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1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 15(1): 100, 2023 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection can be more complex and severe in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as compared to other cancers. This is due to several factors, including pre-existing conditions such as viral hepatitis and cirrhosis, which are commonly associated with HCC. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of epigenomics in SARS-CoV-2 infection and HCC patients, and identified common pathogenic mechanisms using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and other analyses. Hub genes were identified and analyzed using LASSO regression. Additionally, drug candidates and their binding modes to key macromolecular targets of COVID-19 were identified using molecular docking. RESULTS: The epigenomic analysis of the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and HCC patients revealed that the co-pathogenesis was closely linked to immune response, particularly T cell differentiation, regulation of T cell activation and monocyte differentiation. Further analysis indicated that CD4+ T cells and monocytes play essential roles in the immunoreaction triggered by both conditions. The expression levels of hub genes MYLK2, FAM83D, STC2, CCDC112, EPHX4 and MMP1 were strongly correlated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and the prognosis of HCC patients. In our study, mefloquine and thioridazine were identified as potential therapeutic agents for COVID-19 in combined with HCC. CONCLUSIONS: In this research, we conducted an epigenomics analysis to identify common pathogenetic processes between SARS-CoV-2 infection and HCC patients, providing new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of HCC patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , DNA Methylation , Molecular Docking Simulation , Microtubule-Associated Proteins , Cell Cycle Proteins , Epoxide Hydrolases
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9308, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238512

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the outcome of patients on the liver transplantation (LT) waitlist in 2020 in France, in particular, the incidence of deaths and delisting for worsening condition, depending on the allocation score component. The 2020 cohort of patients on the waiting list was compared with the 2018/2019 cohorts. 2020 saw fewer LTs than in either 2019 or 2018 (1128, 1356, and 1325, respectively), together with fewer actual brain dead donors (1355, 1729, and 1743). In 2020, deaths or delisting for worsening condition increased significantly versus 2018/2019 (subdistribution hazard ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.7), after adjustment for age, place of care, diabetes, blood type, and score component, although COVID-19-related mortality was low. This increased risk mainly concerned patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.90), with 650 MELD exception points (2.19, 95% CI 1.08-4.43), and especially those without HCC and MELD scores from 25 to 30 (3.36 [95% CI 1.82-6.18]). In conclusion, by significantly decreasing LT activity in 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic increased the number of waitlist deaths and delisting for worsening condition, and significantly more for particular components of the score, including intermediate severity cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , End Stage Liver Disease , Liver Neoplasms , Liver Transplantation , Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/etiology , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/etiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Int J Biol Sci ; 19(8): 2613-2629, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322821

ABSTRACT

Aerobic glycolysis has pleiotropic roles in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Emerging studies revealed key promoters of aerobic glycolysis, however, little is known about its negative regulators in HCC. In this study, an integrative analysis identifies a repertoire of differentially expressed genes (DNASE1L3, SLC22A1, ACE2, CES3, CCL14, GYS2, ADH4, and CFHR3) that are inversely associated with the glycolytic phenotype in HCC. ACE2, a member of the rennin-angiotensin system, is revealed to be downregulated in HCC and predicts a poor prognosis. ACE2 overexpression significantly inhibits the glycolytic flux as evidenced by reduced glucose uptake, lactate release, extracellular acidification rate, and the expression of glycolytic genes. Opposite results are noticed in loss-of-function studies. Mechanistically, ACE2 metabolizes Ang II to Ang-(1-7), which activates Mas receptor and leads to the phosphorylation of Src homology 2-containing inositol phosphatase 2 (SHP-2). SHP2 activation further blocks reactive oxygen species (ROS)-HIF1α signaling. Addition of Ang-(1-7) or the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine compromises in vivo additive tumor growth and aerobic glycolysis induced by ACE2 knockdown. Moreover, growth advantages afforded by ACE2 knockdown are largely glycolysis-dependent. In clinical settings, a close link between ACE2 expression and HIF1α or the phosphorated level of SHP2 is found. Overexpression of ACE2 significantly retards tumor growth in patient-derived xenograft model. Collectively, our findings suggest that ACE2 is a negative glycolytic regulator, and targeting the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor/ROS/HIF1α axis may be a promising therapeutic strategy for HCC treatment.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species , Animals
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313926

