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1.
Artif Organs ; 45(12): 1522-1532, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526346

ABSTRACT

Disturbed oxygenation is foremost the leading clinical presentation in COVID-19 patients. However, a small proportion also develop carbon dioxide removal problems. The Advanced Organ Support (ADVOS) therapy (ADVITOS GmbH, Munich, Germany) uses a less invasive approach by combining extracorporeal CO2 -removal and multiple organ support for the liver and the kidneys in a single hemodialysis device. The aim of our study is to evaluate the ADVOS system as treatment option in-COVID-19 patients with multi-organ failure and carbon dioxide removal problems. COVID-19 patients suffering from severe respiratory insufficiency, receiving at least two treatments with the ADVOS multi system (ADVITOS GmbH, Munich, Germany), were eligible for study inclusion. Briefly, these included patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) according to KDIGO guidelines, and moderate or severe ARDS according to the Berlin definition, who were on invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 72 hours. In total, nine COVID-19 patients (137 ADVOS treatment sessions with a median of 10 treatments per patient) with moderate to severe ARDS and carbon dioxide removal problems were analyzed. During the ADVOS treatments, a rapid correction of acid-base balance and a continuous CO2 removal could be observed. We observed a median continuous CO2 removal of 49.2 mL/min (IQR: 26.9-72.3 mL/min) with some treatments achieving up to 160 mL/min. The CO2 removal significantly correlated with blood flow (Pearson 0.421; P < .001), PaCO2 (0.341, P < .001) and HCO 3 - levels (0.568, P < .001) at the start of the treatment. The continuous treatment led to a significant reduction in PaCO2 from baseline to the last ADVOS treatment. In conclusion, it was feasible to remove CO2 using the ADVOS system in our cohort of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure. This efficient removal of CO2 was achieved at blood flows up to 300 mL/min using a conventional hemodialysis catheter and without a membrane lung or a gas phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Extracorporeal Circulation/instrumentation , Lung/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Renal Dialysis/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Circulation/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
2.
JAMA ; 326(11): 1013-1023, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441906

ABSTRACT

Importance: In patients who require mechanical ventilation for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, further reduction in tidal volumes, compared with conventional low tidal volume ventilation, may improve outcomes. Objective: To determine whether lower tidal volume mechanical ventilation using extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal improves outcomes in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, randomized, allocation-concealed, open-label, pragmatic clinical trial enrolled 412 adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, of a planned sample size of 1120, between May 2016 and December 2019 from 51 intensive care units in the UK. Follow-up ended on March 11, 2020. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive lower tidal volume ventilation facilitated by extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal for at least 48 hours (n = 202) or standard care with conventional low tidal volume ventilation (n = 210). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality 90 days after randomization. Prespecified secondary outcomes included ventilator-free days at day 28 and adverse event rates. Results: Among 412 patients who were randomized (mean age, 59 years; 143 [35%] women), 405 (98%) completed the trial. The trial was stopped early because of futility and feasibility following recommendations from the data monitoring and ethics committee. The 90-day mortality rate was 41.5% in the lower tidal volume ventilation with extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal group vs 39.5% in the standard care group (risk ratio, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.83-1.33]; difference, 2.0% [95% CI, -7.6% to 11.5%]; P = .68). There were significantly fewer mean ventilator-free days in the extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal group compared with the standard care group (7.1 [95% CI, 5.9-8.3] vs 9.2 [95% CI, 7.9-10.4] days; mean difference, -2.1 [95% CI, -3.8 to -0.3]; P = .02). Serious adverse events were reported for 62 patients (31%) in the extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal group and 18 (9%) in the standard care group, including intracranial hemorrhage in 9 patients (4.5%) vs 0 (0%) and bleeding at other sites in 6 (3.0%) vs 1 (0.5%) in the extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal group vs the control group. Overall, 21 patients experienced 22 serious adverse events related to the study device. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, the use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal to facilitate lower tidal volume mechanical ventilation, compared with conventional low tidal volume mechanical ventilation, did not significantly reduce 90-day mortality. However, due to early termination, the study may have been underpowered to detect a clinically important difference. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02654327.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide/blood , Extracorporeal Circulation , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Extracorporeal Circulation/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Tidal Volume
3.
Artif Organs ; 45(12): 1522-1532, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429491

