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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e048281, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526501

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is associated with a marked systemic inflammatory response with concomitant cardiac injury and remodelling, but it is currently unknown whether the latter is reversible. Given that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a powerful stimulus to improve cardiorespiratory fitness while also eliciting marked anti-inflammatory effects, it may be an important countermeasure of reducing cardiopulmonary morbidity following COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 40 COVID-19 survivors who have been discharged from hospital will be included in this investigator-blinded randomised study with a 12-week HIIT intervention. Patients will be 1:1 block-randomised by sex to either a supervised HIIT exercise group or standard care (control group). The main hypothesis is that a 12-week HIIT scheme is a safe way to improve loss of cardiac mass and associated cardiorespiratory fitness, despite hypothesised limited HIIT-induced changes in conventional lung function indices per se. Ultimately, we hypothesise that the HIIT scheme will reduce post-COVID-19 symptoms and improve quality of life. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is approved by the Scientific Ethical Committee at the Capital Region of Denmark (H-20033733, including amendments 75068 and 75799) and registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04647734, pre-results). The findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, including cases of positive, negative and inconclusive results.Trial registration number NCT04549337.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , High-Intensity Interval Training , Humans , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 221, 2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the gradual resumption of sports activities after the lock-down period for coronavirus pandemic, a new problem is emerging: Allow all athletes to be able to return to compete after SARS-CoV-2 infection in total safety. Several protocols have been proposed for healed athletes but all of them have been formulated for the adult population. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the adequacy of Italian practical recommendations for return-to-paly, in order to exclude cardiorespiratory complications due to COVID-19 in children and adolescents. METHODS: Between April 2020 and January 2021 the Italian Sports Medical Federation formulated cardiorespiratory protocols to be applied to athletes recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection. The protocols take into account the severity of the infection. Protocols include lung function tests, cardiopulmonary exercise test, echocardiographic evaluation, blood chemistry tests. RESULTS: From September 2020 to February 2021, 45 children and adolescents (aged from 9 to 18 years; male = 26) with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated according to the protocols in force for adult. 55.5% of the subjects (N = 25) reported an asymptomatic infection; 44.5% reported a mild symptomatic infection. Results of lung function test have exceeded the limit of 80% of the theoretical value in all patients. The cardiorespiratory capacity of all patients was within normal limits (average value of maximal oxigen uptake 41 ml/kg/min). No arrhythmic events or reduction in the ejection fraction were highlighted. CONCLUSION: The data obtained showed that, in the pediatric population, mild coronavirus infection does not cause cardiorespiratory complications in the short and medium term. Return to play after Coronavirus infection seems to be safe but it will be necessary to continue with the data analysis in order to modulate and optimize the protocols especially in the pediatric field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Return to Sport , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Child , Clinical Protocols , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Recovery of Function , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480722

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research was to develop the 3 min incremental step-in-place (3MISP) test for predicting maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2max). A total of 205 adults (20-64 years) completed the 3MISP and V.O2max tests. Using age, gender, body composition (BC) including percent body fat (PBF) or body mass index (BMI), and with or without heart rate (HR) at the beginning of exercise (HR0) or difference between HR at the third minute during the exercise and the first minute post exercise (ΔHR3 - HR4) in the 3MISP test, six V.O2max prediction models were derived from multiple linear regression. Age (r = -0.239), gender (r = 0.430), BMI (r = -0.191), PBF (r = -0.706), HR0 (r = -0.516), and ΔHR3 - HR4 (r = 0.563) were significantly correlated to V.O2max. Among the six V.O2max prediction models, the PBF model∆HR3 - HR4 has the highest accuracy. The simplest models with age, gender, and PBF/BMI explained 54.5% of the V.O2max in the PBF modelBC and 39.8% of that in the BMI modelBC. The addition of HR0 and ∆HR3 - HR4 increases the variance of V.O2max explained by the PBF and BMI models∆HR3 - HR4 by 17.98% and 45.23%, respectively, while standard errors of estimate decrease by 10.73% and 15.61%. These data demonstrate that the models established using 3MISP-HR data can enhance the accuracy of V.O2max prediction.


