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1.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(8 Pt B): 3074-3083, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927111

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The authors' aim was to examine the preoperative hormone and nutritional status in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: The authors' research was a single-center, prospective, observational study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03736499). PARTICIPANTS & INTERVENTIONS: The authors examined 252 patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery. Preoperative thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), prolactin, and testosterone levels were collected and analyzed after the surgery. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT), and Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) were all calculated as a sum and groups. Frailty was calculated based on the modified Frailty Index-11. The primary outcome was overall mortality. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 64.23 years (standard deviation: 11.07 years). Thirty-three patients (13.01%) died during the median follow-up time of 20.48 months (interquartile range: 18.90-22.98 months). Thyroid hormones were examined as continuous variables and also in 3 groups based on low, normal, and high hormone levels. Continuous TSH (p = 0.230), continuous fT3 (p = 0.492), and continuous fT4 (p = 0.657) were not significantly associated with total mortality. After adjustment for the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II and postoperative complications, the following nutritional scores were associated with total mortality: GNRI < 91 (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 4.384; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.866-10.303, p = 0.001), the higher CONUT group (AHR: 1.736; 95% CI: 1.736-2.866, p = 0.031), and a PNI < 48 points (AHR: 3.465; 95% CI: 1.735-6.918, p < 0.001). The modified Frailty Index-11 was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Before cardiac surgery, nutritional status should be assessed because the findings may help to decrease mortality. The hormone levels were not associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Frailty , Malnutrition , Aged , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Hormones , Thyrotropin
3.
Med J Malaysia ; 77(3): 371-373, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1871531

ABSTRACT

The provision of cardiac surgery services nationwide has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. We noticed a high COVID-19 mortality rate in unvaccinated patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 after recent cardiac surgery. All the patients were tested negative for COVID-19 before surgery. We conducted a review of our hospital data and reported our findings. We identified 15 patients and reported 7 deaths (46.7%). All the patients died from COVID-19 or its complications. We recommend that cardiac centres actively promote vaccination before cardiac surgery and also enhance infection control measures to prevent nosocomial infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Cross Infection , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Infection Control , Pandemics/prevention & control
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e063278, 2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861633

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A number of published studies have revealed that lung recruitment can improve oxygenation, shorten the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) and decrease mortality in adults with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, especially patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, few articles have assessed lung recruitment in paediatric patients, especially after cardiac surgery. This clinical trial aimed to determine whether lung recruitment can reduce the duration of MV in paediatric patients with hypoxaemic respiratory failure after cardiac surgery. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: In this trial, we will randomly assign 234 paediatric patients (aged 28 days to 14 years) within 72 hours after cardiac surgery with an arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio (PaO2/FiO2) of <300 to either a lung recruitment group or a conventional group. The primary endpoint will be the duration of MV. The secondary endpoints will be ventilator-free days, PaO2/FiO2, respiratory system compliance, duration of non-invasive ventilation, reintubation rate, length of intensive care unit stay, length of hospital stay, occurrence of serious adverse events (barotrauma, persistent hypotension and arrhythmia), postoperative pulmonary complications. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The ethics committee of West China Hospital of Sichuan University granted ethics approval for this study (20 August 2019). The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR1900025990.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Child , Humans , Lung , Oxygen , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266056, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ever since COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, the world medical landscape has changed dramatically. As cardiac surgeons we not only have the duty to protect our patients and staff from COVID-19 infection, but we are also tasked with the responsibility to ensure those cardiovascular patients awaiting surgery are not harmed from an extended delay in surgery as the world comes to a halt from COVID-19. Currently there is limited literature on the outcome of cardiac surgery in the pre-operative Covid positive group. In this study we aim to assess the safety and outcome of patients undergoing cardiac surgery following Covid-19 infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a single centre retrospective observational study. All patients undergoing open heart surgery at Institut Jantung Negara from June 2020 to July 2021 were included in this study. Patients who were Covid positive pre-operatively were identified. Data from patient medical records collected contemporaneously were reviewed and analysed, supplemented by telephone call interviews after discharge. RESULTS: 2368 patients underwent open heart surgery from June 2020 until July 2021 in our centre. Of these, 0.5% (12 patients) were identified as Covid positive pre-operatively. Mean age of patients were 59.1 ± 14.8 years old. Mean Ejection Fraction was 46.4 ± 12.9. Most patients (75%) were asymptomatic with covid infection and only one patient were admitted to hospital for Covid infection. Mean duration from Covid PCR positive swab to surgery were 46.3 ± 32.7days. Most of the patients (66.7%) underwent operation on an emergency or urgent basis. Median time to extubation was 1 day. Median ICU length of stay was 1 day. 25% patients required non-invasive ventilation post-operatively and one patient was discharged home on long term oxygen therapy. There were 2 deaths- none of which were covid related mortality. CONCLUSION: Cardiac surgery could be performed safely in patients with pre-operative Covid-19 infection after a period of recovery, especially in the asymptomatic to mild category of infection. Multi-disciplinary team approach may be useful in deciding the timing of surgery for complex cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 13(4): 523-525, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745528

