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1.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1180511, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230726

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, directly and indirectly, affected the emergency medical care system and resulted in worse out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) outcomes and epidemiological features compared with those before the pandemic. This review compares the regional and temporal features of OHCA prognosis and epidemiological characteristics. Various databases were searched to compare the OHCA outcomes and epidemiological characteristics during the COVID-19 pandemic with before the pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic, survival and favorable neurological outcome rates were significantly lower than before. Survival to hospitalization, return of spontaneous circulation, endotracheal intubation, and use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) decreased significantly, whereas the use of a supraglottic airway device, the incidence of cardiac arrest at home, and response time of emergency medical service (EMS) increased significantly. Bystander CPR, unwitnessed cardiac arrest, EMS transfer time, use of mechanical CPR, and in-hospital target temperature management did not differ significantly. A subgroup analysis of the studies that included only the first wave with those that included the subsequent waves revealed the overall outcomes in which the epidemiological features of OHCA exhibited similar patterns. No significant regional differences between the OHCA survival rates in Asia before and during the pandemic were observed, although other variables varied by region. The COVID-19 pandemic altered the epidemiologic characteristics, survival rates, and neurological prognosis of OHCA patients. Review registration: PROSPERO (CRD42022339435).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Humans , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/adverse effects , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/etiology
2.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 29(3): 175-180, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328145

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite improvements over time, cardiac arrest continues to be associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Several methods can be used to achieve airway patency during cardiac arrest, and the optimal strategy continues to be debated. This review will explore and summarize the latest published evidence for airway management during cardiac arrest. RECENT FINDINGS: A large meta-analysis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients found no difference in survival between those receiving tracheal intubation and those treated with a supraglottic airway (SGA). Observational studies of registry data have reported higher survival to hospital discharge in patients receiving tracheal intubation or an SGA but another showed no difference. Rates of intubation during in-hospital cardiac arrest have decreased in the United States, and different airway strategies appear to be used in different centres. SUMMARY: Observational studies continue to dominate the evidence base relating to cardiac arrest airway management. Cardiac arrest registries enable these observational studies to include many patients; however, the design of such studies introduces considerable bias. Further randomized clinical trials are underway. The current evidence does not indicate a substantial improvement in outcome from any single airway strategy.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Humans , United States , Airway Management/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Registries , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods
4.
Resuscitation ; 186: 109764, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284188

ABSTRACT

AIM: Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) significantly increases the survival rate after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Using population-based registries, we investigated the impact of lockdown due to Covid-19 on the provision of bystander CPR, taking background changes over time into consideration. METHODS: Using a registry network, we invited all registries capable of delivering data from 1. January 2017 to 31. December 2020 to participate in this study. We used negative binominal regression for the analysis of the overall results. We also calculated the rates for bystander CPR. For every participating registry, we analysed the incidence per 100000 inhabitants of bystander CPR and EMS-treated patients using Poisson regression, including time trends. RESULTS: Twenty-six established OHCA registries reported 742 923 cardiac arrest patients over a four-year period covering 1.3 billion person-years. We found large variations in the reported incidence between and within continents. There was an increase in the incidence of bystander CPR of almost 5% per year. The lockdown in March/April 2020 did not impact this trend. The increase in the rate of bystander CPR was also seen when analysing data on a continental level. We found large variations in incidence of bystander CPR before and after lockdown when analysing data on a registry level. CONCLUSION: There was a steady increase in bystander CPR from 2017 to 2020, not associated with an increase in the number of ambulance-treated cardiac arrest patients. We did not find an association between lockdown and bystanders' willingness to start CPR before ambulance arrival, but we found inconsistent patterns of changes between registries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Humans , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Registries , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy
5.
Eur J Emerg Med ; 30(3): 171-178, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267605

