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1.
Ann Surg ; 275(5): 933-939, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a modified CAL-WR. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The use of segmental colectomy in patients with endoscopically unresectable colonic lesions results in significant morbidity and mortality. CAL-WR is an alternative procedure that may reduce morbidity. METHODS: This prospective multicenter study was performed in 13 Dutch hospitals between January 2017 and December 2019. Inclusion criteria were (1) colonic lesions inaccessible using current endoscopic resection techniques (judged by an expert panel), (2) non-lifting residual/recurrent adenomatous tissue after previous polypectomy or (3) an undetermined resection margin after endoscopic removal of a low-risk pathological T1 (pT1) colon carcinoma. Thirty-day morbidity, technical success rate and radicality were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 118 patients included (56% male, mean age 66 years, standard deviation ± 8 years), 66 (56%) had complex lesions unsuitable for endoscopic removal, 34 (29%) had non-lifting residual/recurrent adenoma after previous polypectomy and 18 (15%) had uncertain resection margins after polypectomy of a pT1 colon carcinoma. CAL-WR was technically successful in 93% and R0 resection was achieved in 91% of patients. Minor complications (Clavien-Dindo i-ii) were noted in 7 patients (6%) and an additional oncologic segmental resection was performed in 12 cases (11%). Residual tissue at the scar was observed in 5% of patients during endoscopic follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: CAL-WR is an effective, organ-preserving approach that results in minor complications and circumvents the need for major surgery. CAL-WR, therefore, deserves consideration when endoscopic excision of circumscribed lesions is impossible or incomplete.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Carcinoma , Colonic Neoplasms , Colonic Polyps , Laparoscopy , Aged , Carcinoma/surgery , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Colonic Polyps/pathology , Colonic Polyps/surgery , Colonoscopy/methods , Female , Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Male , Margins of Excision , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
3.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 486, 2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817267

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Metastases to the female genital tract from extragenital primary tumors are unusual. We report a rare case of uterine cervix metastasis from colon adenocarcinoma and discuss diagnostic and therapeutic issues. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 38-year-old North African Caucasian woman treated for a non-metastatic colon adenocarcinoma. She had a sigmoidectomy and incomplete adjuvant chemotherapy. Six months later, she consulted with vaginal bleeding caused by a cervical tumor, which was confirmed to be metastatic disease, and the patient underwent decompressive and hemostatic radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Uterine cervix metastasis from primary colon adenocarcinoma is rare. The resection remains the standard protocol for the local treatment of resectable metastatic disease. Otherwise, systemic therapy is the preferable option.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma , Colonic Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Adult , Colonic Neoplasms/therapy , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy
4.
Virol J ; 19(1): 76, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic caused by the emerging virus SARS-CoV-2, research in the field of coronaviruses has expanded tremendously. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly acquired numerous mutations, giving rise to several Variants of Concern (VOCs) with altered epidemiological, immunological, and pathogenic properties. METHODS: As cell culture models are important tools to study viruses, we investigated replication kinetics and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in the African Green Monkey-derived Vero E6 kidney cell line and the two human cell lines Caco-2, a colon epithelial carcinoma cell line, and the airway epithelial carcinoma cell line Calu-3. We assessed viral RNA copy numbers and infectivity of viral particles in cell culture supernatants at different time points ranging from 2 to 96 h post-infection. RESULTS: We here describe a systematic comparison of growth kinetics of the five SARS-CoV-2 VOCs Alpha/B.1.1.7, Beta/B.1.351, Gamma/P.1, Delta/B.1.617.2, and Omicron/B.1.1.529 and a non-VOC/B.1.1 strain on three different cell lines to provide profound information on the differential behaviour of VOCs in different cell lines for researchers worldwide. We show distinct differences in viral replication kinetics of the SARS-CoV-2 non-VOC and five VOCs on the three cell culture models Vero E6, Caco-2, and Calu-3. CONCLUSION: This is the first systematic comparison of all SARS-CoV-2 VOCs on three different cell culture models. This data provides support for researchers worldwide in their experimental design for work on SARS-CoV-2. It is recommended to perform virus isolation and propagation on Vero E6 while infection studies or drug screening and antibody-based assays should rather be conducted on the human cell lines Caco-2 and Calu-3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Culture Techniques , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Kinetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Cytopathology ; 33(1): 23-38, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799272