ABSTRACT

We report a case of endocarditis months after a Bentall procedure. This was caused by Candida Lusitaniae, in an immunocompetent patient with a recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. The patient underwent a new Bentall procedure. SARS-CoV-2 has been associated with co-infection by Candida species since the beginning of the pandemic, nevertheless, Candida Lusitaniae remains a very uncommon causative agent of prosthetic endocarditis. We suggest a possible role of the SARS-CoV-2, which may have delayed the diagnosis of endocarditis and the appropriate therapy.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Endocarditis , Saccharomycetales , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Endocarditis/diagnosis , Endocarditis/microbiology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Saccharomycetales/isolation & purification
7.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 35(2)2022 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740877

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was a great burden for health care worldwide. We encountered 21 non-infected adult patients during 2020 who deferred to seek medical treatment since they thought that their difficulties to breathe were due to COVID-19. They were diagnosed late with cardiac disease with the indication for surgery. Deferred surgery for aortic stenosis was the cause of death in 1 patient. Long-standing not-treated endocarditis had caused severe aortic root pathology in 3 patients. Late-diagnosed ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 2 patients had caused papillary muscle and ventricular wall rupture. Eighteen of the patients finally underwent heart surgery at our tertiary care centre with early mortality of 22%. We conclude that late diagnosis of subjects requiring surgical treatment for heart disease was a risk for dismal outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Aortic Valve Stenosis , COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Adult , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Humans , Pandemics
8.
CMAJ Open ; 10(1): E173-E182, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surgical delay may result in unintended harm to patients needing cardiac surgery, who are at risk for death if their condition is left untreated. Our objective was to derive and internally validate a clinical risk score to predict death among patients awaiting major cardiac surgery. METHODS: We used the CorHealth Ontario Registry and linked ICES health administrative databases with information on all Ontario residents to identify patients aged 18 years or more who were referred for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valvular procedures, combined CABG-valvular procedures or thoracic aorta procedures between Oct. 1, 2008, and Sept. 30, 2019. We used a hybrid modelling approach with the random forest method for initial variable selection, followed by backward stepwise logistic regression modelling for clinical interpretability and parsimony. We internally validated the logistic regression model, termed the CardiOttawa Waitlist Mortality Score, using 200 bootstraps. RESULTS: Of the 112 266 patients referred for cardiac surgery, 269 (0.2%) died while awaiting surgery (118/72 366 [0.2%] isolated CABG, 81/24 461 [0.3%] valvular procedures, 63/12 046 [0.5%] combined CABG-valvular procedures and 7/3393 [0.2%] thoracic aorta procedures). Age, sex, surgery type, left main stenosis, Canadian Cardiovascular Society classification, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, dialysis, psychosis and operative priority were predictors of waitlist mortality. The model discriminated (C-statistic 0.76 [optimism-corrected 0.73]). It calibrated well in the overall cohort (Hosmer-Lemeshow p = 0.2) and across surgery types. INTERPRETATION: The CardiOttawa Waitlist Mortality Score is a simple clinical risk model that predicts the likelihood of death while awaiting cardiac surgery. It has the potential to provide data-driven decision support for managing access to cardiac care and preserve system capacity during the COVID-19 pandemic, the recovery period and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Adolescent , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
9.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 361, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599128

