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2.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 427, 2022 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The large-scale changes in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme delivery in response to COVID-19 has led to diminished provision. The influence of these service changes on the depression symptoms of patients in CR programmes is unknown. Our study investigated the extent of depressive symptoms prior to and during the COVID-19 periods in patients with a previous history of depression at the start of CR. METHODS: Use of Registry routine practice data, National Audit of Cardiac Rehabilitation (NACR), from COVID-19 period Feb 2020 and Jan 2021, as well as pre COVID-19 period Feb 2019 and Jan 2020, was extracted. Depressive symptoms were defined according to Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score ≥ 8. Chi-square tests and independent samples t-tests were used to investigate baseline characteristics. Additionally, a binary logistic regression to examine the factors associated with high levels of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: In total 3661 patients with a history of depression were included in the analysis. Patients attending CR during COVID-19 were found to be 11% more likely to have high levels of acute depressive symptoms compared to patients attending CR prior to COVID-19. Physical inactivity, increased anxiety, a higher total number of comorbidities, increased weight, and living in the most deprived areas were statistically significant factors associated with high levels of acute depressive symptoms at the start of CR following multivariate adjustments. CONCLUSION: Our research suggests that following a cardiac event patients with prior history of depression have high levels of acute depressive symptoms at CR baseline assessment. This finding exists in both the pre Covid-19 and Covid-19 periods in patients with a history of depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043860

ABSTRACT

Background and objective: Patients with heart failure are a high-risk group who may have a higher mortality rate if infected during the COVID-19 pandemic. The problem of a patient's non-adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programs is still a challenge, resulting in disappointing long-term benefits of cardiac rehabilitation. Telehealth, including telerehabilitation, has grown in popularity to improve access to quality healthcare. It is more valuable and safer compared to usual rehabilitation care, especially during the current COVID-19 pandemic, to cut down unnecessary hospital visits and reduce the risk of cluster infections. This study aims to identify the efficacy of relevant randomized control trials (RCTs) using telerehabilitation in managing heart failure. The model, delivery care, safety, and efficacy were assessed. Material and Methods: This study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). The authors included relevant records published in the last ten years from three databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, ProQuest, and EBSCO. Each included study was further assessed using Cochrane's Risk of Bias (Rob 2) tool. Results: The telerehabilitation models consisted of cellphones, instant messaging, or online videoconferencing software. Some also included tool sets to monitor patients' vital signs regularly or during exercise. Most patients adhered to and completed all provided programs. Cardiac telerehabilitation successfully improved patients' physical fitness, quality of life, and mental health. No major adverse outcomes or significant complications were associated with the program. Conclusion: Cardiac telerehabilitation has the potential to deliver rehabilitation for heart failure patients, evidenced by its feasibility, efficacy, and safety. As a future perspective, this delivery care type can be applied throughout transmissible disease outbreaks or even globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Heart Failure , Telerehabilitation , Humans , Telerehabilitation/methods , Cardiac Rehabilitation/methods , Quality of Life , Disease Outbreaks , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
Open Heart ; 9(2)2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993077

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cardiac diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Cardiac rehabilitation is proven to be beneficial in reducing morbidity, mortality and rehospitalisation rates. Recently, more emphasis is given to home-based telemonitored cardiac rehabilitation due to the recent pandemic of SARS-CoV-2. We plan to perform this systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the differences in functional capacity (FC) (measured in peak oxygen uptake (PVO2)) and health-related quality of life (hr-QoL) between telecardiac rehabilitation and both centre-based cardiac rehabilitation (CBCR) and usual care (UC) separately. It will showcase the feasibility of using telemonitored cardiac rehabilitation as an alternative to CBCR considering the ease of performance, safety and limiting unnecessary contact. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review and meta-analysis protocol was structured according to the published Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis-Protocol guidelines. We will devise a search strategy to use online databases to search for the randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Inclusion criteria will include adult population (18 years or older) suffering from at least one cardiac disease referred for cardiac rehabilitation comparing telecardiac rehabilitation with both CBCR and UC. Exclusion criteria will be RCTs in non-English language, hybrid studies, cross-over trials, observational studies and case series. The outcome of interest will be FC measured in PVO2 and hr-QoL. The articles will be reviewed by two independent reviewers and a third reviewer will be available to adjudicate any conflicts. The bias in the selected studies will be assessed using Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomised trials. The overall bias of the studies will be assessed. The selected articles will be reviewed and the data will be collected on Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for analysis. These data will include number of subjects in the intervention arm and the comparator arm (which will either be CBCR or UC), measures of FC and hr-QoL and SD. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis will be considered based on heterogeneity among the study effect estimates and the number of available studies for each outcome. Results of the pooled estimates will be reported as standardised mean difference (and 95% CI) with fixed-effect model, if heterogeneity is not significant (I2 <50%). Otherwise, random-effects model will be used for I2 >50%. The data of the subjects who completed the rehabilitation programme of the study period will be used to calculate the effect estimates (per-protocol effect). Publication bias in the meta-analysis will be assessed using Egger's test and funnel plot. The strength of body of evidence of the outcomes will be assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method. Data analysis will be performed using Stata SE V.15.0 (College Station, Texas, USA). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: There will be no direct involvement of the patient or the public in the conception, design, data collection, and analysis of this systematic review and meta-analysis. Results of this systematic review and meta-analysis will be disseminated via journal articles. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021245461.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Adult , Cardiac Rehabilitation/methods , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
5.
Heart Lung Circ ; 31(11): 1504-1512, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983127