ABSTRACT

Disturbed oxygenation is foremost the leading clinical presentation in COVID-19 patients. However, a small proportion also develop carbon dioxide removal problems. The Advanced Organ Support (ADVOS) therapy (ADVITOS GmbH, Munich, Germany) uses a less invasive approach by combining extracorporeal CO2 -removal and multiple organ support for the liver and the kidneys in a single hemodialysis device. The aim of our study is to evaluate the ADVOS system as treatment option in-COVID-19 patients with multi-organ failure and carbon dioxide removal problems. COVID-19 patients suffering from severe respiratory insufficiency, receiving at least two treatments with the ADVOS multi system (ADVITOS GmbH, Munich, Germany), were eligible for study inclusion. Briefly, these included patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) according to KDIGO guidelines, and moderate or severe ARDS according to the Berlin definition, who were on invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 72 hours. In total, nine COVID-19 patients (137 ADVOS treatment sessions with a median of 10 treatments per patient) with moderate to severe ARDS and carbon dioxide removal problems were analyzed. During the ADVOS treatments, a rapid correction of acid-base balance and a continuous CO2 removal could be observed. We observed a median continuous CO2 removal of 49.2 mL/min (IQR: 26.9-72.3 mL/min) with some treatments achieving up to 160 mL/min. The CO2 removal significantly correlated with blood flow (Pearson 0.421; P < .001), PaCO2 (0.341, P < .001) and HCO 3 - levels (0.568, P < .001) at the start of the treatment. The continuous treatment led to a significant reduction in PaCO2 from baseline to the last ADVOS treatment. In conclusion, it was feasible to remove CO2 using the ADVOS system in our cohort of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure. This efficient removal of CO2 was achieved at blood flows up to 300 mL/min using a conventional hemodialysis catheter and without a membrane lung or a gas phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Extracorporeal Circulation/instrumentation , Lung/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Renal Dialysis/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Circulation/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Emerg Med J ; 38(7): 361-363, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376518

ABSTRACT

A short cut review was carried out to establish the diagnostic characteristics of alveolar dead space fraction (AVDSf) in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). This is calculated from the arterial and end-tidal CO2 Three papers were selected to answer the clinical question. The author, study type, relevant outcomes, results and weaknesses are tabulated. It is concluded that there is good evidence to support the use of AVDSf within a clinical prediction model to exclude a PE in patients when there is a low pretest probability. However, the specificity is not sufficient to support it as a 'rule in' test.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Capnography/methods , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Capnography/instrumentation , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Chest Pain/etiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology
5.
Emerg Med J ; 38(7): 361-363, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280440

ABSTRACT

A short cut review was carried out to establish the diagnostic characteristics of alveolar dead space fraction (AVDSf) in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). This is calculated from the arterial and end-tidal CO2 Three papers were selected to answer the clinical question. The author, study type, relevant outcomes, results and weaknesses are tabulated. It is concluded that there is good evidence to support the use of AVDSf within a clinical prediction model to exclude a PE in patients when there is a low pretest probability. However, the specificity is not sufficient to support it as a 'rule in' test.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Capnography/methods , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Capnography/instrumentation , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Chest Pain/etiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology
6.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1230-1235, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254219

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Covid-19 is a contagious disease, and it is characterised by different symptoms such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Rising concerns about Covid-19 have severely affected the healthcare system in all countries as the Covid-19 outbreak has developed at a rapid rate all around the globe. Intriguing, a clinically used drug, acetazolamide (a specific inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, CA, EC 4.2.1.1), is used to treat high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE), showing a high degree of clinical similarities with the pulmonary disease caused by Covid-19. In this context, this preliminary study aims to provide insights into some factors affecting the Covid-19 patients, such as hypoxaemia, hypoxia as well as the blood CA activity. We hypothesise that patients with Covid-19 problems could show a dysregulated acid-base status influenced by CA activity. These preliminary results suggest that the use of CA inhibitors as a pharmacological treatment for Covid-19 may be beneficial.