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess changes in cardiovascular disease severity, types, postoperative complications and prognosis during the COVID-19 pandemic and to explore possible influencing factors. METHODS: A total of 422 patients were enrolled in this study, and hospitalization and short-term follow-up data were retained. The patient population included 273 men and 149 women. Patients had a median (IQR) age of 54 (45-62) years and were divided into an observation group (130) and a control group (292), primarily according to severity of disease, disease types, baseline indexes, biochemical indexes, cardiac function indexes, complications and prognosis. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, compared with the same period last year, there was a significant increase in patients with aortic dissection (27.69% vs 5.82%), a significant decrease in patients with valvular heart disease (43.08% vs 66.78%), and significantly increased emergency admission (50.00% vs 21.23%) and severity (54.62% vs 27.40%). Family company (76.37% vs 64.62%) was decreased, EuroSCORE [6.5 (2-9) vs 2 (0-5)] score, Pro-BNP [857.50 (241.00-2222.50) vs 542.40 (113.45-1776.75)] ng/L, six months mortality rate (18.46% vs 8.90%), and postoperative complications, including infected patients, atelectasis, pulmonary edema, and so on were increased, with longer length of stay in the ICU and hospital in COVID-19 pandemic. Survival analysis curve further demonstrated that it had an impact on the deaths of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Through ROC analysis of the death factors of patients, it was concluded that Family company affected the death of patients, and the area under the curve was 0.654 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that the admission rate of critically ill patients with cardiovascular disease, complications of cardiac surgery, and short-term mortality of patients all exhibited a short-term increase, family company may be a risk factors for short-term mortality, that may be related to public pressure caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; 30(6): 669-678, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers are still the front liners in health care services, and have major roles during the COVID-19 pandemic. In a resource-limited country like Indonesia, it is necessary to provide safe screening and management both for patients and healthcare workers to minimize the transmission. We report our experience in the cardiac surgery department on how to provide safe management during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed in a single-tertiary-center cardiac surgery department in Surabaya and included all patients who underwent cardiac surgery during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. We also collected the patients from a 1-year period before the pandemic as the comparison data. Analysis of the patient characteristics, operative data, and postoperative outcome, was performed. This study also provides our experience in changes of admission in the cardiac surgery preoperative system that can be utilized for others. RESULTS: A total of 179 patients were admitted to and had cardiac surgery. Of these, 3.80% (n = 7) were COVID-19 confirmed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Five patients were delayed to have cardiac surgery with no mortality or morbidity reported in these patients. During the period after changes of admission procedural in cardiac surgery patients, there were no healthcare workers infected by COVID-19 by patient transmission in our center (0%). CONCLUSION: Our study reported a systematic screening and that possible delay in cardiac surgery appears to be feasible and safe, both for patients and for healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Crit Care ; 67: 108-117, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565598

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is a contributor to adverse outcomes. Preventive measures reduce AKI incidence in high risk patients, identified by biomarkers [TIMP-2]*[IGFBP7] (Nephrocheck®). This study investigate clinical AKI risk assessment by healthcare professionals and the added value of the biomarker result. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult patients were prospectively included. Healthcare professionals predicted CSA-AKI, with and without biomarker result knowledge. Predicted outcomes were AKI based on creatinine, AKI stage 3 on urine output, anuria and use of kidney replacement therapy (KRT). RESULTS: One-hundred patients were included. Consultant and ICU residents were best in AKI prediction, respectively AUROC 0.769 (95% CI, 0.672-0.850) and 0.702 (95% CI, 0.599-0.791). AUROC of NephroCheck® was 0.541 (95% CI, 0.438-0.642). AKI 3 occurred in only 4 patients; there was no anuria or use of KRT. ICU nurses and ICU residents had an AUROC for prediction of AKI 3 of respectively 0.867 (95% CI, 0.780-0.929) and 0.809 (95% CI, 0.716-0.883); for NephroCheck® this was 0.838 (95% CI, 0.750-0.904). CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals performed poor or fair in predicting CSA-AKI and knowledge of Nephrocheck® result did not improved prediction. No conclusions could be made for prediction of severe AKI, due to limited number of events.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Biomarkers , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins , Prospective Studies , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2
13.
14.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(7): 1919-1926, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510650