Subject(s)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Exercise , Exercise Test , Oxygen , Oxygen Consumption
4.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 135, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and other lifestyle-related factors on severe COVID-19 risk is understudied. The present study aims to investigate lifestyle-related and socioeconomic factors as possible predictors of COVID-19, with special focus on CRF, and to further study whether these factors may attenuate obesity- and hypertension-related risks, as well as mediate associations between socioeconomic factors and severe COVID-19 risk. METHODS: Out of initially 407,131 participants who participated in nationwide occupational health service screening between 1992 and 2020, n = 857 cases (70% men, mean age 49.9 years) of severe COVID-19 were identified. CRF was estimated using a sub-maximum cycle test, and other lifestyle variables were self-reported. Analyses were performed including both unmatched, n = 278,598, and sex-and age-matched, n = 3426, controls. Severe COVID-19 included hospitalization, intensive care or death due to COVID-19. RESULTS: Patients with more severe COVID-19 had significantly lower CRF, higher BMI, a greater presence of comorbidities and were more often daily smokers. In matched analyses, there was a graded decrease in odds for severe COVID-19 with each ml in CRF (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.970 to 0.998), and a two-fold increase in odds between the lowest and highest (< 32 vs. ≥ 46 ml·min-1·kg-1) CRF group. Higher BMI (per unit increase, OR = 1.09, 1.06 to 1.12), larger waist circumference (per cm, OR = 1.04, 1.02 to 1.06), daily smoking (OR = 0.60, 0.41 to 0.89) and high overall stress (OR = 1.36, 1.001 to 1.84) also remained significantly associated with severe COVID-19 risk. Obesity- and blood pressure-related risks were attenuated by adjustment for CRF and lifestyle variables. Mediation through CRF, BMI and smoking accounted for 9% to 54% of the associations between low education, low income and blue collar/low skilled occupations and severe COVID-19 risk. The results were consistent using either matched or unmatched controls. CONCLUSIONS: Both lifestyle-related and socioeconomic factors were associated with risk of severe COVID-19. However, higher CRF attenuated the risk associated with obesity and high blood pressure, and mediated the risk associated with various socioeconomic factors. This emphasises the importance of interventions to maintain or increase CRF in the general population to strengthen the resilience to severe COVID-19, especially in high-risk individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(12): 2249-2258, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434834

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to determine the levels of skeletal muscle angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor) protein expression in men and women and assess whether ACE2 expression in skeletal muscle is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity. The level of ACE2 in vastus lateralis muscle biopsies collected in previous studies from 170 men (age: 19-65 years, weight: 56-137 kg, BMI: 23-44) and 69 women (age: 18-55 years, weight: 41-126 kg, BMI: 22-39) was analyzed in duplicate by western blot. VO2 max was determined by ergospirometry and body composition by DXA. ACE2 protein expression was 1.8-fold higher in women than men (p = 0.001, n = 239). This sex difference disappeared after accounting for the percentage of body fat (fat %), VO2 max per kg of legs lean mass (VO2 max-LLM) and age (p = 0.47). Multiple regression analysis showed that the fat % (ß = 0.47) is the main predictor of the variability in ACE2 protein expression in skeletal muscle, explaining 5.2% of the variance. VO2 max-LLM had also predictive value (ß = 0.09). There was a significant fat % by VO2 max-LLM interaction, such that for subjects with low fat %, VO2 max-LLM was positively associated with ACE2 expression while as fat % increased the slope of the positive association between VO2 max-LLM and ACE2 was reduced. In conclusion, women express higher amounts of ACE2 in their skeletal muscles than men. This sexual dimorphism is mainly explained by sex differences in fat % and cardiorespiratory fitness. The percentage of body fat is the main predictor of the variability in ACE2 protein expression in human skeletal muscle.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Exercise , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Energy Metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Young Adult
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2121675, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372682

