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1.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(9): 701-705, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339452

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has thoroughly and deeply affected the provision of healthcare services worldwide. In order to limit the in-hospital infections and to redistribute the healthcare professionals, cardiac percutaneous intervention in Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) patients were limited to urgent or emergency ones. The aim of this article is to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Pediatric and ACHD cath laboratory activity during the so-called 'hard lockdown' in Italy. Eleven out of 12 Italian institutions with a dedicated Invasive Cardiology Unit in Congenital Heart Disease actively participated in the survey. The interventional cardiology activity was reduced by more than 50% in 6 out of 11 centers. Adolescent and ACHD patients suffered the highest rate of reduction. There was an evident discrepancy in the management of the hard lockdown, irrespective of the number of COVID-19 positive cases registered, with a higher reduction in Southern Italy compared with the most affected regions (Lombardy, Piedmont, Veneto and Emilia Romagna). Although the pandemic was brilliantly addressed in most cases, we recognize the necessity for planning new, and hopefully homogeneous, strategies in order to be prepared for an upcoming new outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Emergency Medical Services , Heart Defects, Congenital , Infection Control , Risk Management/methods , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Civil Defense/methods , Civil Defense/trends , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 113(3): 738-746, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has changed the world as we know it, and the United States continues to accumulate the largest number of COVID-related deaths worldwide. There exists a paucity of data regarding the effect of COVID-19 on adult cardiac surgery trends and outcomes on regional and national levels. METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database was queried from January 1, 2018, to June 30, 2020. The Johns Hopkins COVID-19 database was queried from February 1, 2020, to January 1, 2021. Surgical and COVID-19 volumes, trends, and outcomes were analyzed on a national and regional level. Observed-to-expected ratios were used to analyze risk-adjustable mortality. RESULTS: The study analyzed 717 103 adult cardiac surgery patients and more than 20 million COVID-19 patients. Nationally, there was a 52.7% reduction in adult cardiac surgery volume and a 65.5% reduction in elective cases. The Mid-Atlantic region was most affected by the first COVID-19 surge, with 69.7% reduction in overall case volume and 80.0% reduction in elective cases. In the Mid-Atlantic and New England regions, the observed-to-expected mortality for isolated coronary bypass increased as much as 1.48 times (148% increase) pre-COVID rates. After the first COVID-19 surge, nationwide cardiac surgical case volumes did not return to baseline, indicating a COVID-19-associated deficit of cardiac surgery patients. CONCLUSIONS: This large analysis of COVID-19-related impact on adult cardiac surgery volume, trends, and outcomes found that during the pandemic, cardiac surgery volume suffered dramatically, particularly in the Mid-Atlantic and New England regions during the first COVID-19 surge, with a concurrent increase in observed-to-expected 30-day mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology
3.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 69(4): 294-307, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281759

ABSTRACT

Based on a longtime voluntary registry, founded by the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (GSTCVS) in 1980, well-defined data of all cardiac, thoracic and vascular surgery procedures performed in 78 German heart surgery departments during the year 2020 are analyzed. Under the more than extraordinary conditions of the ongoing worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, a total of 161,817 procedures were submitted to the registry. A total of 92,809 of these operations are summarized as heart surgery procedures in a classical sense. The unadjusted in-hospital survival rate for the 29,444 isolated coronary artery bypass grafting procedures (relationship on-/off-pump 3.6:1) was 97.2%. For the 35,469 isolated heart valve procedures, (17,471 transcatheter interventions included), the survival rate was 96.7%. Concerning short- and long-term circulatory support, a total of 2,852 extracorporeal life support/extracorporeal membrane oxygenation implantations, respectively, 843 assist device implantations (left/right/biventricular assist device, total artificial device), were registered. In 2020, the number of isolated heart transplantations increased to 340, a rise of 2.1% compared with the previous year. The isolated lung transplantations amounted to 291, a decrease of 6.4%.This annually updated registry of the GSTCVS represents voluntary public reporting by accumulating actual information for nearly all heart surgical procedures in Germany, constitutes advancements in heart medicine, and represents a basis for quality management for all participating institutions. In addition, the registry demonstrates that the provision of cardiac surgery in Germany is up to date, appropriate, and nationwide patient treatment is guaranteed all the time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Heart Diseases/surgery , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Registries , Societies, Medical , Thoracic Surgery , Comorbidity , Germany/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(13): 1644-1655, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147716