ABSTRACT

Background and importance There is limited knowledge about the nationwide impact of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic in Japan on out-of -hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) outcomes.Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic on OHCA outcomes and bystander resuscitation efforts in Japan. Design Retrospective analysis of a nationwide population-based registry of OHCA cases. Settings and participants To conduct this study, we created a comprehensive database comprising 821 665 OHCA cases by combining and reconciling the OHCA database for 835 197 OHCA cases between 2017 and 2020 with another database, including location and time records. After applying exclusion and inclusion criteria, we analysed 751 617 cases.Outcome measures and analysis The primary outcome measure for this study was survival with neurologically favourable outcome (cerebral performance category 1 or 2). We compare OHCA characteristics and outcomes between prepandemic and pandemic years, and also investigated differences in factors associated with outcomes. Results We found that survival with neurologically favourable outcome and the rates of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) slightly increased in the pandemic year [2.8% vs. 2.9%; crude odds ratio (OR), 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.10; 54.1% vs. 55.3%, 1.05 (1.04-1.06), respectively], although the incidence of public access defibrillation (PAD) slightly decreased [1.8% vs. 1.6%, 0.89 (0.86-0.93)]. Calls for hospital selection by emergency medical service (EMS) increased during the pandemic. Subgroup analysis showed that the incidence of neurologically favourable outcome increased in 2020 for OHCA cases that occurred on nonstate of emergency days, in unaffected prefectures, with noncardiac cause, nonshockable initial rhythm, and during daytime hours. Conclusions During the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, survival with neurologically favourable outcome of OHCA patients and bystander CPR rate did not negatively change, despite the decrement in PAD incidence. However, these effects varied with the state of emergency, region, and characteristics of OHCA, suggesting an imbalance between medical demand and supply, and raising concerns about the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Humans , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Japan/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Registries
6.
Resuscitation ; 187: 109770, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265972

ABSTRACT

AIM: We sought to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence and survival outcomes of emergency medical service (EMS)-witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: We performed an interrupted time-series analysis of adult EMS-witnessed OHCA patients of medical aetiology. Patients treated during the COVID-19 period (1st March 2020 to 31st December 2021) were compared to a historical comparator period (1st January 2012 and 28th February 2020). Multivariable poisson and logistic regression models were used to examine changes in incidence and survival outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. RESULTS: We included 5,034 patients, 3,976 (79.0%) in the comparator period and 1,058 (21.0%) in the COVID-19 period. Patients in the COVID-19 period had longer EMS response times, fewer public location arrests and were significantly more likely to receive mechanical CPR and laryngeal mask airways compared to the historical period (all p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the incidence of EMS-witnessed OHCA between the comparator and COVID-19 periods (incidence rate ratio 1.06, 95% CI: 0.97-1.17, p = 0.19). Also, there was no difference in the risk-adjusted odds of survival to hospital discharge for EMS-witnessed OHCA occurring during COVID-19 period compared to the comparator period (adjusted odd ratio 1.02, 95% CI: 0.74-1.42; p = 0.90). CONCLUSION: Unlike the reported findings in non-EMS-witnessed OHCA populations, changes during the COVID-19 pandemic did not influence incidence or survival outcomes in EMS-witnessed OHCA. This may suggest that changes in clinical practice that sought to limit the use of aerosol generating procedures did not influence outcomes in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Adult , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Victoria/epidemiology , Registries
7.
Resuscitation ; 182: 109662, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines for adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) recommend a ventilation rate of 8-10 per minute yet acknowledge that few data exist to guide recommendations. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of continuous capnography to measure ventilation rates and the association with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). METHODS: This was a retrospective observational cohort study. We included all OHCA during a two-year period and excluded traumatic and pediatric patients. Ventilations were recorded using non-invasive continuous capnography. Blinded medically trained team members manually annotated all ventilations. Four techniques were used to analyze ventilation rate. The primary outcome was sustained prehospital ROSC. Secondary outcomes were vital status at the end of prehospital care and survival to hospital admission. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed. RESULTS: A total of 790 OHCA were analyzed. Only 386 (49%) had useable capnography data. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, the final study cohort was 314 patients. The median ventilation rate per minute was 7 (IQR 5.4-8.5). Only 70 (22%) received a guideline-compliant ventilation rate of 8-10 per minute. Sixty-two (20%) achieved the primary outcome. No statistically significant associations were observed between any of the ventilation parameters and patient outcomes in both univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. CONCLUSIONS: We failed to detect an association between intra-arrest ventilation rates measured by continuous capnography and proximal patient outcomes after OHCA. Capnography has poor reliability as a measure of ventilation rate. Achieving guideline-compliant ventilation rates remains challenging.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Adult , Humans , Child , Capnography , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cohort Studies , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Return of Spontaneous Circulation
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225190