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies reported a poor outcome in patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) undergoing cardiac surgery. Complications most frequently described were respiratory failure, renal failure, and thromboembolic events. In their recent experience, the authors observed a very high incidence of bleeding complications. The purpose of the study was to investigate a possible significant correlation between perioperative COVID-19 infection and hemorrhagic complications compared to non-COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Single-center, observational, retrospective, matched case-control (1:2) study involving patients who underwent open-heart cardiac surgery from February 2020 and March 2021 with positive perioperative diagnosis of COVID-19 infection, matched with patients without COVID-19 infection. SETTING: Cardiac surgery unit and intensive care unit of a university tertiary center in a metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: In the study period, 773 patients underwent cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Among them, 23 consecutive patients had perioperative diagnosis of COVID-19 infection (study group). These patients were compared with 46 corresponding controls (control group) that matched for age, sex, body mass index, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons score. INTERVENTIONS: Open-heart cardiac surgery on CPB. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the study group, 2 patients (9%) died in the intensive care unit from severe respiratory failure, shock, and multiple organ failure. In the study group, patients showed a significantly higher incidence of bleeding complications (48% v 2%, p = 0.0001) and cases of surgical reexploration for bleeding (35% v 2%, p = 0.0001), a higher incidence of severe postoperative thrombocytopenia (39% v 6%, p = 0.0007), and a higher need of blood components transfusions (74% v 30%, p = 0.0006). Chest tubes blood loss and surgical hemostasis time were markedly prolonged (p = 0.02 and p = 0.003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A worrisome increased risk of early and late bleeding complications in COVID-19 patients was observed, and it should be considered when assessing the operative risk. CPB-related inflammatory reaction could exacerbate the deleterious effect of COVID-19 on the coagulation system and likely deviate it toward a hemorrhagic pattern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463636

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Delirium is a common complication of patients hospitalized in Intensive care units (ICU). The risk of delirium is estimated at approximately 80% in intensive care units. In the case of cardiac surgery ICU, the risk of delirium increases due to the type of procedures performed with the use of extracorporeal circulation. The aim of this study was to provide an official translation and evaluation of Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (NuDESC) into Polish. The NuDESC scale is a scale used by nurses around the world to detect delirium at an early stage in treatment. METHODS: The method used in the study was the NuDESC tool, which was translated into Polish. The study was conducted by Cardiac ICU nurses during day shift (at 8 a.m.), night shift (at 8 p.m.) and in other situations where the patients showed delirium-like symptoms. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were observed between the first and second day in the studied group of patients in the case of illusions/hallucinations. Delirium occurred more frequently during the night, but statistical significance was demonstrated for both daytime and nighttime shifts. It was not demonstrated in relation to the NuDESC scale in the case of insomnia disorders. The diagnosis of delirium and disorientation was the most common diagnosis observed in patients on the first day of their stay in the ICU, followed by problems with communication. Delirium occurred on the first day, mainly at night. On the second day, delirium was much less frequent during the night; the biggest problem was disorientation and problems with communication. CONCLUSION: This study contributed to the development of the Polish version of the scale (NuDESC PL) which is now used as the Polish screening tool for delirium detection. The availability of an easy-to-use nurse-based delirium instrument is a prerequisite for widespread implementation.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Delirium , Nurses , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Delirium/diagnosis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Poland
16.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 434, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic imposed an unprecedented burden on the provision of cardiac surgical services. The reallocation of workforce and resources necessitated the postponement of elective operations in this cohort of high-risk patients. We investigated the impact of this outbreak on the aortic valve surgery activity at a single two-site centre in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Data were extracted from the local surgical database, including the demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients operated on from March 2020 to May 2020 with only one of the two sites resuming operative activity and compared with the respective 2019 period. A similar comparison was conducted with the period between June 2020 and August 2020, when operative activity was restored at both institutional sites. The experience of centres world-wide was invoked to assess the efficiency of our services. RESULTS: There was an initial 38.2% reduction in the total number of operations with a 70% reduction in elective cases, compared with a 159% increase in urgent and emergency operations. The attendant surgical risk was significantly higher [median Euroscore II was 2.7 [1.9-5.2] in 2020 versus 2.1 [0.9-3.7] in 2019 (p = 0.005)] but neither 30-day survival nor freedom from major post-operative complications (re-sternotomy for bleeding/tamponade, transient ischemic attack/stroke, renal replacement therapy) was compromised (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Recommencement of activity at both institutional sites conferred a surgical volume within 17% of the pre-COVID-19 era. CONCLUSIONS: Our institution managed to offer a considerable volume of aortic valve surgical activity over the first COVID-19 outbreak to a cohort of higher-risk patients, without compromising post-operative outcomes. A backlog of elective cases is expected to develop, the accommodation of which after surgical activity normalisation will be crucial to monitor.