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains one of the most common malignancies and the third cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with surgery being the best prognostic tool. Among the well-known causative factors of HCC are chronic liver virus infections, chronic virus hepatitis B (HBV) and chronic hepatitis virus C (HCV), aflatoxins, tobacco consumption, and non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD). There is a need for the development of efficient molecular markers and alternative therapeutic targets of great significance. In this review, we describe the general characteristics of HCC and present a variety of targeted therapies that resulted in progress in HCC therapy.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Liver Neoplasms , Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/etiology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications
5.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 408(1): 187, 2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317892

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Given limitations of the health care systems in case of unforeseeable events, e.g., the COVID pandemic as well as trends in prehabilitation, time from diagnosis to surgery (time to surgery, (TTS)) has become a research issue in malignancies. Thus, we investigated whether TTS is associated with oncological outcome in HCC patients undergoing surgery. METHODS: A monocentric cohort of 217 patients undergoing liver resection for HCC between 2009 and 2021 was analyzed. Individuals were grouped according to TTS and compared regarding clinical characteristics. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) was compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis and investigated by univariate and multivariable Cox regressions. RESULTS: TTS was not associated with OS (p=0.126) or RFS (p=0.761) of the study cohort in univariate analysis. In multivariable analysis age (p=0.028), ASA (p=0.027), INR (0.016), number of HCC nodules (p=0.026), microvascular invasion (MVI; p<0.001), and postoperative complications (p<0.001) were associated with OS and INR (p=0.005), and number of HCC nodules (p<0.001) and MVI (p<0.001) were associated with RFS. A comparative analysis of TTS subgroups was conducted (group 1, ≤30 days, n=55; group 2, 31-60 days, n=79; group 3, 61-90 days, n=45; group 4, >90 days, n=38). Here, the median OS were 62, 41, 38, and 40 months (p=0.602 log rank) and median RFS were 21, 26, 26, and 25 months (p=0.994 log rank). No statistical difference regarding oncological risk factors were observed between these groups. CONCLUSION: TTS is not associated with earlier tumor recurrence or reduced overall survival in surgically treated HCC patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Risk Factors
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 29(4): 616-655, 2023 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316220

ABSTRACT

It was clearly realized more than 50 years ago that iron deposition in the liver may be a critical factor in the development and progression of liver disease. The recent clarification of ferroptosis as a specific form of regulated hepatocyte death different from apoptosis and the description of ferritinophagy as a specific variation of autophagy prompted detailed investigations on the association of iron and the liver. In this review, we will present a brief discussion of iron absorption and handling by the liver with emphasis on the role of liver macrophages and the significance of the iron regulators hepcidin, transferrin, and ferritin in iron homeostasis. The regulation of ferroptosis by endogenous and exogenous mod-ulators will be examined. Furthermore, the involvement of iron and ferroptosis in various liver diseases including alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, chronic hepatitis B and C, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) will be analyzed. Finally, experimental and clinical results following interventions to reduce iron deposition and the promising manipulation of ferroptosis will be presented. Most liver diseases will be benefited by ferroptosis inhibition using exogenous inhibitors with the notable exception of HCC, where induction of ferroptosis is the desired effect. Current evidence mostly stems from in vitro and in vivo experimental studies and the need for well-designed future clinical trials is warranted.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Humans , Iron/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Ferritins , Apoptosis
8.
Transplant Proc ; 55(5): 1226-1230, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many clinical studies have shown that the COVID-19 case fatality rate is higher in older patients, those with comorbidities, those with immunosuppressive conditions, and those who stay in the intensive care unit. This study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes of 66 liver transplant (LT) patients with primary liver cancer who were exposed to COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data of 66 patients with primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma = 64, hepatoblastoma = 1, cholangiocarcinoma = 1) who underwent LT in our institute and were exposed to COVID-19 infection between March 2020 and November 2021 were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. The following data of the patients were recorded: age, sex, body mass index (kg/m2), blood group, underlying primary liver disease, smoking, tumor characteristics, post-transplant immunosuppressive agents, COVID-19 symptoms, hospitalization, intensive care unit stay, intubation, and other clinical features. RESULTS: There were 55 (83.3%) male and 11 (16.7%) female patients, with a median age of 58 years. Sixty-four patients were exposed to COVID-19 only once, whereas the remaining 2 patients were exposed 2 and 4 times, respectively. After exposure to COVID-19, it was determined that 37 patients used antiviral drugs, 25 were hospitalized, 9 were followed in the intensive care unit, and 3 were intubated. One intubated patient was under hospital follow-up because of biliary complications before exposure to COVID-19, and this patient died from sepsis. CONCLUSION: The low mortality rate of LT patients with primary liver cancer exposed to COVID-19 infection can be attributed to background immunosuppression that prevents cytokine storm. However, it is appropriate to support this study with multicenter studies to make strong comments on this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Liver Transplantation , Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
9.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2023: 8114732, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291889