Subject(s)
Acetazolamide/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Carbonic Anhydrases/blood , Acid-Base Equilibrium/drug effects , Altitude Sickness/blood , Altitude Sickness/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Bicarbonates/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Cough/blood , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/pathology , Cough/virology , Drug Repositioning , Dyspnea/blood , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/pathology , Dyspnea/virology , Fever/blood , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/pathology , Fever/virology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypertension, Pulmonary/blood , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Oximetry , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 811-819, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217484

ABSTRACT

The temporal change patterns of laboratory data may provide insightful clues into the whole course of COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate longitudinal change patterns of key laboratory tests in patients with COVID-19, and identify independent prognostic factors by examining the associations between laboratory findings and outcomes of patients. This multicenter study included 56 patients with COVID-19 treated in Jilin Province, China, from January 21, 2020 to March 5, 2020. The laboratory findings, epidemiological characteristics and demographic data were extracted from electronic medical records. The average value of eosinophils and carbon dioxide combining power continued to significantly increase, while the average value of cardiac troponin I and mean platelet volume decreased throughout the course of the disease. The average value of lymphocytes approached the lower limit of the reference interval for the first 5 days and then rose slowly thereafter. The average value of thrombocytocrit peaked on day 7 and slowly declined thereafter. The average value of mean corpuscular volume and serum sodium showed an upward trend from day 8 and day 15, respectively. Age, sex, lactate dehydrogenase, platelet count and globulin level were included in the final model to predict the probability of recovery. The above parameters were verified in 24 patients with COVID-19 in another area of Jilin Province. The risk stratification and management of patients with COVID-19 could be improved according to the temporal trajectories of laboratory tests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Dioxide/blood , China/epidemiology , Female , Globulins/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Troponin I/blood
8.
Front Public Health ; 8: 596168, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055005

ABSTRACT

Background: Six months since the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the pandemic continues to grow worldwide, although the outbreak in Wuhan, the worst-hit area, has been controlled. Thus, based on the clinical experience in Wuhan, we hypothesized that there is a relationship between the patient's CO2 levels and prognosis. Methods: COVID-19 patients' information was retrospectively collected from medical records at the Leishenshan Hospital, Wuhan. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were conducted to determine the correlation between decreased CO2 levels and disease severity or mortality risk. The Kaplan-Meier curve analysis was coupled with the log-rank test to understand COVID-19 progression in patients with decreased CO2 levels. Curve fitting was used to confirm the correlation between computed tomography scores and CO2 levels. Results: Cox regression analysis showed that the mortality risk of COVID-19 patients correlated with decreased CO2 levels. The adjusted hazard ratios for decreased CO2 levels in COVID-19 patients were 8.710 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.773-27.365, P < 0.001], and 4.754 (95% CI: 1.380-16.370, P = 0.013). The adjusted odds ratio was 0.950 (95% CI: 0.431-2.094, P = 0.900). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated that patients with decreased CO2 levels had a higher risk of mortality. Conclusions: Decreased CO2 levels increased the mortality risk of COVID-19 patients, which might be caused by hyperventilation during mechanical ventilation. This finding provides important insights for clinical treatment recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Hyperventilation/diagnosis , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Chemical Analysis , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hyperventilation/etiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Br J Haematol ; 191(3): 390-393, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841214

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present with hypoxaemia and are mechanically ventilated to support gas exchange. We performed a retrospective, observational study of blood gas analyses (n = 3518) obtained from patients with COVID-19 to investigate changes in haemoglobin oxygen (Hb-O2 ) affinity. Calculated oxygen tension at half-saturation (p50 ) was on average (±SD) 3·3 (3·13) mmHg lower than the normal p50 value (23·4 vs. 26·7 mmHg; P < 0·0001). Compared to an unmatched historic control of patients with other causes of severe respiratory failure, patients with COVID-19 had a significantly higher Hb-O2 affinity (mean [SD] p50 23·4 [3·13] vs. 24·6 [5.4] mmHg; P < 0·0001). We hypothesise that, due to the long disease process, acclimatisation to hypoxaemia could play a role.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Oxyhemoglobins/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Dyspnea/blood , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Cardiovascular , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics , Partial Pressure , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Artif Organs ; 44(4): 288-294, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799349

