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2.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211024027, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369483

ABSTRACT

Ventricular noncompaction is a rare, heterogeneous cardiomyopathy characterized by marked trabeculations and deep intertrabecular spaces with clinical sequelae of heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardioembolic events. In this article, we describe a patient with isolated right ventricular noncompaction who presented with submassive pulmonary embolism, which was managed with long-term direct oral anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies , Heart Failure , Pulmonary Embolism , Cardiomyopathies/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging
3.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 68, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early detection of myocardial involvement can be relevant in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients to timely target symptomatic treatment and decrease the occurrence of the cardiac sequelae of the infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in characterizing myocardial damage in active COVID-19 patients, through the correlation between qualitative and quantitative imaging biomarkers with clinical and laboratory evidence of myocardial injury. METHODS: In this retrospective observational cohort study, we enrolled 27 patients with diagnosis of active COVID-19 and suspected cardiac involvement, referred to our institution for CMR between March 2020 and January 2021. Clinical and laboratory characteristics, including high sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT), and CMR imaging data were obtained. Relationships between CMR parameters, clinical and laboratory findings were explored. Comparisons were made with age-, sex- and risk factor-matched control group of 27 individuals, including healthy controls and patients without other signs or history of myocardial disease, who underwent CMR examination between January 2020 and January 2021. RESULTS: The median (IQR) time interval between COVID-19 diagnosis and CMR examination was 20 (13.5-31.5) days. Hs-cTnT values were collected within 24 h prior to CMR and resulted abnormally increased in 18 patients (66.6%). A total of 20 cases (74%) presented tissue signal abnormalities, including increased myocardial native T1 (n = 11), myocardial T2 (n = 14) and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) (n = 10), late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) (n = 12) or pericardial enhancement (n = 2). A CMR diagnosis of myocarditis was established in 9 (33.3%), pericarditis in 2 (7.4%) and myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries in 3 (11.11%) patients. T2 mapping values showed a moderate positive linear correlation with Hs-cTnT (r = 0.58; p = 0.002). A high degree positive linear correlation between ECV and Hs-cTnT was also found (r 0.77; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CMR allows in vivo recognition and characterization of myocardial damage in a cohort of selected COVID-19 individuals by means of a multiparametric scanning protocol including conventional imaging and T1-T2 mapping sequences. Abnormal T2 mapping was the most commonly abnormality observed in our cohort and positively correlated with hs-cTnT values, reflecting the predominant edematous changes characterizing the active phase of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Adult , Age Factors , Cohort Studies , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
4.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 234, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 8-28% of patients infected with COVID-19 have evidence of cardiac injury, and this is associated with an adverse prognosis. The cardiovascular mechanisms of injury are poorly understood and speculative. We aim to use multimodality cardiac imaging including cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) to identify the cardiac pathophysiological mechanisms related to COVID-19 infections. METHODS: This is a single-centre exploratory observational study aiming to recruit 50 patients with COVID-19 infection who will undergo cardiac biomarker sampling. Of these, 30 patients will undergo combined CTCA and 18F-FDG-PET/CT, followed by CMR. Prevalence of obstructive and non-obstructive atherosclerotic coronary disease will be assessed using CTCA. CMR will be used to identify and characterise myocardial disease including presence of cardiac dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis, myocardial oedema and myocardial infarction. 18F-FDG-PET/CT will identify vascular and cardiac inflammation. Primary endpoint will be the presence of cardiovascular pathology and the association with troponin levels. DISCUSSION: The results of the study will identify the presence and modality of cardiac injury associated COVID-19 infection, and the utility of multi-modality imaging in diagnosing such injury. This will further inform clinical decision making during the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been retrospectively registered at the ISRCTN registry (ID ISRCTN12154994) on 14th August 2020. Accessible at https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN12154994.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Disease/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathies/virology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/virology , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multimodal Imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prospective Studies , Radiopharmaceuticals
5.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(7): 1779-1785, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound (LU) is a useful tool for monitoring lung involvement in novel coronavirus (COVID) disease, while information on echocardiographic findings in COVID disease is to date scarce and heterogeneous. We hypothesized that lung and cardiac ultrasound examinations, serially and simultaneously performed, could monitor disease severity in COVID-related ARDS. METHODS: We enrolled 47 consecutive patients with COVID-related ARDS (1st March-31st May 2020). Lung and cardiac ultrasounds were performed on admission, at discharged and when clinically needed. RESULTS: Most patients were mechanically ventilated (75%) and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was needed in ten patients (21.2%). The in-ICU mortality rate was 27%%. On admission, not survivors showed a higher LUS score (p = 0.006) and a higher incidence of consolidations (p = 0.003), lower values of LVEF (p = 0.027) and a higher RV/LV ratio (0.008). At discharge, a significant reduction in the incidence of subpleural consolidations (p < 0.001) and, thus, in LUS score (p < 0.001) and an increase in patter A findings (p < 0.001) together with reduced systolic pulmonary arterial pressures were detectable. In not survivors at final examination, an increased in LUS score (p < 0.001), and in RV/LV ratio (p < 0.001) associated with a reduction in TAPSE (p = 0.013) were observed. A significant correlation was observed between LUS and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (p = 0.04). LUS and RV/LV resulted independent predictors of in-ICU death. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-related ARDS, the combined lung and cardiac ultrasound proved to be an useful clinical tool in monitoring disease progression and in identifying parameters (LU score and RV/LV ratio) able to risk stratifying these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Ultrasonography/methods
6.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 14, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induces myocardial injury, either direct myocarditis or indirect injury due to systemic inflammatory response. Myocardial involvement has been proved to be one of the primary manifestations of COVID-19 infection, according to laboratory test, autopsy, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). However, the middle-term outcome of cardiac involvement after the patients were discharged from the hospital is yet unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate mid-term cardiac sequelae in recovered COVID-19 patients by CMR METHODS: A total of 47 recovered COVID-19 patients were prospectively recruited and underwent CMR examination. The CMR protocol consisted of black blood fat-suppressed T2 weighted imaging, T2 star mapping, left ventricle (LV) cine imaging, pre- and post-contrast T1 mapping, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). LGE were assessed in mixed both recovered COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. The LV and right ventricle (RV) function and LV mass were assessed and compared with healthy controls. RESULTS: A total of 44 recovered COVID-19 patients and 31 healthy controls were studied. LGE was found in 13 (30%) of COVID-19 patients. All LGE lesions were located in the mid myocardium and/or sub-epicardium with a scattered distribution. Further analysis showed that LGE-positive patients had significantly decreased LV peak global circumferential strain (GCS), RV peak GCS, RV peak global longitudinal strain (GLS) as compared to non-LGE patients (p < 0.05), while no difference was found between the non-LGE patients and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Myocardium injury existed in 30% of COVID-19 patients. These patients have depressed LV GCS and peak RV strains at the 3-month follow-up. CMR can monitor the COVID-19-induced myocarditis progression, and CMR strain analysis is a sensitive tool to evaluate the recovery of LV and RV dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/pathology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 19(1): 5-14, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894500