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: COVID-19 has led to potential delays in liver cancer treatment, which may have undesirable effects on the prognosis of patients. We aimed to quantify the COVID-19 pandemic impact on the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in patients with HCC who underwent TACE at a tertiary care center during the prelockdown (March to July 2019) and lockdown (March to July 2020) periods. Demographic data, tumor characteristics, functional status, and vital status were collected from the hospital medical records. The endpoints were TACE interval, treatment response, and survival after TACE. Cox proportional hazards regression determined the significant preoperative factors influencing survival. Results: Compared to prelockdown, a significant delay occurred during the lockdown in repeated TACE treatments (76.7 vs. 63.5 days, P=0.007). The trend suggested a significant decrease in patients with HCC in the repeated TACE group (-33.3%). After screening, 145 patients were included (prelockdown (n = 87), lockdown (n = 58)). There was no significant difference in the 1-month objective response rate between the prelockdown and lockdown groups (65.5% vs. 64.4%, P=1.00). During follow-up, 56 (64.4%) and 34 (58.6%) deaths occurred in the prelockdown and lockdown groups, respectively (P=0.600). Multivariate analysis revealed no association between the lockdown group and decreased survival (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.57-1.35, P=0.555). Conclusions: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on liver cancer care resulted in significant decreases and delays in repeated TACE treatments in 2020 compared to 2019. However, treatment delays did not seem to significantly impact survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Liver Neoplasms , Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 229, 2023 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an endemic parasitic zoonosis in Germany. In most cases, the liver is the primary organ affected. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year old female patient presented with increasing exertional dyspnea and unintentional weight loss. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a left-sided chylous pleural effusion and multiple intrahepatic masses with infiltration of the diaphragm and the pleura. The findings were initially misinterpreted as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with infiltrating growth. Liver biopsy of one of the masses showed no evidence of malignancy, but an amorphous necrosis of unclear origin. HCC was further ruled out by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, MRI findings were highly suspicious for hepatothoracic dissemination and complications due to AE. Typical histologic findings in a repeated and more specific examination of the liver tissue and a positive serology for echinococcosis confirmed the diagnosis of AE. As the hepatic and pulmonary manifestations were considered inoperable in a curative matter, an anti-parasitic treatment with albendazole was initiated. A video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) with removal of the chylous effusion as well as a talc pleurodesis was performed to relieve the patient from dyspnea. Two months later, the patient was asymptomatic and a positron emission tomography (PET)-CT-scan with [18 F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) showed a remarkable diminution of the hepatic manifestation. CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates a rare presentation of alveolar echinococcosis with a focus on pulmonary symptoms, emphasizing the importance of evaluation for pulmonary involvement in patients with AE and respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Chylothorax , Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Liver Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/complications , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnosis , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/pathology , Diaphragm/pathology , Pleura/pathology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Dyspnea
11.
Dig Dis Sci ; 68(5): 1791-1796, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic required an immediate and large-scale transition to telemedicine. Telemedicine includes phone visits and video visits. Studies suggest that hepatocellular cancer (HCC) screening rates fell at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. If left unaddressed, HCC morbidity/mortality may increase following the pandemic due to inadequate screening. AIMS: To assess the impact of phone-only visits on HCC screening rates in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Utilizing ICD-10 codes, 2 cohorts of patients with cirrhosis were identified. The pre-pandemic cohort had index visit between 1/1/2019 and 6/30/2019 (n = 290). The pandemic cohort (n = 112) was evaluated between 4/7/2020 and 6/7/2020. Each cohort was followed for 6 months from their index visit to determine HCC screening rate. Demographics and socioeconomic data from the American Community Survey database were compiled and compared between the cohorts. RESULTS: HCC screening rates in the pre-pandemic and pandemic cohorts were 72.4% and 69.6%, respectively, p = 0.67. No differences in HCC screening rates were observed between the two cohorts when stratified by demographic and socioeconomic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Use of phone-only visits was associated with adherence to HCC screening similar to that seen with in-person visits. The lack of influence on screening rates by racial/socioeconomic factors suggest telephone-only visits do not exacerbate healthcare disparities. In times of public health of crisis, telephone-only visits may provide the necessary access to hepatology care to ensure HCC screening regimens remain in-place for at-risk patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Telemedicine , Humans , Early Detection of Cancer , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Telephone
14.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 30(7): 4249-4259, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic strained oncologic care access and delivery, yet little is known about how it impacted hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) management. Our study sought to evaluate the annual effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on time to treatment initiation (TTI) for HCC. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for patients diagnosed with clinical stages I-IV HCC (2017-2020). Patients were categorized based on their year of diagnosis as "Pre-COVID" (2017-2019) and "COVID" (2020). TTI based on stage and type of treatment first received was compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate factors of increased TTI and treatment delay (> 90 days). RESULTS: In total, 18,673 patients were diagnosed during Pre-COVID, whereas 5249 were diagnosed during COVID. Median TTI for any first-line treatment modality was slightly shorter during the COVID year compared with Pre-COVID (49 vs. 51 days; p < 0.0001), notably in time to ablation (52 vs. 55 days; p = 0.0238), systemic therapy (42 vs. 47 days; p < 0.0001), and radiation (60 vs. 62 days; p = 0.0177), but not surgery (41 vs. 41 days; p = 0.6887). In a multivariate analysis, patients of Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and uninsured/Medicaid/Other Government insurance status were associated with increased TTI by factors of 1.057 (95% CI: 1.022-1.093; p = 0.0013), 1.045 (95% CI: 1.010-1.081; p = 0.0104), and 1.088 (95% CI: 1.053-1.123; p < 0.0001), respectively. Similarly, these patient populations were associated with delayed treatment times. CONCLUSIONS: For patients diagnosed during COVID, TTI for HCC, while statistically significant, had no clinically significant differences. However, vulnerable patients were more likely to have increased TTI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Time-to-Treatment , Pandemics , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology
16.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(6): 603-613, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301791