ABSTRACT

The Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system faced overwhelming challenges during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, further information is required to determine how the pandemic affected the EMS response and the clinical outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in COVID-19 low-incidence cities. A retrospective study was conducted in Chiayi, Taiwan, a COVID-19 low-incidence urban city. We compared the outcomes and rescue records before (2018-2019) and during (2020-2021) the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 567 patients before and 497 during the pandemic were enrolled. Multivariate analysis revealed that the COVID-19 pandemic had no significant influence on the achievement of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and sustained ROSC but was associated with lower probabilities of survival to discharge (aOR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.89, p = 0.002) and discharge with favorable neurologic outcome among OHCA patients (aOR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16-0.77, p = 0.009). Patients' ages and OHCA locations were also discovered to be independently related to survival results. The overall impact of longer EMS rescue times on survival outcomes during the pandemic was not significant, with an exception of the specific group that experienced prolonged rescue times (total EMS time > 21 min).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Incidence , Pandemics , Emergency Medical Services/methods
9.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 30(1): 10, 2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dispatching first responders (FR) to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in addition to the emergency medical service has shown to increase survival. The promising development of FR systems over the past years has been challenged by the outbreak of COVID-19. Whilst increased numbers and worse outcomes of cardiac arrests during the pandemic suggest a need for expansion of FR schemes, appropriate risk management is required to protect first responders and patients from contracting COVID-19. This study investigated how European FR schemes were affected by the pandemic and what measures were taken to protect patients and responders from COVID-19. METHODS: To identify FR schemes in Europe we conducted a literature search and a web search. The schemes were contacted and invited to answer an online questionnaire during the second wave of the pandemic (December 2020/ January 2021) in Europe. RESULTS: We have identified 135 FR schemes in 28 countries and included responses from 47 FR schemes in 16 countries. 25 schemes reported deactivation due to COVID-19 at some point, whilst 22 schemes continued to operate throughout the pandemic. 39 schemes communicated a pandemic-specific algorithm to their first responders. Before the COVID-19 outbreak 20 FR systems did not provide any personal protective equipment (PPE). After the outbreak 19 schemes still did not provide any PPE. The majority of schemes experienced falling numbers of accepted call outs and decreasing registrations of new volunteers. Six schemes reported of FR having contracted COVID-19 on a mission. CONCLUSIONS: European FR schemes were considerably affected by the pandemic and exhibited a range of responses to protect patients and responders. Overall, FR schemes saw a decrease in activity, which was in stark contrast to the high demand caused by the increased incidence and mortality of OHCA during the pandemic. Given the important role FR play in the chain of survival, a balanced approach upholding the safety of patients and responders should be sought to keep FR schemes operational.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Responders , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Circ J ; 86(10): 1579-1585, 2022 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic may have influenced the prehospital emergency care and deaths of individuals experiencing an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).Methods and Results: We analyzed the registry data of 2,420 and 2,371 OHCA patients in Osaka City, Japan in 2019 and 2020, respectively, according to the 3 waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Patient outcomes were compared using multivariable logistic regression analyses with the 2019 data as the reference. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was initiated significantly less frequently in 2020 than in 2019 (2019: 48.0%, 2020: 42.7%, P<0.001), particularly during the first wave (2019: 47.2%, 2020: 42.9%, P=0.046) and second wave (2019: 48.1%, 2020: 41.2%, P=0.010), but not during the third wave (2019: 49.2%, 2020: 44.1%, P=0.066). The public-access automated external defibrillator was less frequently applied during the first wave (2019: 12.6%, 2020: 9.9%, P=0.043), with no significant difference during the second wave (2019: 12.5%, 2020: 12.8%, P=0.863) and third wave (2019: 13.7%, 2020: 13.0%, P=0.722). There was a significant difference in 1-month survival with favorable neurological outcomes (2019: 4.6%, 2020: 3.3%, P=0.018), with a 28% reduction in the adjusted odds ratio in 2020 (0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.99, P=0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Bystander CPR and neurologically favorable outcomes after OHCA decreased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Registries
11.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 23(11): 908-918, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in adaptations to pediatric resuscitation systems of care. The objective of this study was to determine the temporal association between the pandemic and pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) process of care metrics, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) quality, and patient outcomes. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective analysis of a dataset comprising observations of IHCA outcomes pre pandemic (March 1, 2019 to February 29, 2020) versus pandemic (March 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021). SETTING: Data source was the ICU-RESUScitation Project ("ICU-RESUS;" NCT028374497), a prospective, multicenter, cluster randomized interventional trial. PATIENTS: Children (≤ 18 yr) who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation while admitted to the ICU and were enrolled in ICU-RESUS. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 429 IHCAs meeting inclusion criteria, occurrence during the pandemic period was associated with higher frequency of hypotension as the immediate cause of arrest. Cardiac arrest physiology, cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality metrics, and postarrest physiologic and quality of care metrics were similar between the two periods. Survival with favorable neurologic outcome (Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score 1-3 or unchanged from baseline) occurred in 102 of 195 subjects (52%) during the pandemic compared with 140 of 234 (60%) pre pandemic ( p = 0.12). Among survivors, occurrence of IHCA during the pandemic period was associated with a greater increase in Functional Status Scale (FSS) (i.e., worsening) from baseline (1 [0-3] vs 0 [0-2]; p = 0.01). After adjustment for confounders, IHCA survival during the pandemic period was associated with a greater increase in FSS from baseline (+1.19 [95% CI, 0.35-2.04] FSS points; p = 0.006) and higher odds of a new FSS-defined morbidity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.03-3.46]; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Using the ICU-RESUS dataset, we found that relative to the year prior, pediatric IHCA during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with greater worsening of functional status and higher odds of new functional morbidity among survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Child , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Prospective Studies , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/therapy
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14575, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008311