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide but recent years have seen a rapidly rising proportion of cases of advanced non-small cell carcinoma amenable to increasingly targeted therapy, initially based on the differential response to systemic treatment of tumours of squamous or glandular differentiation. In two-thirds of the cases, where patients present with advanced disease, both primary pathological diagnosis and biomarker testing is based on small biopsies and cytopathological specimens. The framework of this article is an overview of the technical aspect of each stage of the specimen pathway with emphasis on maximising potential for success when using small cytology samples. It brings together the current literature addressing pre-analytical and analytical aspects of specimen acquisition, performing rapid onsite evaluation, and undertaking diagnostic and predictive testing using immunocytochemistry and molecular platforms. The advantages and drawbacks of performing analysis on cell block and non-cell block specimen preparations is discussed.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Carcinoma , Lung Neoplasms , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
6.
Eur Radiol ; 32(8): 5752-5758, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729285

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency of ipsilateral axillary adenopathy on breast MRI after COVID-19 vaccination. To investigate the duration, outcomes, and associated variables of vaccine-related adenopathy. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, our database was queried for patients who underwent breast MRI following COVID-19 vaccination from January 22, 2021, to March 21, 2021. The frequency of ipsilateral axillary adenopathy and possible associated variables were evaluated, including age, personal history of ipsilateral breast cancer, clinical indication for breast MRI, type of vaccine, side of vaccination, number of doses, and number of days between the vaccine and the MRI exam. The outcomes of the adenopathy were investigated, including the duration of adenopathy and biopsy results. RESULTS: A total of 357 patients were included. The frequency of adenopathy on breast MRI was 29% (104/357 patients). Younger patients and shorter time intervals from the second dose of the vaccine were significantly associated with the development of adenopathy (p = 0.002 for both). Most adenopathy resolved or decreased on follow-up, with 11% of patients presenting persistence of adenopathy up to 64 days after the second dose of the vaccine. Metastatic axillary carcinoma was diagnosed in three patients; all three had a current ipsilateral breast cancer diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine-related adenopathy is a frequent event after COVID-19 vaccination; short-term follow-up is an appropriate clinical approach, except in patients with current ipsilateral breast cancer. Adenopathy may often persist 4-8 weeks after the second dose of the vaccine, thus favoring longer follow-up periods. KEY POINTS: • MRI-detected ipsilateral axillary adenopathy is a frequent benign finding after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. • Axillary adenopathy following COVID-19 vaccination often persists > 4 weeks after vaccination, favoring longer follow-up periods. • In patients with concurrent ipsilateral breast cancer, axillary adenopathy can represent metastatic carcinoma and follow-up is not appropriate.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Carcinoma , Lymphadenopathy , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/epidemiology , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
Gynecol Oncol ; 164(2): 304-310, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite significant increase in COVID-19 publications, characterization of COVID-19 infection in patients with gynecologic cancer remains limited. Here we present an update of COVID-19 outcomes among people with gynecologic cancer in New York City (NYC) during the initial surge of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]). METHODS: Data were abstracted from gynecologic oncology patients with COVID-19 infection among 8 NYC area hospital systems between March and June 2020. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate associations between factors and COVID-19 related hospitalization and mortality. RESULTS: Of 193 patients with gynecologic cancer and COVID-19, the median age at diagnosis was 65.0 years (interquartile range (IQR), 53.0-73.0 years). One hundred six of the 193 patients (54.9%) required hospitalization; among the hospitalized patients, 13 (12.3%) required invasive mechanical ventilation, 39 (36.8%) required ICU admission. Half of the cohort (49.2%) had not received anti-cancer treatment prior to COVID-19 diagnosis. No patients requiring mechanical ventilation survived. Thirty-four of 193 (17.6%) patients died of COVID-19 complications. In multivariable analysis, hospitalization was associated with an age ≥ 65 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11, 4.07), Black race (OR 2.53, CI 1.24, 5.32), performance status ≥2 (OR 3.67, CI 1.25, 13.55) and ≥ 3 comorbidities (OR 2.00, CI 1.05, 3.84). Only former or current history of smoking (OR 2.75, CI 1.21, 6.22) was associated with death due to COVID-19 in multivariable analysis. Administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy within 90 days of COVID-19 diagnosis was not predictive of COVID-19 hospitalization (OR 0.83, CI 0.41, 1.68) or mortality (OR 1.56, CI 0.67, 3.53). CONCLUSIONS: The case fatality rate among patients with gynecologic malignancy with COVID-19 infection was 17.6%. Cancer-directed therapy was not associated with an increased risk of mortality related to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Carcinoma/complications , Carcinoma/mortality , Genital Neoplasms, Female/complications , Genital Neoplasms, Female/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Carcinoma/therapy , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/therapy , Humans , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Chest ; 160(6): e645-e650, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544869