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 has thrown light on various heterogeneous afflictions of newly emerging viruses on the human body. Early reports demonstrated direct effect of novel coronavirus on the liver, but subsequently, this did not stand up to validation. The SARS-CoV-2 virus affects the liver differentially; in healthy compared to those with preexisting liver disease. AREAS COVERED: This exhaustive paper reviews the current, literature on mechanisms by which COVID-19 affects the healthy liver and those with preexisting liver disease such as alcohol-related and nonalcoholic fatty liver, autoimmune liver disease, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, viral hepatitis, and liver transplant recipients, with special mention on drug-and herb-induced liver injury with COVID-19 therapies. Search methodology: the review (Dec. 2022 - Jan. 2023) is based on PubMed (NLM) search using the keyword 'COVID' with supplementary searches using 'fibrosis;' 'liver;' 'cirrhosis;' 'CLD;' 'NAFLD;' 'NASH;' 'hepatocellular carcinoma;' 'hepatitis;' 'fatty liver;' 'alcohol;' 'viral;' 'transplant;' and 'liver failure.' EXPERT OPINION: Direct liver tropism of SARS-CoV-2 does not cause liver damage. Adverse events following infection depend on the severity of liver disease, the severity of COVID-19, and other risk factors such as metabolic syndrome and older age. Alcohol-related liver disease independently predicts adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications
17.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 27: 588532, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288595