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 is causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Serious respiratory complications aside, the heart is also frequently involved. The mechanisms and the extent of the myocardial injury, along with the short and long-term cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in COVID-19 survivors remain unclear. Areas covered: myocardial injury has been found in a considerable proportion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and is associated with a worse prognosis. The late onset of CV complications with myocarditis-like changes revealed by CMR has been reported in COVID-19 survivors. Previous observational studies on viral myocarditis provide evidence of a significant incomplete recovery with residual dysfunction and remodeling of left ventricle. Incomplete recovery is thought to be the result of persistent myocardial inflammation due to a post-viral autoimmune response. Considering the significant inflammatory nature of COVID-19, COVID-19 survivors may be at risk of developing persistent residual myocardial injury, the sequelae of which are unclear. Expert commentary: COVID-19 is an emerging threat for the heart. The extent of CV injury, along with the short and long-term sequelae, requires further investigation. The early detection of residual myocardial changes in COVID-19 survivors is of utmost importance in order to identify those patients at risk of CV complication development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Imaging Techniques , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Heart , Heart Diseases , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocardium , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Remodeling
10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(11): 1265-1273, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-677027

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Case reports of hospitalized patients suggest that COVID-19 prominently affects the cardiovascular system, but the overall impact remains unknown. Objective: To evaluate the presence of myocardial injury in unselected patients recently recovered from COVID-19 illness. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective observational cohort study, 100 patients recently recovered from COVID-19 illness were identified from the University Hospital Frankfurt COVID-19 Registry between April and June 2020. Exposure: Recent recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on swab test of the upper respiratory tract. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic characteristics, cardiac blood markers, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging were obtained. Comparisons were made with age-matched and sex-matched control groups of healthy volunteers (n = 50) and risk factor-matched patients (n = 57). Results: Of the 100 included patients, 53 (53%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 49 (14) years. The median (IQR) time interval between COVID-19 diagnosis and CMR was 71 (64-92) days. Of the 100 patients recently recovered from COVID-19, 67 (67%) recovered at home, while 33 (33%) required hospitalization. At the time of CMR, high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) was detectable (greater than 3 pg/mL) in 71 patients recently recovered from COVID-19 (71%) and significantly elevated (greater than 13.9 pg/mL) in 5 patients (5%). Compared with healthy controls and risk factor-matched controls, patients recently recovered from COVID-19 had lower left ventricular ejection fraction, higher left ventricle volumes, and raised native T1 and T2. A total of 78 patients recently recovered from COVID-19 (78%) had abnormal CMR findings, including raised myocardial native T1 (n = 73), raised myocardial native T2 (n = 60), myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (n = 32), or pericardial enhancement (n = 22). There was a small but significant difference between patients who recovered at home vs in the hospital for native T1 mapping (median [IQR], 1119 [1092-1150] ms vs 1141 [1121-1175] ms; P = .008) and hsTnT (4.2 [3.0-5.9] pg/dL vs 6.3 [3.4-7.9] pg/dL; P = .002) but not for native T2 mapping. None of these measures were correlated with time from COVID-19 diagnosis (native T1: r = 0.07; P = .47; native T2: r = 0.14; P = .15; hsTnT: r = -0.07; P = .50). High-sensitivity troponin T was significantly correlated with native T1 mapping (r = 0.33; P < .001) and native T2 mapping (r = 0.18; P = .01). Endomyocardial biopsy in patients with severe findings revealed active lymphocytic inflammation. Native T1 and T2 were the measures with the best discriminatory ability to detect COVID-19-related myocardial pathology. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of a cohort of German patients recently recovered from COVID-19 infection, CMR revealed cardiac involvement in 78 patients (78%) and ongoing myocardial inflammation in 60 patients (60%), independent of preexisting conditions, severity and overall course of the acute illness, and time from the original diagnosis. These findings indicate the need for ongoing investigation of the long-term cardiovascular consequences of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Contrast Media/administration & dosage , Female , Gadolinium , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/pathology , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , Stroke Volume , Troponin T/blood , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
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