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1.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 9422902, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950460

ABSTRACT

Objective: Molecular targeted drug therapy and chemotherapy are the main treatments for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, and the combination of both has advantages in prolonging patients' progression-free survival and overall survival. This study investigated the effects of bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy under nursing intervention on CT, cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA21-1), and gastrin-releasing peptide precursor (ProGRP) and prognosis of lung cancer patients. Methods: 102 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer admitted to our hospital from January 2018 to May 2019 were divided into observation group and control group, with 51 cases each. The control group was treated with basic chemotherapy, and the observation group was treated with bevacizumab in combination with the control group, and both groups used nursing interventions. The clinical effects, CYFRA21-1 and ProGRP levels, baseline data, CT parameters, 24-month cumulative survival, and the effects of CYFRA21-1 and ProGRP on long-term survival and lung function were compared. Results: The disease control rate of the observation group was 94.12%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (76.47%); after 7 d, 30 d, 60 d, and 90 d of treatment, the levels of CYFRA21-1 and ProGRP were statistically downregulated. The difference in lymph node metastasis, lesion diameter, plain Eff-Z, venous stage, and arterial stage normalized iodine concentrations (NIC) was statistically significant; the survival rate at 24 months in the observation group was 74.51% (38/51); the cumulative survival rate at 24 months in the control group was 52.94% (27/51), and the difference was statistically significant (X 2 = 4.980, P = 0.026). The cumulative survival rate at 24 months was significantly lower in patients with high expression of CYFRA21-1 and ProGRP compared with those with low expression of CYFRA21-1 and ProGRP. After treatment, in the observation group, the forceful spirometry (FVC), forceful expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC levels were significantly different from those before treatment and were significantly different from those in the control group. Conclusion: Bevacizumab in combination with standard chemotherapy regimens with nursing interventions could benefit patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and had a good prospect of application.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Antigens, Neoplasm , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Humans , Keratin-19 , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Peptide Fragments , Prognosis , Protein Precursors , Recombinant Proteins , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
J Biopharm Stat ; 32(1): 204-218, 2022 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873726

ABSTRACT

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for evaluation of new medical products. However, RCTs may not always be ethical or feasible. In cases where the investigational product is available outside the trial (e.g., through accelerated approval), patients may fail to enroll in clinical trials or drop out early to take the investigational product. These challenges to enrolling or maintaining a concurrent control arm may compromise timely recruitment, retention, or compliance. This can threaten the study's integrity, including the validity of results. External control arms (ECAs) may be a promising augmentation to RCTs when encountered with challenges that threaten the feasibility and reliability of a randomized controlled clinical trial. Here, we propose the use of ECAs created from patient-level data from previously conducted clinical trials or real-world data in the same indication. Propensity score methods are used to balance observed disease characteristics and demographics in the previous clinical trial or real-world data with those of present-day trial participants assigned to receive the investigational product. These methods are explored in a case study in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) derived from multiple previously conducted open label or blinded phase 2 and 3 multinational clinical trials initiated between 2004 and 2013. The case study indicated that when balanced for baseline characteristics, the overall survival estimates from the ECA were very similar to those of the target randomized control, based on Kaplan-Meier curves and hazard ratio and confidence interval estimates. This suggests that in the future, a randomized control may be able to be augmented by an ECA without compromising the understanding of the treatment effect, assuming sufficient knowledge, measurement, and availability of all or most of the important prognostic variables.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 25(5): 295-302, 2022 May 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847419

ABSTRACT

Though the coronavirus disease is still raging in 2021, clinical research on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) did not stop. However, benefiting from advances in lung cancer treatment modality, NSCLC patients have experienced significant improvements in overall survival and quality of life. Currently, research advances on targeted therapy and immunotherapy have together transformed the status of postoperative adjuvant therapy and established a new standard treatment modality for resectable NSCLC. There are equally important research advances in locally advanced and advanced NSCLC, including new treatment modalities, new therapeutic agents, etc., all of which bringing more options for clinical treatment. These therapies will bring changes to NSCLC and will gradually lead to the chronicity of lung cancer in the foreseeable future. Therefore, this paper reviews important studies that will change clinical practice in NSCLC treatment and noteworthy research advances in 2021.
.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Quality of Life
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 743558, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775906