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have been considered potentially high risk for novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) mortality or other complications. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to define the impact of COVID-19 in adults with CHD and to identify risk factors associated with adverse outcomes. METHODS: Adults (age 18 years or older) with CHD and with confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19 were included from CHD centers worldwide. Data collection included anatomic diagnosis and subsequent interventions, comorbidities, medications, echocardiographic findings, presenting symptoms, course of illness, and outcomes. Predictors of death or severe infection were determined. RESULTS: From 58 adult CHD centers, the study included 1,044 infected patients (age: 35.1 ± 13.0 years; range 18 to 86 years; 51% women), 87% of whom had laboratory-confirmed coronavirus infection. The cohort included 118 (11%) patients with single ventricle and/or Fontan physiology, 87 (8%) patients with cyanosis, and 73 (7%) patients with pulmonary hypertension. There were 24 COVID-related deaths (case/fatality: 2.3%; 95% confidence interval: 1.4% to 3.2%). Factors associated with death included male sex, diabetes, cyanosis, pulmonary hypertension, renal insufficiency, and previous hospital admission for heart failure. Worse physiological stage was associated with mortality (p = 0.001), whereas anatomic complexity or defect group were not. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 mortality in adults with CHD is commensurate with the general population. The most vulnerable patients are those with worse physiological stage, such as cyanosis and pulmonary hypertension, whereas anatomic complexity does not appear to predict infection severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Cyanosis , Heart Defects, Congenital , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Causality , Comorbidity , Cyanosis/diagnosis , Cyanosis/etiology , Cyanosis/mortality , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Heart Defects, Congenital/classification , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/mortality , Male , Mortality , Patient Acuity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Symptom Assessment
6.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 43, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early studies conclude patients with Covid-19 have a high risk of death, but no studies specifically explore cardiac surgery outcome. We investigate UK cardiac surgery outcomes during the early phase of the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included all adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery between 1st March and 30th April 2020 in nine UK centres. Data was obtained and linked locally from the National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Adult Cardiac Surgery database, the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre database and local electronic systems. The anonymised datasets were analysed by the lead centre. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, propensity score matching (PSM), conditional logistic regression and hierarchical quantile regression. RESULTS: Of 755 included individuals, 53 (7.0%) had Covid-19. Comparing those with and without Covid-19, those with Covid-19 had increased mortality (24.5% v 3.5%, p < 0.0001) and longer post-operative stay (11 days v 6 days, p = 0.001), both of which remained significant after PSM. Patients with a pre-operative Covid-19 diagnosis recovered in a similar way to non-Covid-19 patients. However, those with a post-operative Covid-19 diagnosis remained in hospital for an additional 5 days (12 days v 7 days, p = 0.024) and had a considerably higher mortality rate compared to those with a pre-operative diagnosis (37.1% v 0.0%, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: To mitigate against the risks of Covid-19, particularly the post-operative burden, robust and effective pre-surgery diagnosis protocols alongside effective strategies to maintain a Covid-19 free environment are needed. Dedicated cardiac surgery hubs could be valuable in achieving safe and continual delivery of cardiac surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Heart Diseases/surgery , Pandemics , Propensity Score , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
7.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(11 Suppl 1): 45S-47S, 2020 11.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to deferral of many non-urgent procedures in most healthcare systems worldwide. With this study we aimed to quantify the impact of COVID-19 on interventional treatment of structural heart disease (SHD) in Italy. METHODS: Numbers of transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR), left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO), patent foramen ovale (PFO) closures performed over a 4-week period during the national lockdown in Italian centers performing over 60 structural heart interventions (SHI)/year were compared with the same 4-week period in 2019. Incidence rate reductions (IRR) were estimated by zero-inflated negative binomial regression. RESULTS: According to our nationwide analysis, SHIs were reduced by 79% as compared to the same period in 2019 (IRR 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.29). This reduction was more substantial for PFO closure (IRR 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.07), LAAO (IRR 0.11, 95% CI 0.05-0.25) and PMVR (IRR 0.12, 95% CI 0.04-0.36) as compared to TAVR (IRR 0.31, 95% CI 0.22-0.47). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a 79% drop in SHI volumes in Italy. PFO closure, LAAO and PMVR decreased more significantly as compared to TAVR. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of this reduction on outcomes of patients with SHD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Confidence Intervals , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mitral Valve/surgery , Prevalence , Time Factors , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/statistics & numerical data