ABSTRACT

Importance: Previous studies have shown reductions in self-reported physical activity levels in children associated with implementation of COVID-19 mitigation measures, and data on objectively assessed health parameters are limited. Objective: To examine the association of COVID-19 mitigation measures with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) measures and body mass index (BMI) among primary schoolchildren. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included children aged 7 to 10 years from 12 randomly selected primary schools in urban and rural districts of Klagenfurt, Austria. Baseline CRF and BMI measurements were obtained in September 2019 before COVID-19 mitigation measures were implemented, and follow-up measurements were obtained in June and September 2020. Exposures: COVID-19 mitigation measures. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with a 6-minute endurance run test. Height and weight were objectively measured. Standard deviation scores were calculated for CRF and BMI. Changes over time were analyzed using analyses of variance. Secondary analyses were performed for subgroups stratified by sex. Results: A total of 764 children (383 girls [50.1%]) aged 7 to 10 years had all measurements completed. From September 2019 to September 2020, CRF SD scores changed by -1.06 (95% CI, -1.13 to -1.00), with a similar decrease in both boys and girls. Body mass index SD scores had increased by 0.12 (95% CI, 0.06-0.16) in June 2020 and by 0.16 (95% CI, 0.12-0.20) in September 2020 compared with September 2019. The increase in BMI SD scores (from September 2019 to September 2020) was greater among boys (0.23; 95% CI, 0.18-0.29) than among girls (0.09; 95% CI, 0.04-0.15). During the 1-year period, the percentage of children with overweight or obesity increased from 20.3% (155 children) to 24.1% (184 children) (difference, 3.8% [29 children]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of children in Austria, COVID-19 mitigation measures were associated with decreases in CRF measures and increases in BMI. The findings suggest that collaborative efforts are needed to reverse these changes in children's health to prevent long-term negative health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Exercise , Obesity/etiology , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Austria , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child Health , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Overweight , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Sports
8.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247381

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Participating in singing is considered to have a range of social and psychological benefits. However, the physiological demands of singing and its intensity as a physical activity are not well understood. METHODS: We compared cardiorespiratory parameters while completing components of Singing for Lung Health sessions, with treadmill walking at differing speeds (2, 4 and 6 km/hour). RESULTS: Eight healthy adults were included, none of whom reported regular participation in formal singing activities. Singing induced acute physiological responses that were consistent with moderate intensity activity (metabolic equivalents: median 4.12, IQR 2.72-4.78), with oxygen consumption, heart rate and volume per breath above those seen walking at 4 km/hour. Minute ventilation was higher during singing (median 22.42 L/min, IQR 16.83-30.54) than at rest (11 L/min, 9-13), lower than 6 km/hour walking (30.35 L/min, 26.94-41.11), but not statistically different from 2 km/hour (18.77 L/min, 16.89-21.35) or 4 km/hour (23.27 L/min, 20.09-26.37) walking. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the acute metabolic demands of singing are comparable with walking at a moderately brisk pace, hence, physical effects may contribute to the health and well-being benefits attributed to singing participation. However, if physical training benefits result remains uncertain. Further research including different singing styles, singers and physical performance impacts when used as a training modality is encouraged. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov registry (NCT04121351).


Subject(s)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Lung/physiology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Singing/physiology , Walking/physiology , Adult , Exercise Test , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Metabolic Flux Analysis/methods , Music , Physical Exertion/physiology , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Warm-Up Exercise
9.
J Phys Act Health ; 18(7): 782-788, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity and higher cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness enhance immune function, possibly reducing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection severity. The aim was to assess the association between physical activity and self-reported CR fitness on COVID-19 infection characteristics. METHODS: Participants formerly testing positive for COVID-19 completed an online questionnaire measuring COVID-19 infection characteristics and complications, self-reported CR fitness level, physical activity, and sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Self-reported CR fitness was determined as the pace to cover 4.8 km without becoming overly fatigued (with slow walking, brisk walking, jogging, and running corresponding to low, moderate, good, and excellent levels of fitness, respectively). RESULTS: A total of 263 individuals completed the survey. Compared with the lowest level of self-reported CR fitness, the odds of hospitalization significantly decreased by 64% (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.98; P = .04) in individuals reporting the ability to maintain a brisk walk. In individuals reporting the ability to maintain a jogging pace, the further reduction in hospitalization was not significant (odds ratio = 0.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-1.04; P = .05). For COVID-19 symptom severity and number, there were no significant associations with self-reported CR fitness or physical activity levels. CONCLUSIONS: For individuals with low self-reported CR fitness, improving CR fitness represents a strategy to reduce the risk of hospitalization from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Hospitalization , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Self Report
10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250508, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) may be used to identify those at greatest risk for severe COVID-19 illness. However, no study to date has examined the association between CRF and COVID-19. The objectives of this study were to determine whether CRF is independently associated with testing positive with or dying from COVID-19. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of 2,690 adults from the UK Biobank Study that were followed from March 16th, 2020 to July 26th, 2020. Participants who were tested for COVID-19 and had undergone CRF assessment were examined. CRF was estimated (eCRF) and categorized as low (<20th percentile), moderate (20th to 80th percentile) and high (≥80th percentile) within sex and ten-year age groups (e.g. 50-60 years). Participants were classified as having COVID-19 if they tested positive (primarily PCR tests) at an in-patient or out-patient setting as of July 26, 2020. Participants were classified as having died from COVID-19 if the primary or underlying cause of death was listed ICD-10 codes U071 or U072 by June 30th, 2020. Adjusted risk ratios (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated and a forward model building approach used to identify covariates. FINDINGS: There was no significant association between eCRF and testing positive for COVID-19. Conversely, individuals with moderate (aRR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.75) and high fitness (aRR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.85) had a significantly lower risk of dying from COVID-19 than those with low fitness. CONCLUSIONS: While eCRF was not significantly associated with testing positive for COVID-19, we observed a significant dose-response between having higher eCRF and a decreased risk of dying from COVID-19. This suggests that prior gains in CRF could be protective against dying from COVID-19 should someone develop the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate
11.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 47(1): 100879, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213123