ABSTRACT

A substantial part of COVID-19-patients suffers from multi-organ failure (MOF). We report on an 80-year old patient with pulmonary, renal, circulatory, and hepatic failure. We decided against the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to old age and a SOFA-score of 13. However, the patient was continuously treated with the extracorporeal multi-organ- "ADVanced Organ Support" (ADVOS) device (ADVITOS GmbH, Munich, Germany). During eight 24h-treatment-sessions blood flow (100-300 mL/min), dialysate flow (160-320 mL/min) and dialysate pH (7.6-9.0) were adapted to optimize arterial PaCO2 and pH. Effective CO2 removal and correction of acidosis could be demonstrated by mean arterial- versus post-dialyzer values of pCO2 (68.7 ± 13.8 vs. 26.9 ± 11.6 mmHg; p < 0.001). The CO2-elimination rate was 48 ± 23mL/min. The initial vasopressor requirement could be reduced in parallel to pH-normalization. Interruptions of ADVOS-treatment repeatedly resulted in reversible deteriorations of paCO2 and pH. After 95 h of continuous extracorporeal decarboxylating therapy the patient had markedly improved circulatory parameters compared to baseline. In the context of secondary pulmonary infection and progressive liver failure, the patient had a sudden cardiac arrest. In accordance with the presumed patient will, we decided against mechanical resuscitation. Irrespective of the outcome we conclude that extracorporeal CO2 removal and multiorgan-support were feasible in this COVID-19-patient. Combined and less invasive approaches such as ADVOS might be considered in old-age-COVID-19 patients with MOF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Circulation/methods , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/blood
13.
Respir Care ; 66(2): 263-268, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ratio of end-tidal CO2 pressure to arterial partial pressure of CO2 ([Formula: see text]) was recently suggested for monitoring pulmonary gas exchange in patients with ARDS associated with COVID-19, yet no evidence was offered supporting that claim. Therefore, we evaluated whether [Formula: see text] might be relevant in assessing ARDS not associated with COVID-19. METHODS: We evaluated the correspondence between [Formula: see text] and the ratio of dead space to tidal volume (VD/VT) measured in 561 subjects with ARDS from a previous study in whom [Formula: see text] data were also available. Subjects also were analyzed according to 4 ranges of [Formula: see text] representing increasing illness severity (≥ 0.80, 0.6-0.79, 0.50-0.59, and < 0.50). Correlation was assessed by either Pearson or Spearman tests, grouped comparisons were assessed using either ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests and dichotomous variables assessed by Fisher Exact tests. Normally distributed data are presented as mean and standard deviation(SD) and non-normal data are presented as median and inter-quartile range (IQR). Overall mortality risk was assessed with multivariate logistic regression. Alpha was set at 0.05. RESULTS: [Formula: see text] correlated strongly with VD/VT (r = -0.87 [95% CI -0.89 to -0.85], P < .001). Decreasing [Formula: see text] was associated with increased VD/VT and hospital mortality between all groups. In the univariate analysis, for every 0.01 decrease in [Formula: see text], mortality risk increased by ∼1% (odds ratio 0.009, 95% CI 0.003-0.029, P < .001) and maintained a strong independent association with mortality risk when adjusted for other variables (odds ratio 0.19, 95% CI 0.04-0.91, P = .039). [Formula: see text] < 0.50 was characterized by very high mean ± SD value for VD/VT (0.82 ± 0.05, P < .001) and high hospital mortality (70%). CONCLUSIONS: Using [Formula: see text] as a surrogate for VD/VT may be a useful and practical measurement for both management and ongoing research into the nature of ARDS.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide/blood , Respiratory Dead Space , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Arterial Pressure , COVID-19 , Humans , Partial Pressure , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Tidal Volume
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110002, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610333

ABSTRACT

Straying away from a sedentary lifestyle is essential, especially in these troubled times of a global pandemic to reverse the ill effects associated with the health risks as mentioned earlier. In the view of anticipated effects on immune system and prevention against influenza and Covid-19, globally moderate to vigorous exercises are advocated wearing protective equipment such as facemasks. Though WHO supports facemasks only for Covid-19 patients, healthy "social exercisers" too exercise strenuously with customized facemasks or N95 which hypothesized to pose more significant health risks and tax various physiological systems especially pulmonary, circulatory and immune systems. Exercising with facemasks may reduce available Oxygen and increase air trapping preventing substantial carbon dioxide exchange. The hypercapnic hypoxia may potentially increase acidic environment, cardiac overload, anaerobic metabolism and renal overload, which may substantially aggravate the underlying pathology of established chronic diseases. Further contrary to the earlier thought, no evidence exists to claim the facemasks during exercise offer additional protection from the droplet transfer of the virus. Hence, we recommend social distancing is better than facemasks during exercise and optimal utilization rather than exploitation of facemasks during exercise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise , Hypercapnia/etiology , Hypoxia/etiology , Masks/adverse effects , Pulmonary Ventilation , Air Microbiology , Anaerobiosis , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Exercise/physiology , Guidelines as Topic , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Hypercapnia/blood , Hypercapnia/immunology , Hypercapnia/physiopathology , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/immunology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen Consumption , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , World Health Organization
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