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Centre-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs were disrupted and urged to adopt telehealth modes of delivery during the COVID-19 public health emergency. Previously established telehealth services may have faced increased demand. This study aimed to investigate a) the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on CR attendance/completion, b) clinical outcomes of patients with cardiovascular (CV) diseases referred to CR and, c) how regional and rural centre-based services converted to a telehealth delivery during this time. METHODS: A cohort of patients living in regional and rural Australia, referred to an established telehealth-based or centre-based CR services during COVID-19 first wave, were prospectively followed-up, for ≥90 days (February to June 2020). Cardiac rehabilitation attendance/completion and a composite of CV re-admissions and deaths were compared to a historical control group referred in the same period in 2019. The impact of mode of delivery (established telehealth service versus centre-based CR) was analysed through a competitive risk model. The adaption of centre-based CR services to telehealth was assessed via a cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: 1,954 patients (1,032 referred during COVID-19 and 922 pre-COVID-19) were followed-up for 161 (interquartile range 123-202) days. Mean age was 68 (standard deviation 13) years and 68% were male. Referrals to the established telehealth program did not differ during (24%) and pre-COVID-19 (23%). Although all 10 centre-based services surveyed adopted telehealth, attendance (46.6% vs 59.9%; p<0.001) and completion (42.4% vs 75.4%; p<0.001) was significantly lower during COVID-19. Referral during vs pre-COVID-19 (sub hazard ratio [SHR] 0.77; 95% CI 0.68-0.87), and to a centre-based program compared to the established telehealth service (SHR 0.66; 95% CI 0.58-0.76) decreased the likelihood of CR uptake. DISCUSSION: An established telehealth service and rapid adoption of telehealth by centre-based programs enabled access to CR in regional and rural Australia during COVID-19. However, further development of the newly implemented telehealth models is needed to promote CR attendance and completion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Cardiovascular Diseases , Telemedicine , Humans , Male , Aged , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Cardiac Rehabilitation/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Secondary Prevention , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Australia/epidemiology
6.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 270, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962737

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation for heart failure continues to be greatly underused worldwide despite being a Class I recommendation in international clinical guidelines and uptake is low in women and patients with mental health comorbidities. METHODS: Rehabilitation EnAblement in CHronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) programme was implemented in four UK National Health Service early adopter sites ('Beacon Sites') between June 2019 and June 2020. Implementation and patient-reported outcome data were collected across sites as part of the National Audit of Cardiac Rehabilitation. The change in key outcomes before and after the supervised period of REACH-HF intervention across the Beacon Sites was assessed and compared to those of the intervention arm of the REACH-HF multicentre trial. RESULTS: Compared to the REACH-HF multicentre trial, patients treated at the Beacon Site were more likely to be female (33.8% vs 22.9%), older (75.6 vs 70.1), had a more severe classification of heart failure (26.5% vs 17.7%), had poorer baseline health-related quality of life (MLHFQ score 36.1 vs 31.4), were more depressed (HADS score 6.4 vs 4.1) and anxious (HADS score 7.2 vs 4.7), and had lower exercise capacity (ISWT distance 190 m vs 274.7 m). There appeared to be a substantial heterogeneity in the implementation process across the four Beacon Sites as evidenced by the variation in levels of patient recruitment, operationalisation of the REACH-HF intervention and patient outcomes. Overall lower improvements in patient-reported outcomes at the Beacon Sites compared to the trial may reflect differences in the population studied (having higher morbidity at baseline) as well as the marked challenges in intervention delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: The results of this study illustrate the challenges in consistently implementing an intervention (shown to be clinically effective and cost-effective in a multicentre trial) into real-world practice, especially in the midst of a global pandemic. Further research is needed to establish the real-world effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention in different populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Heart Failure , Female , Heart Failure/rehabilitation , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quality of Life , State Medicine
7.
Support Care Cancer ; 30(9): 7575-7586, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941712