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old man with a history of childhood asthma, a 15-pack-year smoking history, and methamphetamine abuse was intubated and started on mechanical ventilation because of acute hypoxic respiratory failure after experiencing progressive dyspnea and a nonproductive cough over the previous year. During the previous 3 months, he had multiple clinic visits, with chest radiographs showing diffuse, bilateral, reticulonodular opacities and small bilateral pleural effusions and was treated for community-acquired pneumonia. Testing for COVID pneumonia was negative, and he failed to respond to antimicrobial therapy. Physical examination on admission showed diffuse fine crackles bilaterally on lung auscultation. Admission laboratory test results were unremarkable.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Carcinoma/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lymphangitis/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/secondary , Adult , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Carcinoma/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphangitis/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 15330338211035037, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oncotype Dx (ODx) is a genomic assay which estimates the risk of distant recurrence and predicts adjuvant chemotherapy benefit in early stage breast cancer patients. Most ODx data is derived from excisional specimens. AIM: We assess the utility of ODx on core needle biopsies (CNB) and measure its impact on neoadjuvant treatment decisions, particularly in patients with clinically complicated situations. METHODS: Consecutive ODx results on breast CNBs with invasive carcinoma from 2012-2020 at 3 tertiary care hospitals with dedicated Breast Health Centers were reviewed. Clinical indications to perform ODx on CNB were recorded through a review of patients' electronic medical records. Clinicopathologic features, surgical or oncologic modalities and follow-up data were recorded. RESULTS: Three distinct clinical indications for performing ODx on CNB in 85 ER+ invasive breast carcinomas were identified: 1) Excisions with insufficient tissue to perform ODx, 2) adjudicate neoadjuvant therapy versus primary surgical resection, and 3) select neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) versus neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET). Primary surgery was selected in patients with low score RS (<18), and NET was preferred in patients with intermediate or high RS (>18). NET was preferred over NAC in patients with low RS (<18). CONCLUSION: This study shows that CNB ODx RS helps guide treatment decisions in a neoadjuvant setting along with other contributing factors such as the presence of pathogenic mutations, node positivity, patient age, and comorbidities. The use of ODx on CNB is furthermore valuable in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic for early breast cancer patients to administer effective therapy in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms, Male/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/diagnosis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms, Male/pathology , Carcinoma , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology , Combined Modality Therapy , Electronic Health Records , Female , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Genomics , Hormones/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Medical Oncology , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
15.
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(4): e1009041, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231262

ABSTRACT

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous γ-herpesvirus with latent and lytic cycles. EBV replicates in the stratified epithelium but the nasopharynx is also composed of pseudostratified epithelium with distinct cell types. Latent infection is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, we show with nasopharyngeal conditionally reprogrammed cells cultured at the air-liquid interface that pseudostratified epithelial cells are susceptible to EBV infection. Donors varied in susceptibility to de novo EBV infection, but susceptible cultures also displayed differences with respect to pathogenesis. The cultures from one donor yielded lytic infection but cells from two other donors were positive for EBV-encoded EBERs and negative for other lytic infection markers. All cultures stained positive for the pseudostratified markers CK7, MUC5AC, α-tubulin in cilia, and the EBV epithelial cell receptor Ephrin receptor A2. To define EBV transcriptional programs by cell type and to elucidate latent/lytic infection-differential changes, we performed single cell RNA-sequencing on one EBV-infected culture that resulted in alignment with many EBV transcripts. EBV transcripts represented a small portion of the total transcriptome (~0.17%). All cell types in the pseudostratified epithelium had detectable EBV transcripts with suprabasal cells showing the highest number of reads aligning to many EBV genes. Several restriction factors (IRF1, MX1, STAT1, C18orf25) known to limit lytic infection were expressed at lower levels in the lytic subcluster. A third of the differentially-expressed genes in NPC tumors compared to an uninfected pseudostratified ALI culture overlapped with the differentially-expressed genes in the latent subcluster. A third of these commonly perturbed genes were specific to EBV infection and changed in the same direction. Collectively, these findings suggest that the pseudostratified epithelium could harbor EBV infection and that the pseudostratified infection model mirrors many of the transcriptional changes imposed by EBV infection in NPC.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/virology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/virology , Carcinoma/metabolism , Carcinoma/virology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelium/metabolism , Epithelium/virology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/metabolism , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 4, Human/pathogenicity , Humans , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics
17.
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127561

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a 57-year-old woman diagnosed with stage 4 sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung who concurrently developed a scalp lesion, thought to be a cyst, which continued to grow and ulcerate. Excision revealed a rare case, only four previously reported in the literature, of metastatic sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung. While a very unusual case, we would like to emphasise the importance of considering skin metastases when presented with unusual skin lesions, and importantly listening to the patient's concerns, showing empathy and respecting their autonomy and referring to an appropriate specialist when considering the management of what may seem to be a minor skin report.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma , Lung Neoplasms , Skin Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Lung , Middle Aged
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