ABSTRACT

Background: As the first domestic PD-1 antibody approved for lung cancer in China, camrelizumab has exhibited proven effectiveness for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, the cost-effectiveness of this new regimen remains to be investigated. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of camrelizumab combination therapy vs. chemotherapy for previously untreated patients with advanced, non-squamous NSCLC without Alk or Egfr genomic aberrations from the perspective of China's healthcare system. Methods: Based on the CameL trial, the study developed a three-health state Markov model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding camrelizumab to chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy alone in NSCLC patients. The analysis models were conducted for patients unselected by PD-L1 tumor expression (the base case) and the patient subgroup with PD-L1-expressing tumors (≥1%). Primary model outcomes included the costs in US dollars and health outcomes in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as well as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) under a willingness-to-pay threshold of $31,500 per QALY. Additionally, a scenario analysis that adjusted within-trial crossover was employed to evaluate camrelizumab combination therapy compared to chemotherapy without subsequent use of PD1/PD-L1 antibodies. Results: Camrelizumab combination therapy was more costly and provided additional 0.11 QALYs over chemotherapy in the base case analysis (0.86 vs. 0.75 QALYs), 0.12 QALYs over chemotherapy in the subgroup analysis (0.99 vs. 0.88 QALYs), and 0.34 QALYs over chemotherapy in the scenario analysis (0.86 vs. 0.52 QALYs). Correspondingly, the ICER was $63,080 per QALY, $46,311 per QALY, and $30,591 per QALY, in the base case, the subgroup, and the scenario analysis, respectively. One-way sensitivity analyses revealed that ICERs of the base case and the subgroup analysis were most sensitive to the cost of camrelizumab, the cost of pemetrexed. Besides, the base case and subgroup analysis were more sensitive to the risk of neutrophil count decreased in the camrelizumab and the utility of stable disease, respectively. Conclusion: Although camrelizumab combination therapy is not cost-effective as first-line therapy for NSCLC patients in China in the base case, adjusting within-trial crossover would move the treatment regimen toward cost-effectiveness in the scenario analysis.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
5.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737002

ABSTRACT

Rearranged during transfection (RET) is an oncogenic driver receptor that is overexpressed in several cancer types, including non-small cell lung cancer. To date, only multiple kinase inhibitors are widely used to treat RET-positive cancer patients. These inhibitors exhibit high toxicity, less efficacy, and specificity against RET. The development of drug-resistant mutations in RET protein further deteriorates this situation. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to design novel drug-like compounds using a fragment-based drug designing strategy to overcome these issues. About 18 known inhibitors from diverse chemical classes were fragmented and bred to form novel compounds against RET proteins. The inhibitory activity of the resultant 115 hybrid molecules was evaluated using molecular docking and RF-Score analysis. The binding free energy and chemical reactivity of the compounds were computed using MM-GBSA and density functional theory analysis, respectively. The results from our study revealed that the developed hybrid molecules except for LF21 and LF27 showed higher reactivity and stability than Pralsetinib. Ultimately, the process resulted in three hybrid molecules namely LF1, LF2, and LF88 having potent inhibitory activity against RET proteins. The scrutinized molecules were then subjected to molecular dynamics simulation for 200 ns and MM-PBSA analysis to eliminate a false positive design. The results from our analysis hypothesized that the designed compounds exhibited significant inhibitory activity against multiple RET variants. Thus, these could be considered as potential leads for further experimental studies.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Drug Design , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/therapeutic use
6.
Thorac Cancer ; 13(8): 1220-1223, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685174

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) shortly after the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) vaccination in a 65-year-old woman with non-small-cell lung cancer under a combination treatment of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors. She had no history of diabetic mellitus. A few days after the second shot of COVID-19 vaccination, she developed DKA. We speculate that the immune-related adverse event and immunogenicity of vaccination synergistically induced DKA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Lung Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , CTLA-4 Antigen/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Female , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
Intern Med ; 61(8): 1219-1223, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677612

ABSTRACT

A 44-year-old man developed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia during immunochemotherapy consisting of carboplatin, paclitaxel, and pembrolizumab for non-small cell lung cancer. Low-grade fever, followed by mild hypoxemia, and febrile neutropenia, were observed, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was administered until the recovery of neutropenia, when he developed a high fever, severe hypoxemia, and hypotension accompanied by consolidation in the bilateral lungs. His conditions promptly improved after treatment including hydrocortisone and the primary and metastatic tumors remained regressed for 10 months without further treatment. Post-COVID-19 organizing pneumonia during cancer immunochemotherapy can be aggravated by immune-checkpoint inhibitors and G-CSF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Adult , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 798276, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606542