8.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 114(5): 364-370, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak had a direct impact on adult cardiac surgery activity, which systematically necessitates a postoperative stay in intensive care. AIM: To study the effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on cardiac surgery activity and outcomes, by making a comparison with the corresponding period in 2019. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study compared adult cardiac surgery activity in our high-volume referral university hospital from 9 March to 10 May 2020 versus 9 March to 10 May 2019. Data were collected in our local certified database and a national database sponsored by the French society of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. The primary study endpoints were operative mortality and postoperative complications. RESULTS: With 105 interventions in 2020, our activity dropped by 57% compared with the same period in 2019. Patients were at higher risk, with a significantly higher EuroSCORE II score (3.8±4.5% vs. 2.0±1.8%; P<0.001) and higher rates of active endocarditis (7.6% vs. 2.9%; P=0.047) and recent myocardial infarction (9.5% vs. 0%; P<0.001). The weight and priority of the interventions were significantly different in 2020 (P=0.019 and P<0.001, respectively). The rate of acute aortic syndromes was also significantly higher in 2020 (P<0.001). Operative mortality was higher during the lockdown period (5.7% vs. 1.7%; P=0.038). The postoperative course was more complicated in 2020, with more postoperative bleeding (P=0.003), mechanical circulatory support (P=0.032) and prolonged mechanical ventilation (P=0.005). Only two patients (1.8%) developed a positive status for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 after discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Adult cardiac surgery was heavily affected by the COVID-19 lockdown. A further modulation plan is necessary to improve outcomes and reduce postponed operations to decrease operative mortality and morbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Hospitals, High-Volume/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Bed Conversion/statistics & numerical data , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Elective Surgical Procedures/mortality , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , France/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/surgery , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Prospective Studies , Recovery Room/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment , Waiting Lists
9.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(5): 1605-1614.e4, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014656

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide an insight into the impact of the early outbreak of the novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 on the care management for patients with congenital heart disease. METHODS: This study respectively enrolled a cohort of surgical patients who underwent surgery in 2018 (group I), 2019 (group II), and 2020 (group III) and a cohort of follow-up patients who had follow-up in 2017 (group A), 2018 (group B), and 2019 (group C) in 13 children hospitals. RESULTS: During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 era, there was a significant decrease in total surgical volume and a change in case mix in terms of an increase in the proportion of emergency operations. Decrease in migration scale index was correlated to the decrease in both surgical volume (r = 0.64, P = .02) and outpatient visit volume (r = 0.61, P = .03). There was a significantly higher proportion of patients who had follow-up through the internet or phone in group C (26.4% vs 9.6% in group B and 8.9% in group A; P < .0001). There was no statistical difference in death or rehospitalization among the 3 follow-up groups (P = .49). There was higher parents' anxiety score (P < .0001) and more use of telemedicine (P = .004) in group C compared with groups A and B. CONCLUSIONS: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic has resulted in a considerable decrease in total surgical volume and a change of case mix, which seems to be related to the strict traffic ban. Follow-up through the online medical service appears to be an effective alternative to the conventional method.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Pandemics , Child , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Humans , Patient Care Management/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thoracic Surgery/statistics & numerical data