ABSTRACT

Public access automated external defibrillators (AEDs) represent emergency medical devices that may be used by untrained lay-persons in a life-critical event. As such their usability must be confirmed through simulation testing. In 2020 the novel coronavirus caused a global pandemic. In order to reduce the spread of the virus, many restrictions such as social distancing and travel bans were enforced. Usability testing of AEDs is typically conducted in-person, but due to these restrictions, other usability solutions must be investigated. Two studies were conducted, each with 18 participants: (1) an in-person usability study of an AED conducted in an office space, and (2) a synchronous remote usability study of the same AED conducted using video conferencing software. Key metrics associated with AED use, such as time to turn on, time to place pads and time to deliver a shock, were assessed in both studies. There was no difference in time taken to turn the AED on in the in-person study compared to the remote study, but the time to place electrode pads and to deliver a shock were significantly lower in the in-person study than in the remote study. Overall, the results of this study indicate that remote user testing of public access defibrillators may be appropriate in formative usability studies for determining understanding of the user interface.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Defibrillators/classification , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Physical Distancing , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/standards , Defibrillators/standards , Defibrillators/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Time Factors , User-Centered Design , User-Computer Interface
13.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 88(7-8): 594-603, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934883

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, prehospital and hospital services were put under great stress because of limited resources and increased workloads. One expected effect was the increased number of out-of-hospital (OHCA) and in-hospital (IHCA) cardiac arrests that occurred during 2020 compared to previous years. Both direct and indirect mechanisms were involved. In the former case, although the exact mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 causes cardiac arrest (CA) are still unknown, severe hypoxia, a dysregulated immune host response and sepsis are probably implicated and are often seen in COVID-19 patients with poor outcomes. In the latter case, the strain on hospitals, changes in treatment protocols, governments' actions to limit the spread of the disease and fear of the contagion naturally affected treatment efficacy and disrupted the CA chain of survival; as expected in OHCA, only a small proportion of patients were positive to COVID-19, and yet reported outcomes were worse during the pandemic. CA patient characteristics were reported, along with modifications in patient management. In this review, we summarize the evidence to date regarding OHCA and IHCA epidemiology and management during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Demography , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Hospitals , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e936844, 2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, personal protective equipment (PPE) is used during medical resuscitation aerosol-generating procedures (AGP). This simulation study aimed to evaluate the effects of PPE on the performance of emergency resuscitation by medical students from the University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland and non-medical personnel, and used a quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (Q-CPR) medical manikin. MATERIAL AND METHODS A simulation study was conducted using the Resusci Anne quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (Q-CPR) medical manikin (Laerdal Medical AS, Norway). Participants were divided into 2 groups: a medical group of 50 and a non-medical group of 52, matched in pairs. Each pair performed 10 min of manual CPR with a compression-ventilation ratio of 30: 2 wearing PPE for AGP. The reference method was manual CPR wearing casual clothes along with surgical masks and latex gloves. Data about compression and ventilation were gathered using the QCPR Training application from Laerdal Medical. RESULTS Data analyses indicated statistically significant differences between medical students using PPE for AGP and basic protection: average rate of chest compressions (123 vs 114 per min; P=0.004), chest recoil (69 vs 93; P=0.0050, correct depth of chest compressions (86.5 vs 97; P=0.0081), quality of ventilation (85 vs 89; P=0.0041). Among non-medical personnel however, a statistically significant difference was in the quality of ventilation (69-85.5; P=0.0032). CONCLUSIONS The findings from this study showed that the use of PPE for AGP during CPR was associated with slower average speed of chest compressions, less chest recoil, incorrect depth of chest compressions, and lower quality of ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Students, Medical , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Humans , Manikins , Personal Protective Equipment , Poland
15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 57: 114-123, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803389

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in millions of cases worldwide. As the pandemic has progressed, the understanding of this disease has evolved. Its impact on the health and welfare of the human population is significant; its impact on the delivery of healthcare is also considerable. OBJECTIVE: This article is another paper in a series addressing COVID-19-related updates to emergency clinicians on the management of COVID-19 patients with cardiac arrest. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. From a global perspective, as of February 23, 2022, 435 million infections have been noted with 5.9 million deaths (1.4%). Current data suggest an increase in the occurrence of cardiac arrest, both in the outpatient and inpatient settings, with corresponding reductions in most survival metrics. The frequency of out-of-hospital lay provider initial care has decreased while non-shockable initial cardiac arrest rhythms have increased. While many interventions, including chest compressions, are aerosol-generating procedures, the risk of contagion to healthcare personnel is low, assuming appropriate personal protective equipment is used; vaccination with boosting provides further protection against contagion for the healthcare personnel involved in cardiac arrest resuscitation. The burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on the delivery of cardiac arrest care is considerable and, despite multiple efforts, has adversely impacted the chain of survival. CONCLUSION: This review provides a focused update of cardiac arrest in the setting of COVID-19 for emergency clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Hospitals , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics
16.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(1): 1-15, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800370