ABSTRACT

Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is now an established vital sign. CRF, along with muscle function and bone and joint health is related to functional independence and a higher quality of life. Wasserman and colleagues proposed a gear model illustrating the integrated role of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and skeletal muscle systems during aerobic exercise; in 2015, a revision to the original model was proposed. Our understanding of the effects and challenges associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are rapidly evolving. Initial evidence indicates higher levels of CRF, and muscle function protect individuals infected with COVID-19 from a complicated medical course. Moreover, for those individuals infected with COVID-19, there are initial signs of a reduction in CRF following the initial phase of recovery. We are also gaining an understanding of long COVID syndrome, where individuals who have recovered from the acute phase of viral infection present with lasting symptoms, which include but are not limited to reduced CRF, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Clearly, these individuals will require rehabilitation to restore and/or improve CRF, muscle function, bone and joint health, functional capacity (ie, the ability to perform activities of daily living), and quality of life. The importance of assessing the synergistic function of systems essential to performing activities that require physical exertion is a health care imperative. This graphical narrative provides an update to the gear model initially proposed by Wasserman and updated to a gear and circuit in 2015. External CRF, muscle function, and bone and joint health influencers and an approach to clinical assessment are also introduced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Muscles , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178266

ABSTRACT

Athletes' lifestyles have been dramatically affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Since COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system and to a lesser degree the cardiovascular system, the goal of this study was to examine the effects of COVID-19-caused detraining on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of recently recovered volleyball athletes. Sixteen experienced volleyball athletes (age 24 ± 4.5 years) who were recently diagnosed and recovered from a COVID-19 infection volunteered to participate in this study and were tested for CRF and spirometry. Given that participants had only mild symptoms of infection, the primary focus of this study was on the effects of detraining on CRF. On average, the time to exhaustion was 9.4 ± 1.4 min. VE, VCO2, RER and oxygen pulse increased, heart rate exceeded 90% of predicted values, and peak VO2 values were typical for this level of athlete (44.1 ± 3.4 mL/kg). Pulmonary function reflected in FVC, FEV1/FVC and MVV values were well above 80% of predicted values for each of the participants while electrocardiography revealed no ischemia, arrythmias or conduction and repolarization abnormalities were found in the tested subjects. Therefore, it can be concluded that participants experienced typical consequences of detraining. Due to a lack of CRF data prior to COVID-19 infection, we were unable to estimate the magnitude detraining had on CRF. Complete CRF assessment after COVID-19 infection in athletes can be useful for screening of residual myocardial and/or respiratory system damage for safe return-to-play decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Volleyball , Adult , Athletes , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(7): 2287-2293, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139355