10.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 61(6): 763-768, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 infection on cardiac surgery community and practice. METHODS: A 43-question survey was sent to cardiac surgery centers worldwide. The survey analyzed the prepandemic organization of the center, the center's response to Covid-19 in terms of re-organization pathways, surveillance methods, personal-protective equipment (PPE), and allowed surgical practice with results. RESULTS: Sixty-one out of 64 centers (95.3%) fulfilled the survey. One third of ICUs were transformed into COVID-19 dedicated-ICUs and one-third moved to another location inside the hospital. Negative-pressure rooms were available in 60.6% centers. Informative measures from hospital administration were received after the first COVID-19 admitted case in 36.1% and during the spread of the infection inside the hospital in 19.6%. Inadequate supply of PPE was common, with no COVID-surveillance of the medical personnel in 4.9% of centers. COVID-19 infected 7.4% of staff surgeons, 8.3% of residents and 9.5% of anesthetists. Cardiac surgery caseload declined in 93.4% centers. COVID-19 infection in patients receiving cardiac surgery resulted in 41-50% mortality in 9.5% centers, and 91-100% mortality in 4.7% centers. Successful weaning with survival from veno-venous extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and veno-arterial ECMO was <50% in 79.2% and 80.0% centers respectively. COVID-19 infection in transplanted patients was rare, with a reported mortality of 0.5% and 1% in one center each. CONCLUSIONS: There is room for improvement in hospital surveillance, informative measures and PPE to the personnel. These measurements will reduce current spread of COVID-19 infection among medical personnel and patients, helping the rump up of cardiac surgical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Selection , Personal Protective Equipment , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 97(5): 927-937, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, elective procedures were canceled or postponed, mainly due to health care systems overwhelming. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of interrupting invasive procedures in patients with chronic cardiac diseases due to the COVID-19 outbreak in Spain. METHODS: The study population is comprised of 2,158 patients that were pending on elective cardiac invasive procedures in 37 hospitals in Spain on the 14th of March 2020, when a state of alarm and subsequent lockdown was declared in Spain due to the COVID-19 pandemic. These patients were followed-up until April 31th. RESULTS: Out of the 2,158 patients, 36 (1.7%) died. Mortality was significantly higher in patients pending on structural procedures (4.5% vs. 0.8%, respectively; p < .001), in those >80 year-old (5.1% vs. 0.7%, p < .001), and in presence of diabetes (2.7% vs. 0.9%, p = .001), hypertension (2.0% vs. 0.6%, p = .014), hypercholesterolemia (2.0% vs. 0.9%, p = .026) [Correction added on December 23, 2020, after first online publication: as per Dr. Moreno's request changes in p-values were made after original publication in Abstract.], chronic renal failure (6.0% vs. 1.2%, p < .001), NYHA > II (3.8% vs. 1.2%, p = .001), and CCS > II (4.2% vs. 1.4%, p = .013), whereas was it was significantly lower in smokers (0.5% vs. 1.9%, p = .013). Multivariable analysis identified age > 80, diabetes, renal failure and CCS > II as independent predictors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Mortality at 45 days during COVID-19 outbreak in patients with chronic cardiovascular diseases included in a waiting list due to cancellation of invasive elective procedures was 1.7%. Some clinical characteristics may be of help in patient selection for being promptly treated when similar situations happen in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/surgery , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Waiting Lists , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Spain/epidemiology
14.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 96(3): 659-663, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-806095

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has strained health care resources around the world, causing many institutions to curtail or stop elective procedures. This has resulted in an inability to care for patients with valvular and structural heart disease in a timely fashion, potentially placing these patients at increased risk for adverse cardiovascular complications, including CHF and death. The effective triage of these patients has become challenging in the current environment, as clinicians have had to weigh the risk of bringing susceptible patients into the hospital environment during the COVID-19 pandemic against the risk of delaying a needed procedure. In this document, the authors suggest guidelines for how to triage patients in need of structural heart disease interventions and provide a framework for how to decide when it may be appropriate to proceed with intervention despite the ongoing pandemic. In particular, the authors address the triage of patients in need of transcatheter aortic valve replacement and percutaneous mitral valve repair. The authors also address procedural issues and considerations for the function of structural heart disease teams during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/surgery , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Triage/standards , COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiology/methods , Cardiology/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Female , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Societies, Medical , Triage/statistics & numerical data , United States
15.
