO2 emission took place in Hubei (27.3%). Among China's electricity production mix, coal remains the biggest CO2 emitter and contributed 95.7% of the overall nationwide reduction. The most significant decline of the nationwide consumptive-electricity carbon footprint was by 10.1% in February, with the secondary economic sector the biggest contributor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , China , Coal , Communicable Disease Control , Electricity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409570

ABSTRACT

The experimental monitoring of carbon dioxide concentration was carried out in kindergartens in Slovenia, together with indoor air temperature and relative humidity, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the research was to estimate the practical impact of the pandemic on indoor air quality and thermal comfort. The case study sample included buildings with different architectural typology, which are predominantly present in the building stock of Slovenia. The monitoring process lasted for 125 days before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results have shown a better indoor air quality in kindergartens during the pandemic, mostly due to ventilation protocols and almost imperceptibly changed indoor air temperature. The COVID-19 pandemic affected air quality in kindergarten classrooms in Slovenia by reducing the average carbon dioxide concentration when children were present in classrooms by 30%.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Slovenia , Temperature , Ventilation
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