ABSTRACT

Long periods of free-movement restrictions may negatively affect cardiorespiratory fitness and health. The present study investigated changes after the COVID-19 confinement in maximal oxygen intake (VO2 max) levels in a sample of 89 Spanish school children aged 12 and 14 years at baseline (49.8% girls). The 20-m shuttle run test served to estimate VO2 max before and after the COVID-19 confinement. Paired t-tests estimated an overall difference of - 0.5 ml.kg-1.min-1 (SD 0.3) (p = 0.12), whereas the highest significant reductions were observed for girls aged 14 years (- 1.5 ml.kg-1.min-1 (SD 0.6) (p < 0.05)). Boys aged 14 years showed a slight increase (0.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 (SD 0.5) (p = 0.44)), whereas boys aged 12 years presented an important decrease (- 1.2 ml.kg-1.min-1 (SD 0.7) (p = 0.14)). Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) levels also experienced a decrease of - 3.4% as regards baseline levels over the examined period. All the examined subgroups showed lower levels in relation to a normal VO2 max rate development, although girls aged 14 and boys aged 12 years accounted for the highest part.Conclusion: The results indicate that COVID-19 confinement might delay the normal development of VO2 max in adolescents. Strategies to tackle this concerning decline are warranted. What is Known: • First study analyzing cardiorespiratory fitness levels in teenagers after COVID-19 confinement. What is New: • Important delay in maximal oxygen intake identified in a sample of Spanish teenagers. • These results should be considered to develop strategies of a more active lifestyle in teenagers during and after confinements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Adolescent , Child , Exercise Test , Female , Humans , Male , Oxygen Consumption , Physical Fitness , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 1637-1643, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116485

ABSTRACT

The high prevalence of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities has reached pandemic proportions, particularly in Western countries. Obesity increases the risk to develop several chronic noncommunicable disease, ultimately contributing to reduced survival. Recently, obesity has been recognized as major risk factor for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)-related prognosis, contributing to worse outcomes in those with established COVID-19. Particularly, obesity has been associated with higher hospitalization rates in acute or intensive care and greater risk for invasive mechanical ventilation than lean people. Obesity is characterized by metabolic impairments and chronic low-grade systemic inflammation that causes a pro-inflammatory microenvironment, further aggravating the cytokine production and risk of cytokine storm response during Sars-Cov2 sepsis or other secondary infections. Moreover, the metabolic dysregulations are closely related to an impaired immune system and altered response to viral infection that can ultimately lead to a greater susceptibility to infections, longer viral shedding and greater duration of illness and severity of the disease. In individuals with obesity, maintaining a healthy diet, remaining physically active and reducing sedentary behaviors are particularly important during COVID-19-related quarantine to reduce metabolic and immune impairments. Moreover, such stategies are of utmost importance to reduce the risk for sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity, and to prevent a reduction and potentially even increase cardiorespiratory fitness, a well-known independent risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and recently found to be a risk factor also for hospitalizations secondary to COVID-19. Such lifestyle strategies may ultimately reduce morbility and mortality in patients with infectious disease, especially in those with concomitant obesity. The aim of this review is to discuss how obesity might increase the risk of COVID-19 and potentially affect its prognosis once COVID-19 is diagnosed. We therefore advocate for implementation of strategies aimed at preventing obesity in the first place, but also to minimize the metabolic anomalies that may lead to a compromized immune response and chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, especially in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/prevention & control , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Comorbidity , Diet/standards , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Exercise/physiology , Humans , Obesity/immunology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 46(6): 100823, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103811

ABSTRACT

We continue to increase our cognizance and recognition of the importance of healthy living (HL) behaviors and HL medicine (HLM) to prevent and treat chronic disease. The continually unfolding events precipitated by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have further highlighted the importance of HL behaviors, as indicated by the characteristics of those who have been hospitalized and died from this viral infection. There has already been recognition that leading a healthy lifestyle, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, may have a substantial protective effect in those who become infected with the virus. Now more than ever, HL behaviors and HLM are essential and must be promoted with a renewed vigor across the globe. In response to the rapidly evolving world since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the clear need to change lifestyle behaviors to promote human resilience and quality of life, the HL for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) network was established. The 4 major areas of focus for the network are: (1) knowledge discovery and dissemination; (2) education; (3) policy; (4) implementation. This HL-PIVOT network position statement provides a current synopsis of the major focus areas of the network, including leading research in the field of HL behaviors and HLM, examples of best practices in education, policy, and implementation, and recommendations for the future.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Education , Health Policy , Healthy Lifestyle , Information Dissemination , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Chronic Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet, Healthy , Exercise , Humans , Implementation Science , Obesity , Patient Education as Topic , Quality of Life , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Smoking Cessation
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100125