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer accounts for 25% of all cancers among Canadian females. Despite successes of decreased mortality, adverse treatment effects, such as cardiotoxicity, contribute to a sedentary lifestyle and decreased quality of life. Physical activity (PA) is a possible therapy for the late effects; however, COVID-19 restricted access to in-person cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR) programs. The purposes are as follows: (1) compare PA of breast cancer survivors' in-person CR to virtual CR following a transition during COVID-19 and (2) compare the PA of the pandemic cohort to a matched cohort who had completed the program in 2018/2019; (3) explore survivors' experiences of transitioning to and engaging in virtual CR. Mixed methods included analysis of CR PA data from a pandemic cohort (n = 18) and a 2018/2019 cohort (n = 18) and semi-structured focus group interviews with the pandemic cohort (n = 9) in the context of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. After the transition, there were no significant differences in mean activity duration, frequency, and cumulative activity (expressed as MET-minutes) (p > 0.05). However, variation of PA duration doubled following the transition from in-person to virtual (p = 0.029), while for the 2018/2019 cohort, variation remained unchanged. Focus groups revealed that women valued their CR experiences pre-COVID-19 and had feelings of anxiety during the transition. Perceived factors affecting participation were environmental, personal, and behavioural. Recommendations for virtual programs were to increase comradery, technology, and professional guidance. PA experiences during a transition to virtual care prompted by a pandemic vary among breast cancer survivors. Targeting individualised strategies and exercise prescriptions are important for improving PA programs and patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Cancer Survivors , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Canada , Exercise , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Quality of Life , Survivors
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 1098-1099, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933596

ABSTRACT

In this work, we describe the conceptualization and development of a digital tool to support patients in adhering to prescription of physical exercise training during cardiac rehabilitation. To meet the need for an individual and trackable heart-healthy training plan - which became even more evident during the Coronavirus pandemic - the Activity Planning Tool was developed within a user-centered design process. Tackling the relationship between rehabilitation professional and patient, it allows to jointly set up, monitor, and regularly review a personalized physical activity plan.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Rehabilitation , Exercise , Exercise Therapy , Health Status , Humans
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e060221, 2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932753

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify barriers to, and facilitators of, implementation of the Rehabilitation EnAblement in CHronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) programme within existing cardiac rehabilitation services, and develop and refine the REACH-HF Service Delivery Guide (an implementation guide cocreated with healthcare professionals). REACH-HF is an effective and cost-effective 12-week home-based cardiac rehabilitation programme for patients with heart failure. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: In 2019, four early adopter 'Beacon Sites' were set up to deliver REACH-HF to 200 patients. In 2020, 5 online REACH-HF training events were attended by 85 healthcare professionals from 45 National Health Service (NHS) teams across the UK and Ireland. DESIGN: Our mixed-methods study used in-depth semi-structured interviews and an online survey. Interviews were conducted with staff trained specifically for the Beacon Site project, identified by opportunity and snowball sampling. The online survey was later offered to subsequent NHS staff who took part in the online REACH-HF training. Normalisation Process Theory was used as a theoretical framework to guide data collection/analysis. RESULTS: Seventeen healthcare professionals working at the Beacon Sites were interviewed and 17 survey responses were received (20% response rate). The identified barriers and enablers included, among many, a lack of resources/commissioning, having interest in heart failure and working closely with the clinical heart failure team. Different implementation contexts (urban/rural), timing (during the COVID-19 pandemic) and factors outside the healthcare team/system (quality of the REACH-HF training) were observed to negatively or positively impact the implementation process. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are highly relevant to healthcare professionals involved in planning, delivering and commissioning of cardiac rehabilitation for patients with heart failure. The study's main output, a refined version of the REACH-HF Service Delivery Guide, can guide the implementation process (eg, designing new care pathways) and provide practical solutions to overcoming common implementation barriers (eg, through early identification of implementation champions).