ABSTRACT

Rates of survival with functional recovery for both in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are notably low. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is emerging as a modality to improve prognosis by augmenting perfusion to vital end-organs by utilizing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during conventional CPR and stabilizing the patient for interventions aimed at reversing the aetiology of the arrest. Implementing this emergent procedure requires a substantial investment in resources, and even the most successful ECPR programs may nonetheless burden healthcare systems, clinicians, patients, and their families with unsalvageable patients supported by extracorporeal devices. Non-randomized and observational studies have repeatedly shown an association between ECPR and improved survival, versus conventional CPR, for in-hospital cardiac arrest in select patient populations. Recently, randomized controlled trials suggest benefit for ECPR over standard resuscitation, as well as the feasibility of performing such trials, in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest within highly coordinated healthcare delivery systems. Application of these data to clinical practice should be done cautiously, with outcomes likely to vary by the setting and system within which ECPR is initiated. ECPR introduces important ethical challenges, including whether it should be considered an extension of CPR, at what point it becomes sustained organ replacement therapy, and how to approach patients unable to recover or be bridged to heart replacement therapy. The economic impact of ECPR varies by health system, and has the potential to outstrip resources if used indiscriminately. Ideally, studies should include economic evaluations to inform health care systems about the cost-benefits of this therapy.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Adult , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(6): e024140, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731380

ABSTRACT

Background Little is known about how COVID-19 influenced engagement of citizen responders dispatched to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) by a smartphone application. The objective was to describe and analyze the Danish Citizen Responder Program and bystander interventions (both citizen responders and nondispatched bystanders) during the first COVID-19 lockdown in 2020. Methods and Results All OHCAs from January 1, 2020, to June 30, 2020, with citizen responder activation in 2 regions of Denmark were included. We compared citizen responder engagement for OHCA in the nonlockdown period (January 1, 2020, to March 10, 2020, and April 21, 2020, to June 30, 2020) with the lockdown period (March 11, 2020, to April 20, 2020). Data are displayed in the order lockdown versus nonlockdown period. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates did not differ in the 2 periods (99% versus 92%; P=0.07). Bystander defibrillation (9% versus 14%; P=0.4) or return-of-spontaneous circulation (23% versus 23%; P=1.0) also did not differ. A similar amount of citizen responders accepted alarms during the lockdown (6 per alarm; interquartile range, 6) compared with the nonlockdown period (5 per alarm; interquartile range, 5) (P=0.05). More citizen responders reported performing chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation during lockdown compared with nonlockdown (79% versus 59%; P=0.0029), whereas fewer performed standardized cardiopulmonary resuscitation, including ventilations (19% versus 38%; P=0.0061). Finally, during lockdown, more citizen responders reported being not psychologically affected by attending an OHCA compared with nonlockdown period (68% versus 56%; P<0.0001). Likewise, fewer reported being mildly affected during lockdown (26%) compared with nonlockdown (35%) (P=0.003). Conclusions The COVID-19 lockdown in Denmark was not associated with decreased bystander-initiated resuscitation in OHCAs attended by citizen responders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Retrospective Studies
18.
J Emerg Med ; 63(2): 309-316, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by lay rescuers can increase a person's chance of survival. The COVID-19 pandemic enforced prevention policies that encouraged social distancing, which disrupted conventional modes of health care education. Tele-education may benefit CPR training during the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare CPR knowledge and skills using tele-education vs. conventional classroom teaching methods. METHODS: A noninferiority trial was conducted as a Basic Life Support workshop. Participants were randomly assigned to a tele-education or conventional group. Primary outcomes assessed were CPR knowledge and skills and secondary outcomes assessed were individual skills, ventilation, and chest compression characteristics. RESULTS: Pretraining knowledge scores (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 3.50 ± 2.18 vs. 4.35 ± 1.70; p = 0.151) and post-training knowledge scores (7.91 ± 2.14 vs. 8.52 ± 0.90; p = 0.502) of the tele-education and conventional groups, respectively, had no statistically significant difference. Both groups' training resulted in a significant and comparable gain in knowledge scores (p < 0.001). The tele-education and conventional groups skill scores (mean ± SD 78.30 ± 6.77 vs. 79.65 ± 9.93; p = 0.579) had no statistical difference. Skillset scores did not differ statistically except for the compression rate and ventilation ratio; the conventional group performed better (p = 0.042 vs. p = 0.017). The tele-education and conventional groups' number of participants passed the skill test (95.5% and 91.3%, respectively; p = 1.000). CONCLUSIONS: Tele-education offers a pragmatic and reasonably effective alternative to conventional CPR training during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Educational Status , Humans , Pandemics , Thorax
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e055640, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673440