ABSTRACT

Effects of initiation of programmed-death-protein 1 (PD1) blockade during active SARS-CoV-2 infection on antiviral immunity, COVID-19 course, and underlying malignancy are unclear. We report on the management of a male in his early 40s presenting with highly symptomatic metastatic lung cancer and active COVID-19 pneumonia. After treatment initiation with pembrolizumab, carboplatin, and pemetrexed, the respiratory situation initially worsened and high-dose corticosteroids were initiated due to suspected pneumonitis. After improvement and SARS-CoV-2 clearance, anti-cancer treatment was resumed without pembrolizumab. Immunological analyses with comparison to otherwise healthy SARS-CoV-2-infected ambulatory patients revealed a strong humoral immune response with higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive IgG and neutralizing serum activity. Additionally, sustained increase of Tfh as well as activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was observed. Sequential CT scans showed regression of tumor lesions and marked improvement of the pulmonary situation, with no signs of pneumonitis after pembrolizumab re-challenge as maintenance. At the latest follow-up, the patient is ambulatory and in ongoing partial remission on pembrolizumab. In conclusion, anti-PD1 initiation during active COVID-19 pneumonia was feasible and cellular and humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 appeared enhanced in our hospitalized patient. However, distinguishing COVID-19-associated changes from anti-PD1-associated immune-related pneumonitis posed a considerable clinical, radiographic, and immunologic challenge.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 23(2): 143-150, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588071

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Extended interval (EI) dosing for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) mono- or consolidation therapy initiated due to the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant reduction in ICI-related site visits for patients with stage III and IV non-small cell lung cancer. Here we report the safety and efficacy compared to standard dose (SD) schedules. METHOD: In this retrospective analysis, patients who received ICI mono- or consolidation therapy, or adjuvant ICI therapy were assessed. Safety and efficacy of EI dosing with data of SD schedules were compared. RESULTS: One hundred seventeen patients received EI dosing for ICI and 88 patients SD. Patient characteristics were comparable. We observed 237 adverse events in the EI dosing cohort versus 118 in the SD group (P= .02). Overall, there was no difference in the occurrence of grade ≥3 adverse events (EI dosing: 21/237 [8.9%]; SD group: 20/118 [17.0%], P = .42), except for the pembrolizumab EI dosing cohort. Of all patients who received an EI dosing schedule, however, only 8 (6.8%) were reduced to SD because of toxicity. In 5 (4.3%) patients ICI was permanently stopped because of severe toxicity compared to 11 (12.5%) discontinuations in the SD group. Short-term treatment interruption occurred with similar frequencies in both groups. Progression-free survival and overall survival were comparable in patients receiving pembrolizumab and in those receiving adjuvant durvalumab. Progression-free survival and OS were better in the EI dosing cohort of nivolumab. CONCLUSION: EI dosing for ICI did not lead to an increase of clinically relevant toxicities resulting in dose reduction and/or treatment discontinuation. Efficacy of EI dosing of pembrolizumab and durvalumab were comparable to SD. Based on our safety and efficacy data EI dosing for ICI seems a safe and effective strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Nivolumab/administration & dosage , Nivolumab/adverse effects , Progression-Free Survival , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Ann Palliat Med ; 11(4): 1231-1240, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of diagnosis and treatment of Chinese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the expert recommendation of the therapeutic regimens during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and to analyze and summarize relevant rules. METHODS: Under the planning and coordination of the Lung Cancer Group of the Chinese Thoracic Society, we performed an online questionnaire survey among experts in lung cancer and patients with NSCLC. Convenience sampling was adopted for questionnaire survey of experts, and random sampling was adopted for questionnaire survey of patients. After collecting and sorting out the questionnaire, a descriptive analysis of the data was performed. RESULTS: Within 24 h from the distribution of questionnaires to the deadline, a total of 808 and 321 valid questionnaires from patients and experts were collected across China, respectively. There were 83.81% of the experts performed moderately and strongly anti-tumor therapy for patients with NSCLC during the COVID-19 pandemic. 76.6% of patients mainly receive online public welfare treatment, and the patient satisfaction rate reached up to 64.97%. For driver gene-positive patients with advanced NSCLC and non-COVID-19, 82.87% of the experts recommended first-line simple targeted therapy, and 12.77% of the experts recommended targeted therapy with oral anti-angiogenic drugs. For patients who were unable to return to the hospital for treatment and showed resistance to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, 92.21% of the experts recommended oral anti-angiogenic drugs as the third-line home-based therapy and above. For patients with advanced NSCLC combined with COVID-19, 98.76% and 95.95% of the experts recommended discontinuation of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19, most Chinese patients with NSCLC were still able to receive timely diagnosis and treatment either by online public welfare consultation or at nearby hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics
13.
Oncology (Williston Park) ; 35(1): 26-28, 2021 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485807