Subject(s)
Cardiac Rehabilitation , Heart Failure , COVID-19 , Heart Failure/rehabilitation , Humans , Pandemics , State Medicine
11.
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 173: 22-26, 2022 Sep.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907899

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Germany, the COVID-19 pandemic led to substantial changes in outpatient and acute clinical cardiac care and rehabilitation. To estimate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on cardiac rehabilitation in 2020, institutional performance was compared to the pre-pandemic year 2019. METHODS: The performance numbers from rehabilitation institutions were compared. These data were provided in 2019 and 2020 as part of an online survey that the German Society for the Prevention and Rehabilitation of Cardiovascular Diseases (DGPR) performs annually. RESULTS: Complete data for 2019 and 2020 were available from 60 institutions. The overall number of patients treated was reduced by 14.3%, with substantial differences between institutions. Women were more affected (-16.4%) than men (-13.4%) and retirees (-14.5%) significantly more than people still in the workforce (-7.5%). In 25 institutions (42.4%) there was a COVID-19 outbreak resulting in a partial or complete shutdown in 15.7%. In total, 34.5% of the institutions treated patients with COVID-19 infection, 30.5% after such an infection. A large majority of these institutions (72.1%) had to bear the costs for testing suspected cases of SARS-CoV-2-infection alone. CONCLUSION: The economic and logistic burden of the COVID-19 pandemic has posed a threat to cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Appl Gerontol ; 41(10): 2226-2234, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861894

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a hybrid, telephone-based cardiac rehabilitation (TBCR) program implemented early in the COVID-19 pandemic compared with in-person, center-based programming offered prior to the pandemic. The focus was on older adults' engagement and outcomes. Matched groups of hybrid and in-person cardiac rehabilitation (CR) participants were created from existing data and compared using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. Qualitative interviews were conducted with participating CR staff then transcribed, coded, and analyzed for key themes. There were significant differences in body mass index and weight from pre-to post-CR within both hybrid and in-person groups. Despite this, CR staff believed exercise adherence was reduced in the hybrid group when compared to those in the in-person program. In the future, TBCR should be considered as an adjunct to in-person CR. Reluctance to prescribe exercise needs to be addressed through CR staff training.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Aged , Exercise , Humans , Pandemics , Telephone
13.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 20(1): 13-34, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852794

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Growth of the older adult demographic has resulted in an increased number of older patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in combination with comorbid diseases and geriatric syndromes. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is utilized to promote recovery and improve outcomes, but remains underutilized, particularly by older adults. CR provides an opportunity to address the distinctive needs of older adults, with focus on CVD as well as geriatric domains that often dominate management and outcomes. AREAS COVERED: Utility of CR for CVD in older adults as well as pertinent geriatric syndromes (e.g. multimorbidity, frailty, polypharmacy, cognitive decline, psychosocial stress, and diminished function) that affect CVD management. EXPERT OPINION: Mounting data substantiate the importance of CR as part of recovery for older adults with CVD. The application of CR as a standard therapy is especially important as the combination of CVD and geriatric syndromes catalyzes functional decline and can trigger progressive clinical deterioration and dependency. While benefits of CR for older adults with CVD are already evident, further reengineering of CR is necessary to better address the needs of older candidates who may be frail, especially as remote and hybrid formats of CR are becoming more widespread.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Rehabilitation , Cardiovascular Diseases , Frailty , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Frail Elderly , Humans , Multimorbidity
14.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 118(5): 949-960, 2022 05.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has impacted how people receive health care for many conditions, including cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVES: To examine perceptions of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) participants regarding their health behaviors and information needs during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a 27-item questionnaire, developed by the investigators, was administered online to participants from two CR programs. Questions included health literacy (HL; using the Brief Health Literacy Screening Tool), technology use, perceptions before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and information needs. Pearson correlation coefficients, paired t-tests, and ANOVA were used as appropriate. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all tests. RESULTS: Overall, 159 (25.5%) CR participants answered the questionnaire. Of these, 89.9% had limited or marginal HL and 96.2% reported having internet access at home. Patients are mainly concerned about their family's health and their own, as well as how the coronavirus is dangerous to their health and how it has changed their lifestyle. Participants perceived that the quality of their health behaviors significantly decreased during the pandemic. The pandemic also changed information needs of CR participants as new needs emerged, such as the control of anxiety levels, staying motivated to live healthily during a pandemic, and how COVID-19 can impact their health condition. Participants with adequate HL significantly perceived the severity of the disease and having access to information significantly more than those with limited HL. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlighted the impact of the pandemic on CR participants' perceptions regarding their health behaviors and information needs, which can be influenced by HL levels.