Subject(s)
Aortic Valve/surgery , COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/trends , Heart Valve Diseases/surgery , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Surgeons/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Databases, Factual , Elective Surgical Procedures/trends , Female , Heart Valve Diseases/mortality , Humans , London , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 434, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic imposed an unprecedented burden on the provision of cardiac surgical services. The reallocation of workforce and resources necessitated the postponement of elective operations in this cohort of high-risk patients. We investigated the impact of this outbreak on the aortic valve surgery activity at a single two-site centre in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Data were extracted from the local surgical database, including the demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients operated on from March 2020 to May 2020 with only one of the two sites resuming operative activity and compared with the respective 2019 period. A similar comparison was conducted with the period between June 2020 and August 2020, when operative activity was restored at both institutional sites. The experience of centres world-wide was invoked to assess the efficiency of our services. RESULTS: There was an initial 38.2% reduction in the total number of operations with a 70% reduction in elective cases, compared with a 159% increase in urgent and emergency operations. The attendant surgical risk was significantly higher [median Euroscore II was 2.7 [1.9-5.2] in 2020 versus 2.1 [0.9-3.7] in 2019 (p = 0.005)] but neither 30-day survival nor freedom from major post-operative complications (re-sternotomy for bleeding/tamponade, transient ischemic attack/stroke, renal replacement therapy) was compromised (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Recommencement of activity at both institutional sites conferred a surgical volume within 17% of the pre-COVID-19 era. CONCLUSIONS: Our institution managed to offer a considerable volume of aortic valve surgical activity over the first COVID-19 outbreak to a cohort of higher-risk patients, without compromising post-operative outcomes. A backlog of elective cases is expected to develop, the accommodation of which after surgical activity normalisation will be crucial to monitor.


Subject(s)
Aortic Valve/surgery , COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/trends , Heart Valve Diseases/surgery , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Surgeons/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Databases, Factual , Elective Surgical Procedures/trends , Female , Heart Valve Diseases/mortality , Humans , London , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2121867, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375583

ABSTRACT

Importance: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) occurring after cardiac surgery is associated with adverse outcomes. Whether POAF persists beyond discharge is not well defined. Objective: To determine whether continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring enhances detection of POAF among cardiac surgical patients during the first 30 days after hospital discharge compared with usual care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study is an investigator-initiated, open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial conducted at 10 Canadian centers. Enrollment spanned from March 2017 to March 2020, with follow-up through September 11, 2020. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, enrollment stopped on July 17, 2020, at which point 85% of the proposed sample size was enrolled. Cardiac surgical patients with CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74 years, female sex) score greater than or equal to 4 or greater than or equal to 2 with risk factors for POAF, no history of preoperative AF, and POAF lasting less than 24 hours during hospitalization were enrolled. Interventions: The intervention group underwent continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring with wearable, patch-based monitors for 30 days after randomization. Monitoring was not mandated in the usual care group within 30 days after randomization. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was cumulative AF and/or atrial flutter lasting 6 minutes or longer detected by continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring or by a 12-lead electrocardiogram within 30 days of randomization. Prespecified secondary outcomes included cumulative AF lasting 6 hours or longer and 24 hours or longer within 30 days of randomization, death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, non-central nervous system thromboembolism, major bleeding, and oral anticoagulation prescription. Results: Of the 336 patients randomized (163 patients in the intervention group and 173 patients in the usual care group; mean [SD] age, 67.4 [8.1] years; 73 women [21.7%]; median [interquartile range] CHA2DS2-VASc score, 4.0 [3.0-4.0] points), 307 (91.4%) completed the trial. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the primary end point occurred in 32 patients (19.6%) in the intervention group vs 3 patients (1.7%) in the usual care group (absolute difference, 17.9%; 95% CI, 11.5%-24.3%; P < .001). AF lasting 6 hours or longer was detected in 14 patients (8.6%) in the intervention group vs 0 patients in the usual care group (absolute difference, 8.6%; 95% CI, 4.3%-12.9%; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In post-cardiac surgical patients at high risk of stroke, no preoperative AF history, and AF lasting less than 24 hours during hospitalization, continuous monitoring revealed a significant increase in the rate of POAF after discharge that would otherwise not be detected by usual care. Studies are needed to examine whether these patients will benefit from oral anticoagulation therapy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02793895.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Flutter/diagnosis , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Patient Discharge , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Flutter/etiology , COVID-19 , Canada , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/surgery , Electrocardiography , Female , Hemorrhage , Hospitalization , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Stroke , Thromboembolism
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