Ann Surg ; 272(4): e275-e279, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767004

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical course of a consecutive series of patients operated of urgent cardiac surgery during COVID-19 outbreak. BACKGROUND: In Italy, COVID outbreak has mostly occurred in the metropolitan area of Milan, and in the surrounding region of Lombardy, and previously "conventional" hospitals were converted into COVID spokes to increase ICU beds availability, and to allow only urgent CS procedures. METHODS: Among urgent CS patients (left main stenosis with unstable angina, acute endocarditis, valvular regurgitation with impending heart failure), 10 patients (mean age = 57 ± 9 years), despite a negative admission triage, developed COVID-pneumonia postoperatively, at a median of 7 days after CS. RESULTS: Patients showed typical lymphopenia, higher prothrombotic profile, and higher markers of inflammation (ferritin and interleukin-6 values). At the zenith of pulmonary distress, patients presented with severe hypoxia (median PaO2/FIO2 ratio = 116), requiring advanced noninvasive ventilation (Venturi mask and continuous positive airway pressure) in the majority of cases. All patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and low-molecular-weight heparin at anticoagulant dose. Overall in-hospital mortality was 10% (1/10), peaking 25% in patients who developed COVID pneumonia immediately after CS. The remaining patients, with late infection, were all discharged home without oxygen support, at a median of 25 days after symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: As postoperative mortality in case of COVID pneumonia is not negligible, meticulous rules (precise triage, safe hospital path, high level of protection for health-care teams, prompt diagnosis of suspicious symptoms) should be strictly followed in patients undergoing CS during COVID pandemic. The role of therapies alternative to CS should be further assessed.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergencies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/physiopathology , Risk Assessment
16.
CMAJ ; 192(44): E1347-E1356, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To mitigate the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), jurisdictions worldwide ramped down nonemergent surgeries, creating a global surgical backlog. We sought to estimate the size of the nonemergent surgical backlog during COVID-19 in Ontario, Canada, and the time and resources required to clear the backlog. METHODS: We used 6 Ontario or Canadian population administrative sources to obtain data covering part or all of the period between Jan. 1, 2017, and June 13, 2020, on historical volumes and operating room throughput distributions by surgery type and region, and lengths of stay in ward and intensive care unit (ICU) beds. We used time series forecasting, queuing models and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to estimate the size of the backlog and clearance time for a +10% (+1 day per week at 50% capacity) surge scenario. RESULTS: Between Mar. 15 and June 13, 2020, the estimated backlog in Ontario was 148 364 surgeries (95% prediction interval 124 508-174 589), an average weekly increase of 11 413 surgeries. Estimated backlog clearance time is 84 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI] 46-145), with an estimated weekly throughput of 717 patients (95% CI 326-1367) requiring 719 operating room hours (95% CI 431-1038), 265 ward beds (95% CI 87-678) and 9 ICU beds (95% CI 4-20) per week. INTERPRETATION: The magnitude of the surgical backlog from COVID-19 raises serious implications for the recovery phase in Ontario. Our framework for modelling surgical backlog recovery can be adapted to other jurisdictions, using local data to assist with planning.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections , Neoplasms/surgery , Organ Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Vascular Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/supply & distribution , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Models, Statistical , Ontario , Operating Rooms/supply & distribution , Pediatrics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
17.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 11(6): 689-696, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738738