FUNDAMENTO: A COVID-19 afetou como as pessoas recebem atendimento de saúde para várias doenças, inclusive doenças cardiovasculares. OBJETIVOS: Examinar as percepções dos participantes de reabilitação cardíaca (RC) sobre seus comportamentos em saúde e necessidades de informação durante a pandemia da COVID-19 no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo transversal, um questionário de 27 itens elaborado pelos investigadores foi administrado online a participantes de dois programas de RC. As perguntas incluíam letramento em saúde (LS; usando a Brief Health Literacy Screening Tool - Breve ferramenta de triagem de letramento em saúde), uso de tecnologia, percepções antes e durante a pandemia da COVID-19, e necessidades de informações. Foram usados coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, testes t pareados e ANOVA, conforme apropriado. Um p <0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo para todos os testes. RESULTADOS: No total, 159 (25,5%) participantes de RC responderam ao questionário. Desses, 89,9% tinham LS limitado ou marginal, e 96,2% relataram ter acesso à internet de casa. Os pacientes se preocupam principalmente com a saúde de sua família e própria, além de como o coronavírus é perigoso para sua saúde e como mudou seu estilo de vida. Os participantes perceberam que a qualidade de seus comportamentos em saúde diminuiu significativamente durante a pandemia. A pandemia também mudou as necessidades de informações dos participantes de RC, já que novas necessidades surgiram, tais como, controle de níveis de ansiedade, manter a motivação para levar uma vida saudável durante a pandemia, e como a COVID-19 pode afetar sua condição de saúde. Participantes com LS adequado perceberam significativamente a gravidade da doença e tinham significativamente mais acesso a informações do que os pacientes com LS limitado. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados destacaram o impacto da pandemia nas percepções dos participantes de RC em relação a seus comportamentos em saúde e necessidades de informação, que podem ser influenciados pelos níveis de LS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Behavior , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 42(5): 352-358, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778960

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) are widely used to guide exercise intensity in cardiac rehabilitation (CR), it is unclear whether target heart rate ranges (THRRs) can be implemented in CR programs that predominantly use RPE and what impact this has on changes in exercise capacity. METHODS: We conducted a three-group pilot randomized control trial (#NCT03925493) comparing RPE of 3-4 on the 10-point modified Borg scale, 60-80% of heart rate reserve (HRR) with heart rate (HR) monitored by telemetry, or 60-80% of HRR with a personal HR monitor (HRM) for high-fidelity adherence to THRR. Primary outcomes were protocol fidelity and feasibility. Secondary outcomes included exercise HR, RPE, and changes in functional exercise capacity. RESULTS: Of 48 participants randomized, four patients dropped out, 20 stopped prematurely (COVID-19 pandemic), and 24 completed the protocol. Adherence to THRR was high regardless of HRM, and patients attended a median (IQR) of 33 (23, 36) sessions with no difference between groups. After randomization, HR increased by 1 ± 6, 6 ± 5, and 10 ± 9 bpm ( P = .02); RPE (average score 3.0 ± 0.05) was unchanged, and functional exercise capacity increased by 1.0 ± 1.0, 1.9 ± 1.5, 2.0 ± 1.3 workload METs (effect size between groups, ηp2 = 0.11, P = .20) for the RPE, THRR, and THRR + HRM groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully implemented THRR in an all-RPE CR program without needing an HRM. Patients randomized to THRR had higher exercise HR but similar RPE ratings. The THRR may be preferable to RPE in CR populations for cardiorespiratory fitness gains, but this needs confirmation in an adequately powered trial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Pandemics , Physical Exertion/physiology , Pilot Projects , Prescriptions
16.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 381(3): 197-203, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765068