ABSTRACT

This study investigated an alternative home-based cardiac telerehabilitation model in consideration of the recommendations for the COVID-19 quarantine of people diagnosed with coronary heart disease (CHD). We hypothesized that using a 200 m fast walking test (200 mFWT) and telerehabilitation would create an effective alternative cardiac rehabilitation (CR) intervention that could improve cardiorespiratory fitness. Participants (n = 19, mean age 60.4 ± 9.6) of the 8-week intervention performed regular physical exercise at the target heart rate zone determined by calculations based on the 200 mFWT results. In our study, the participants were supervised using telerehabilitation. A total of 84% of participants completed the 8-week intervention. No adverse events were reported during telerehabilitation. The study participants noted a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in cardiorespiratory fitness expressed by an 8% reduction in the walking test time (Δ 8.8 ± 5.9 s). Home-based telerehabilitation based on 200 mFWT effectively increased the cardiorespiratory fitness in people with CHD with a low to moderate cardiovascular risk. This was a novel approach in CR during the COVID-19 pandemic. As research in this area is justified, this paper may serve as an alternative method of providing healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic and as a basis for further upcoming randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Coronary Disease/rehabilitation , Telerehabilitation , Aged , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Walk Test
18.
Int J Sports Med ; 42(10): 917-923, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096357

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic forced most activities in Italy, including soccer, to cease. During lockdown, players could only train at home, with limited evidence regarding the effect of this period. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of COVID-19 lockdown on professional soccer players' physical performance. Aerobic fitness and vertical jump were assessed before and after four periods in two different seasons: COVID-19 lockdown, competitive period before lockdown, competitive period and summer break of the 2016-2017 season. Linear mixed models were used to examine within-period changes and between-period differences in changes observed during COVID-19 lockdown and the three other periods. Within-period changes in aerobic fitness showed a significant improvement following COVID-19 lockdown (p<0.001) and a significant decline during summer break (p<0.001). Between-period differences were significant in the comparison of COVID-19 lockdown with both the competitive 2019-2020 season (p<0.01) and summer break (p<0.001). For the vertical jump, only the between-period comparison revealed significant differences as the changes associated with COVID-19 lockdown were worse than those of the two competitive periods, for both absolute (p<0.05; p<0.001) and relative peak power (p<0.01; p<0.001). Home-based training during lockdown was effective to improve aerobic fitness, although it did not allow players to maintain their competitive period's power levels.


Subject(s)
Athletic Performance , COVID-19 , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Soccer , Adult , Athletes , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Italy , Male , Pandemics , Young Adult
19.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 41(3): 199-201, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072449

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Both inflammation and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with the risk of respiratory infections. To clarify the hypothesis that CRF attenuates the incident risk of pneumonia due to inflammation, we conducted a prospective study examining the independent and joint associations of inflammation and CRF on the risk of pneumonia in a population sample of 2041 middle-aged men. METHODS: Cardiorespiratory fitness was directly measured as peak oxygen uptake (V˙o2peak) during progressive exercise testing to volitional fatigue, and categorized into tertiles. Inflammation was defined by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Pneumonia cases were identified by internal medicine physicians using the International Classification of Diseases codes in clinical practice. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 27 yr, 432 pneumonia cases were recorded. High hsCRP and CRF were associated with a higher risk (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.02-1.88) and a lower risk of pneumonia (HR = 0.55; CI, 0.39-0.76) after adjusting for potential confounders, respectively. Compared with normal hsCRP-Fit, moderate to high hsCRP-Unfit had an increased risk of pneumonia (HR = 1.63; CI, 1.21-2.20), but moderate to high hsCRP-Fit was not associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (HR = 1.25; CI, 0.93-1.68). CONCLUSIONS: High CRF attenuates the increased risk of pneumonia due to inflammation. These findings have potential implications for the prevention of respiratory infection characterized by systemic inflammation, such as coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Causality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Exercise Test , Finland/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Inflammation/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/blood , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 67: 2-10, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062545

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is one of the biggest health crises that the world has seen. Whilst measures to abate transmission and infection are ongoing, there continues to be growing numbers of patients requiring chronic support, which is already putting a strain on health care systems around the world and which may do so for years to come. A legacy of COVID-19 will be a long-term requirement to support patients with dedicated rehabilitation and support services. With many clinical settings characterized by a lack of funding and resources, the need to provide these additional services could overwhelm clinical capacity. This position statement from the Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) Network provides a collaborative blueprint focused on leading research and developing clinical guidelines, bringing together professionals with expertise in clinical services and the exercise sciences to develop the evidence base needed to improve outcomes for patients infected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Exercise , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Exercise Tolerance , Health Policy , Humans , Organizational Policy , Rehabilitation/methods , Respiratory Tract Diseases/rehabilitation , Telemedicine
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