ABSTRACT

Against the difficult and trying backdrop of the pandemic, cancer investigators persisted, and for patients with lung cancer, that persistence paid off in spectacular ways. With several new FDA approved treatments, as well as 2 new targetable mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 2020 was a banner year in the overall lung cancer space. ONCOLOGY® recently sat down with Jennifer W. Carlisle, MD, of Emory University's Winship Cancer Institute, to discuss the many advances made during the last year for patients with lung cancer along with her hopes for further significant milestones in the year to come.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Precision Medicine , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e934854, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441381

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the number of completed clinical trials, particularly in oncology. Between 80-85% of all lung cancers are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and of these, between 2-3% have an EGFR exon 20 insertion, which is associated with increased cell proliferation, metastasis, and a lack of response to chemotherapy and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. Until this year, there were no available targeted therapies for advanced NSCLC with this genetic subtype. However, in May 2021, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval for amivantamab-vmjw (Rybrevant®), a bispecific monoclonal antibody, targeting activating and resistant EGFR and MET mutations and amplifications. This FDA approval was for adult patients with locally advanced metastatic NSCLC, with disease progression on or following platinum-based chemotherapy. The FDA also approved the Guardant360® companion diagnostic, a next-generation sequencing platform for circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), which is a liquid biopsy assay. In 2019, Project Orbis was launched by the FDA Oncology Center of Excellence as a global collaborative review program to facilitate rapid global access for patients to innovative cancer therapies. This Editorial aims to highlight how global regulatory initiatives from the FDA have delivered accelerated approval of the first bispecific therapeutic monoclonal antibody, amivantamab-vmjw (Rybrevant®), and a companion diagnostic for patients with advanced NSCLC with an EGFR exon 20 insertion.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific/administration & dosage , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Drug Approval , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , ErbB Receptors/genetics , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/metabolism , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
15.
J Surg Oncol ; 125(2): 290-298, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The role of salvage thoracic surgery in managing advanced-stage lung cancer following treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors is currently unclear. We present a series of nine patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer who underwent pulmonary resection following treatment with pembrolizumab. METHODS: We performed a single-institution retrospective analysis of pulmonary resection undertaken following treatment with pembrolizumab for advanced-stage lung cancer. Nine patients met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: In six cases, surgery was indicated for persistent localized disease after treatment, and in three cases for nonresponsive synchronous/metachronous lung nodules while on treatment for stage IV lung cancer. Dense hilar fibrosis was present in all patients. Minimal access surgery was achieved in five cases (video-assisted n = 2, robotic-assisted n = 3). There was no in-hospital mortality. One patient died within 60 days from community-acquired COVID-19 pneumonitis. Seven patients remain free of disease between 5 and 22 months follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary resection is safe and technically feasible following treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Surgical challenges relate to postimmunotherapy fibrosis, but with increased experience and a robotic approach, minimal access surgery is achievable. Further prospective studies are required to assess the surgical impact on disease control and overall survival in this patient cohort.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Pneumonectomy , Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies , Salvage Therapy
16.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 18(5): 661-673, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a great challenge for the treatment of cancer patients. It presents as a severe respiratory infection in aged individuals, including some lung cancer patients. COVID-19 may be linked to the progression of aggressive lung cancer. In addition, the side effects of chemotherapy, such as chemotherapy resistance and the acceleration of cellular senescence, can worsen COVID-19. Given this situation, we investigated the role of paclitaxel (a chemotherapy drug) in the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cellular senescence of gefitinib-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells (PC9-MET) to clarify the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PC9-MET cells were treated with paclitaxel for 72 h and then evaluated by a cell viability assay, DAPI staining, Giemsa staining, apoptosis assay, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, SA-ß-Gal staining, a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay and Western blotting. RESULTS: Paclitaxel significantly reduced the viability of PC9-MET cells and induced morphological signs of apoptosis. The apoptotic effects of paclitaxel were observed by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 (Asp 175), cleaved caspase-9 (Asp 330) and cleaved PARP (Asp 214). In addition, paclitaxel increased ROS production, leading to DNA damage. Inhibition of ROS production by N-acetylcysteine attenuates paclitaxel-induced DNA damage. Importantly, paclitaxel eliminated cellular senescence, as observed by SA-ß-Gal staining. Cellular senescence elimination was associated with p53/p21 and p16/pRb signaling inactivation. CONCLUSION: Paclitaxel may be a promising anticancer drug and offer a new therapeutic strategy for managing gefitinib-resistant NSCLC during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Gefitinib/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects
17.
Cancer Invest ; 40(5): 406-412, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of systemic anticancer treatments on SARS-CoV-2-related mortality is still debatable. METHODS: By a retrospective analysis of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with first-line Pembrolizumab or in combination with chemotherapy (ChT) during the first surge of the pandemic. RESULTS: The adjusted risk of death was higher in patients treated with ChT + Pembrolizumab (HR 4.6, 1.2-17.4, p = 0.02). The SARS-CoV-2-related mortality rate was higher in patients treated with ChT + Pembrolizumab (p = 0.03), ≥70 years (p = 0.03) and current smokers (p = 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of ChT to immunotherapy could be associated with increased risk of mortality and higher SARS-CoV-2-related mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 99: 108012, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330894