ABSTRACT

Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) improves physical capacities and decreases hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality. L-arginine is the substrate used by nitric oxide (NO) synthase to generate NO and it has been shown to exert its beneficial effects on endothelium driving vasodilatation, reducing inflammation, and ameliorating physical function. We hypothesized that L-arginine could enhance physical capacities in patients who underwent CR after AMI. We designed a study aimed to assess the effects of L-arginine administration on the physical capacity of patients who underwent coronary revascularization after AMI. The trial was carried out amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients were assigned, with a 2:1 ratio, to add to their standard therapy one bottle containing 1.66 g of L-arginine or one bottle of identical aspect apart from not containing L-arginine, twice a day orally for 3 weeks. Patients performed a 6-minute walking test (6MWT), and their Borg modified 0-10 rating of perceived exertion (BRPE) was assessed before starting and at the end of the treatment. Seventy-five patients receiving L-arginine, and 35 receiving placebo successfully completed the study. The 6MWT distance increased significantly in the L-arginine group compared with both baseline and placebo (P < 0.0001). Additionally, we observed a significant improvement in the BRPE in patients treated with L-arginine but not in the placebo group. Taken together, our data indicate that L-arginine potentiates the response to CR independently of age, sex, baseline functional capacity, and comorbid conditions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study shows for the first time that oral supplementation of L-arginine potentiates the response to cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction and cardiac revascularization. Indeed, we observed a significant improvement in two fundamental parameters, namely, the 6-minute walking test and the Borg modified 0-10 rating of perceived exertion. Strikingly, the beneficial effects of L-arginine were independent of age, sex, comorbid conditions, and baseline functional capacity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Myocardial Infarction , Arginine , Heart , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Pandemics
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e054558, 2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759369

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite extensive evidence of its benefits and recommendation by guidelines, cardiac rehabilitation (CR) remains highly underused with only 20%-50% of eligible patients participating. We aim to implement and evaluate the Country Heart Attack Prevention (CHAP) model of care to improve CR attendance and completion for rural and remote participants. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: CHAP will apply the model for large-scale knowledge translation to develop and implement a model of care to CR in rural Australia. Partnering with patients, clinicians and health service managers, we will codevelop new approaches and refine/expand existing ones to address known barriers to CR attendance. CHAP will codesign a web-based CR programme with patients expanding their choices to CR attendance. To increase referral rates, CHAP will promote endorsement of CR among clinicians and develop an electronic system that automatises referrals of in-hospital eligible patients to CR. A business model that includes reimbursement of CR delivered in primary care by Medicare will enable sustainable access to CR. To promote CR quality improvement, professional development interventions and an accreditation programme of CR services and programmes will be developed. To evaluate 12-month CR attendance/completion (primary outcome), clinical and cost-effectiveness (secondary outcomes) between patients exposed (n=1223) and not exposed (n=3669) to CHAP, we will apply a multidesign approach that encompasses a prospective cohort study, a pre-post study and a comprehensive economic evaluation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Southern Adelaide Clinical Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/20/SAC/78) and by the Department for Health and Wellbeing Human Research Ethics Committee (2021/HRE00270), which approved a waiver of informed consent. Findings and dissemination to patients and clinicians will be through a public website, online educational sessions and scientific publications. Deidentified data will be available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12621000222842.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Rehabilitation , Cardiovascular Diseases , Myocardial Infarction , Aged , Australia , Cardiac Rehabilitation/methods , Humans , National Health Programs , Prospective Studies
18.
Clin Ther ; 44(4): 491-507, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719499

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a class I recommendation after valvular surgery. Few data exist on the level of access to CR after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), and the factors affecting the probability of timely access to CR after SAVR have never been empirically investigated. This study aims at estimating the proportion of SAVR patients who initiated timely CR and understanding to what extent timely access to CR for SAVR patients is influenced by specific characteristics of patients and hospitals. METHODS: We conducted a real-world, retrospective, population-based study by identifying from the Italian National Hospital Discharge Records all the discharged alive SAVR patients who accessed timely CR from 2009-2016. Two different cutoffs for timely access were considered, i.e. one and 21 days after discharge. A unique dataset was constructed by merging several data sources. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify the factors influencing the probability to access to timely CR. FINDINGS: 107,545 patients underwent SAVR in Italy from 2009-2016 and were discharged alive. Overall, 71,593 SAVR patients (66.6%) accessed timely CR, with an increasing trend over time. Additional 6,149 patients (5.7%) started CR from 2-21 days after discharge, slightly decreasing over time. The probability of timely CR (one-day cutoff) was significantly higher in older (OR=1.025, p<0.001) female patients (OR = 1.003, p<0.05) and patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular comorbidities. Presence of rehabilitation wards and number of rehabilitation beds in the index hospital significantly increased the probability of timely access to CR (OR = 1.105, p<0.001 and OR = 1.006, p<0.001 respectively). Patients hospitalized in private teaching hospitals had the highest predicted probability of timely CR after SAVR. A substantial variation in access to CR was found across Italian regions. Similar results were obtained with the alternative 21-days cutoff. IMPLICATIONS: Approximately one-third of SAVR patients did not benefit from CR in Italy, mainly due to shortness of rehabilitation facilities, with relevant disparities across the country. The cessation of CR services during the COVID-19 pandemic provides the opportunity to re-think and innovate CR, shifting from center-based to home-based models. Digital health technologies can supplement traditional health services and grant safe, effective, and equitable access to care, especially for countries with insufficient rehabilitation bed capacity. As CR is associated with better outcomes, we recommend decision-makers to use our results to plan adequate healthcare services, also investing in digital health, to ensure patients' access to cost-effective care.