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly aggressive malignant tumor of the digestive system worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and aflatoxin exposure are predominant causes of HCC in China, whereas hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and alcohol intake are likely the main risk factors in other countries. It is an unmet need to recognize the underlying molecular mechanisms of HCC in China. Methods: In this study, microarray datasets (GSE84005, GSE84402, GSE101685, and GSE115018) derived from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were analyzed to obtain the common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by R software. Moreover, the gene ontology (GO) functional annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed by using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed, and hub genes were identified by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) and Cytoscape, respectively. The hub genes were verified using Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), UALCAN, and Kaplan-Meier Plotter online databases were performed on the TCGA HCC dataset. Moreover, the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) database was used to verify candidate genes' protein expression levels. Results: A total of 293 common DEGs were screened, including 103 up-regulated genes and 190 down-regulated genes. Moreover, GO analysis implied that common DEGs were mainly involved in the oxidation-reduction process, cytosol, and protein binding. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis presented that common DEGs were mainly enriched in metabolic pathways, complement and coagulation cascades, cell cycle, p53 signaling pathway, and tryptophan metabolism. In the PPI network, three subnetworks with high scores were detected using the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plugin. The top 10 hub genes identified were CDK1, CCNB1, AURKA, CCNA2, KIF11, BUB1B, TOP2A, TPX2, HMMR and CDC45. The other public databases confirmed that high expression of the aforementioned genes related to poor overall survival among patients with HCC. Conclusion: This study primarily identified candidate genes and pathways involved in the underlying mechanisms of Chinese HCC, which is supposed to provide new targets for the diagnosis and treatment of HCC in China.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Cycle/genetics , China/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Protein Interaction Maps , Signal Transduction/genetics
18.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 22(6): 621-632, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271813

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a poor prognosis, related, in part, to frequent late-stage diagnosis. Improved implementation of effective HCC surveillance is critical to reduce HCC mortality. AREAS COVERED: We performed a targeted literature review to identify intervention targets for improving HCC surveillance effectiveness, including enriched risk stratification tools, improved surveillance tools with higher accuracy for early HCC detection, and increasing surveillance adherence. EXPERT OPINION: HCC surveillance has been demonstrated to be efficacious in several cohort studies but has lower surveillance effectiveness in clinical practice. HCC surveillance is currently recommended in all patients with cirrhosis, and improved risk stratification using clinical risk scores, genetic scores, and novel biomarkers are important to move from a 'one-size-fits-all' strategy to one more aligned with values of precision medicine. Current surveillance modalities, ultrasound, and AFP, miss over one-third of HCC at an early stage and are associated with potential surveillance harms, underscoring a need for alternative surveillance strategies with higher accuracy. MRI- and biomarker-based surveillance strategies have promising early data in phase II studies but require validation in phase III cohorts before routine use in practice. Finally, surveillance is underused in clinical practice, highlighting a need for intervention strategies to increase utilization.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ultrasonography , alpha-Fetoproteins
20.
AAPS J ; 25(3): 32, 2023 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277123

ABSTRACT

Ritlecitinib is a selective, covalent, irreversible inhibitor of Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) and the tyrosine kinase expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (TEC) family kinases. Pharmacokinetics and safety of ritlecitinib in participants with hepatic (Study 1) or renal (Study 2) impairment were to be characterized from two phase I studies. Due to a study pause caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the study 2 healthy participant (HP) cohort was not recruited; however, the demography of the severe renal impairment cohort closely matched the study 1 HP cohort. We present results from each study and two innovative approaches to utilizing available HP data as reference data for study 2: a statistical approach using analysis of variance and an in silico simulation of an HP cohort created using a population pharmacokinetics (POPPK) model derived from several ritlecitinib studies. For study 1, the observed area under the curve for 24-h dosing interval and maximum plasma concentration for HPs and their observed geometric mean ratios (participants with moderate hepatic impairment vs HPs) were within 90% prediction intervals from the POPPK simulation-based approach, thereby validating the latter approach. When applied to study 2, both the statistical and POPPK simulation approaches demonstrated that patients with renal impairment would not require ritlecitinib dose modification. In both phase I studies, ritlecitinib was generally safe and well tolerated. These analyses represent a new methodology for generating reference HP cohorts in special population studies for drugs in development with well-characterized pharmacokinetics in HPs and adequate POPPK models. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04037865 , NCT04016077 , NCT02309827 , NCT02684760 , and NCT02969044 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Diseases , Liver Neoplasms , Renal Insufficiency , Humans , Healthy Volunteers , Pandemics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Area Under Curve
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