ABSTRACT

ALK targeting with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is a highly potent treatment option for the therapy of ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, pharmacokinetics of TKIs leads to clinically significant drug interactions, and the interfering co-medication may hamper the anti-cancer therapeutic management. Here, we present for the first time a drug interaction profile of ALK-TKIs, crizotinib and alectinib, and immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A in kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with ALK+ lung cancer. Based on therapeutic drug monitoring of cyclosporin A plasma level, the dose of cyclosporine A has been adjusted to achieve a safe and effective therapeutic level in terms of both cancer treatment and kidney transplant condition. Particularly, 15 years upon the kidney transplantation, the stage IV lung cancer patient was treated with the 1st-line chemotherapy, the 2nd-line ALK-TKI crizotinib followed by ALK-TKI alectinib. The successful therapy with ALK-TKIs has been continuing for more than 36 months, including the period when the patient was treated for COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia. Hence, the therapy of ALK+ NSCLC with ALK-TKIs in organ transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine A may be feasible and effective.


Subject(s)
Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Crizotinib/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Piperidines/pharmacology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/secondary , Drug Interactions , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315798

ABSTRACT

Pembrolizumab is a selective anti-PD-L1 humanised monoclonal antibody approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating multiple cancers, including cervical cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, and squamous head and neck cancer. Pneumonitis is a rare but known complication of pembrolizumab treatment for NSCLC. The median time frame of its appearance is 2.8 months. However, we present a case of pneumonitis appearing within 48 hours. The patient presented with rapidly progressive respiratory failure, and imaging demonstrated diffuse bilateral patchy involvement of the upper lung lobe and pre-hilar regions, which likely indicate pneumonitis. Because of likely grade 3 pneumonitis, he was treated with steroids and showed immediate improvement of symptoms. Repeated CT imaging showed resolution of bilateral patchy infiltrates. He was discharged to the rehabilitation unit. Rapid recognition of pneumonitis as a side effect of pembrolizumab is important because early treatment can help prevent respiratory failure and possible death.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Pneumonia , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Pneumonia/chemically induced
20.
Curr Oncol ; 28(3): 1618-1629, 2021 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314595

ABSTRACT

Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) comprises a highly heterogenous group of patients with regards to patient fitness and tumour size and distribution, resulting in a wide range of treatment goals and therapy options. Curative-intent multimodality treatment should be considered in all patients with stage III NSCLC. For patients with unresectable disease who are fit, have adequate lung function, and have a disease that can be encompassed within a radical radiation volume, concurrent chemoradiation therapy (cCRT) is the standard of care and can produce cure rates of 20-30%. Recently, consolidation immunotherapy with durvalumab has been recognized as the standard of care following cCRT based on significant improvement rates in overall survival at 4 years. The large heterogeneity of the stage III NSCLC population, along with the need for extensive staging procedures, multidisciplinary care, intensive cCRT, and now consolidation therapy makes the delivery of timely and optimal treatment for these patients complex. Several logistical, communication, and education factors hinder the delivery of guideline-recommended care to patients with stage III unresectable NSCLC. This commentary discusses the potential challenges patients may encounter at different points along their care pathway that can interfere with delivery of curative-intent therapy and suggests strategies for improving care delivery.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Canada , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Chemoradiotherapy , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasm Staging
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