Subject(s)
Aortic Valve Stenosis , COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement , Aged , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(4)2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715642

ABSTRACT

Concordant assessments of physical activity (PA) and related measures in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is essential for exercise prescription. This study compared exercise measurement from an in-person walk test; wearable activity tracker; and self-report at CR entry, completion (8-weeks) and follow-up (16-weeks). Forty patients beginning CR completed the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), and wore Fitbit-Flex for four consecutive days including two weekend days. The sample mean age was 66 years; 67% were male. Increased exercise capacity at CR completion and follow-up was detected by a 6MWT change in mean distance (39 m and 42 m; p = 0.01, respectively). Increased PA participation at CR completion was detected by Fitbit-Flex mean change in step counts (1794; p = 0.01). Relative changes for Fitbit-Flex step counts and a 6MWT were consistent with previous research, demonstrating Fitbit-Flex's potential as an outcome measure. With four days of data, Fitbit-Flex had acceptable ICC values in measuring step counts and MVPA minutes. Fitbit-Flex steps and 6MWT meters are more responsive to changes in PA patterns following exposure to a cardiac rehabilitation program than Fitbit-Flex or PASE-estimated moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) minutes. Fitbit-Flex step counts provide a useful additional measure for assessing PA outside of the CR setting and accounts for day-to-day variations. Two weekend days and two weekdays are needed for Fitbit-Flex to estimate PA levels more precisely.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Rehabilitation , Aged , Exercise , Exercise Therapy , Fitness Trackers , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies
20.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 21(7): 732-740, 2022 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684660

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Enforced suspension and reduction of in-person cardiac rehabilitation (CR) services during the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic restrictions required rapid implementation of remote delivery methods, thus enabling a cohort comparison of in-person vs. remote-delivered CR participants. This study aimed to examine the health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes and patient experiences comparing these delivery modes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants across four metropolitan CR sites receiving in-person (December 2019 to March 2020) or remote-delivered (April to October 2020) programmes were assessed for HRQL (Short Form-12) at CR entry and completion. A General Linear Model was used to adjust for baseline group differences and qualitative interviews to explore patient experiences. Participants (n = 194) had a mean age of 65.94 (SD 10.45) years, 80.9% males. Diagnoses included elective percutaneous coronary intervention (40.2%), myocardial infarction (33.5%), and coronary artery bypass grafting (26.3%). Remote-delivered CR wait times were shorter than in-person [median 14 (interquartile range, IQR 10-21) vs. 25 (IQR 16-38) days, P < 0.001], but participation by ethnic minorities was lower (13.6% vs. 35.2%, P < 0.001). Remote-delivered CR participants had equivalent benefits to in-person in all HRQL domains but more improvements than in-person in Mental Health, both domain [mean difference (MD) 3.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28, 5.82] and composite (MD 2.37, 95% CI 0.15, 4.58). From qualitative interviews (n = 16), patients valued in-person CR for direct exercise supervision and group interactions, and remote-delivered for convenience and flexibility (negotiable contact times). CONCLUSION: Remote-delivered CR implemented during COVID-19 had equivalent, sometimes better, HRQL outcomes than in-person, and shorter wait times. Participation by minority groups in remote-delivered modes are lower. Further research is needed to evaluate other patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Aged , Cardiac Rehabilitation/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Outcome Assessment , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life
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