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The effect of large-scale disasters on bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) performance is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether and how large-scale earthquake and tsunami as well as subsequent nuclear pollution influenced BCPR performance for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) witnessed by family and friends/colleagues. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected, nationwide, population-based data for OHCA cases. PARTICIPANTS: From the nationwide OHCA registry recorded between 11 March 2010 and 1 March 2013, we extracted 74 684 family-witnessed and friend/colleague-witnessed OHCA cases without prehospital physician involvement. EXPOSURE: Earthquake and tsunamis that were followed by nuclear pollution and largely affected the social life of citizens for at least 24 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Neurologically favourable outcome after 1 month, 1-month survival and BCPR. METHODS: We analysed the 4-week average trend of BCPR rates in the years affected and before and after the disaster. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to investigate whether these disasters affected BCPR and OHCA results. RESULTS: Multivariable logistic regression for tsunami-affected prefectures revealed that the BCPR rate during the impact phase in 2011 was significantly lower than that in 2010/2012 (42.5% vs 48.2%; adjusted OR; 95% CI 0.82; 0.68 to 0.99). A lower level of bystander compliance with dispatcher-assisted CPR instructions (62.1% vs 69.5%, 0.72; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.92) in the presence of a preserved level of voluntary BCPR performance (23.6% vs 23.8%) was also observed. Both 1-month survival and neurologically favourable outcome rates during the impact phase in 2011 were significantly poorer than those in 2010/2012 (8.5% vs 10.7%, 0.72; 95% CI 0.52 to 0.99, 4.0% vs 5.2%, 0.62; 95% CI 0.38 to 0.98, respectively). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: A large-scale disaster with nuclear pollution influences BCPR performance and clinical outcomes of OHCA witnessed by family and friends/colleagues. Basic life-support training leading to voluntary-initiated BCPR might serve as preparedness for disaster and major accidents.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Disasters , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Friends , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Retrospective Studies
20.
Am J Emerg Med ; 52: 128-131, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561972

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study we aimed to investigate whether changing rescuers wearing N95 masks every 1 min instead of the standard CPR change over time of 2 min would make a difference in effective chest compressions. METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled mannequin study. Participants were selected from healthcare staff. They were divided into two groups of two people in each group. The scenario was implemented on CPR mannequin representing patient with asystolic arrest, that measured compression depth, compression rate, recoil, and correct hand position. Two different scenarios were prepared. In Scenario 1, the rescuers were asked to change chest compression after 1 min. In Scenario 2, standard CPR was applied. The participants' vital parameters, mean compression rate, correct compression rate/ratio, total number of compressions, compression depth, correct recoil/ratio, correct hand position/ratio, mean no-flow time, and total CPR time were recorded. RESULTS: The study hence included 14 teams each for scenarios, with a total of 56 participants. In each scenario, 14 participants were physicians and 14 participants were women. Although there was no difference in the first minute of the cycles starting from the fourth cycle, a statistically significant difference was observed in the second minute in all cycles except the fifth cycle. CONCLUSION: Changing the rescuer every 1 min instead of every 2 min while performing CPR with full PPE may prevent the decrease in compression quality that may occur as the resuscitation time gets longer.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/standards , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Fatigue/prevention & control , Heart Arrest/therapy , Medical Staff, Hospital , N95 Respirators , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Manikins , Turkey
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