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic currently gripping the globe is impacting the entire health care system with rapidly escalating morbidities and mortality. Although the infectious risk to the pediatric population appears low, the effects on children with congenital heart disease (CHD) remain poorly understood. The closure of congenital heart surgery programs worldwide to address the growing number of infected individuals could have an unintended impact on future health for COVID-19-negative patients with CHD. Pediatric and congenital heart surgeons, given their small numbers and close relationships, are uniquely positioned to collectively assess the impact of the pandemic on surgical practice and care of children with CHD. We present the results of an international survey sent to pediatric and congenital heart surgeons characterizing the early impact of COVID-19 on the care of patients with CHD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Hospital Administration , Pandemics , Child , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Global Health , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Organizational Policy , Patient Care Management/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Card Surg ; 35(11): 2908-2912, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of COVID-19 outbreak on congenital cardiac surgery practice in a single center. METHODS: The first case of COVID-19 in our country was seen on March 11th, 2020. The patients operated between March 11th, 2019-and March 10th, 2020 were taken as the pre-COVID group, and those operated between March 11th and May 11th, 2020 were taken as the COVID group. The data was retrospectively collected, and the two periods were compared. RESULTS: Monthly average number of cases which was 52 patients/month (626 patients in 12 months) before COVID decreased to 35 patients/month (70 patients in 2 months) during COVID periods (P < .01). During the pre-COVID period the median postoperative length of hospital stay was 3 (IQR: 1-5) days. During the COVID period, this decreased to 1 (IQR: 1-3) day (P < .01). During the pre-COVID period, the hospital expenses of 17% (8/47) of the foreign nationals were covered by their homeland. The remaining 83% (39/47) were paid from the asylum seekers' fund. The proportion of foreign nationals operated significantly decreased during the COVID period ([7%; 47/632 vs 1%; 1/70]; P = .04). No significant difference was observed in terms of STAT mortality scores and categories and postoperative results of the operations performed between the two periods. CONCLUSIONS: Congenital cardiac surgery practice can be safely maintained with restricted case volume during the pandemic period. It is alarming that patients in the deprived areas cannot access pediatric cardiac surgery and possibly other health services because of closure of the borders between countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Operative Time , Pandemics , Refugees/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Turkey/epidemiology
20.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 21(9): 654-659, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-681583

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: By the end of February 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic infection had spread in Northern Italy, with thousands of patients infected. In Lombardy, the most affected area, the majority of public and private hospitals were dedicated to caring for COVID-19 patients and were organized following the 'Hub-and-Spoke' model for other medical specialties, like cardiac surgery and interventional procedures for congenital cardiac disease (CHD). Here, we report how the congenital cardiac care system was modified in Lombardy and the first results of this organization. METHODS: We describe a modified 'Hub-and-Spoke' model - that involves 59 birthplaces and three specialized Congenital Cardiac Centers -- and how the hub center organized his activity. We also reported the data of the consecutive cases hospitalized during this period. RESULTS: From 9 March to 15 April, we performed: a total of 21 cardiac surgeries, 4 diagnostic catheterizations, 3 CT scans, and 2 CMR. In three cases with prenatal diagnosis, the birth was scheduled. The spoke centers referred to our center six congenital cardiac cases. The postop ExtraCorporeal Membrane Oxygenation support was required in two cases; one case died. None of these patients nor their parents or accompanying person was found to be COVID-19-positive; 2 pediatric intensivists were found to be COVID-19-positive, and needed hospitalization without mechanical ventilation; 13 nurses had positive COVID swabs (4 with symptoms), and were managed and isolated at home. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary data suggest that the model adopted met the immediate needs with a good outcome without increased mortality, nor COVID-19 exposure for the patients who underwent procedures.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Cardiology Service, Hospital , Coronavirus Infections , Heart Defects, Congenital , Infection Control , Pandemics , Perinatal Care , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Cardiology Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Cardiology Service, Hospital/trends , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Models, Organizational , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perinatal Care/methods , Perinatal Care/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Postoperative Care/methods , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
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