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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785667

ABSTRACT

In Namibia, the prevalence of hypertension among women and men aged 35-64 years is high, ranging from 44% to 57%. In this study, we aimed to determine adherence and predictors to antihypertensive therapy in Khomas region, Namibia. A cross-sectional study was performed to consecutively sample 400 patients from urban and peri-urban settings in Namibia. Results were validated using the Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale. Crude associations between predictors of adherence and compliance were tested using the Pearson chi-square test. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was then performed on adherence variables found to be significant to adjust for confounders, and the results are presented as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 400 patients participated in this study. The participants' mean age and standard deviation were Mean ± SD = 48.9 ± 12.5. In this study, 351 (87.7%) patients were estimated to have good adherence. Education, employment, and the presence of other chronic diseases were associated with adherence. Following multivariate adjustment, the following factors were significantly associated and are therefore predictors of adherence (95%CI, p < 0.005): receiving enough medication at last check-up until next one (OR = 5.44, CI 1.76-16.85), lack of encouragement from family and friends (OR = 0.11 (0.03-0.42)), and attendance of follow-ups on schedule (OR = 8.49, CI = 3.82-18.85). The success of hypertension therapy is dependent on the healthcare systems and healthcare professionals in supplying enough medication, support of friends/family, and maintaining scheduled follow-ups. A combination of interventions using low-cost mobile technology led by healthcare professionals could be endorsed. To fully practice universal access to medication, public and private hospitals in Namibia should collaborate.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Agents , Hypertension , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Medication Adherence , Namibia/epidemiology
3.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 28(5): 419-423, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409323
4.
Chest ; 160(6): 2123-2134, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Drug supply disruptions have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for medicines used in the ICU. Despite reported shortages in wealthy countries, global analyses of ICU drug purchasing during COVID-19 are limited. RESEARCH QUESTION: Has COVID-19 impacted global drug purchases of first-, second-, and third-choice agents used in intensive care? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional time series study in a global pharmacy sales dataset comprising approximately 60% of the world's population. We analyzed pandemic-related changes in units purchased per 1,000 population for 69 ICU agents. Interventional autoregressive integrated moving average models tested for significant changes when the pandemic was declared (March 2020) and during its first stage from April through August 2020, globally and by development status. RESULTS: Relative to 2019, ICU drug purchases increased by 23.6% (95% CI, 7.9%-37.9%) in March 2020 (P < .001) and then decreased by 10.3% (95% CI, -16.9% to -3.5%) from April through August (P = .006). Purchases for second-choice medicines changed the most, especially in developing countries (eg, 29.3% increase in March 2020). Despite similar relative changes (P = .88), absolute purchasing rates in developing nations remained low. The observed decrease from April through August 2020 was significant only in developed countries (-13.1%; 95% CI, -17.4% to -4.4%; P < .001). Country-level variation seemed unrelated to expected demand and health care infrastructure. INTERPRETATION: Purchases for intensive care medicines increased globally in the month of the COVID-19 pandemic declaration, but before peak infection rates. These changes were most pronounced for second-choice agents, suggesting that inexpensive, generic medicines may be purchased more easily in anticipation of pandemic-related ICU surges. Nevertheless, disparities in access persisted. Trends seemed unrelated to expected demand, and decreased purchasing from April through August 2020 may suggest overbuying. National and international policies are needed to ensure equitable drug purchasing during future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Developed Countries , Developing Countries , Health Expenditures , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Central Nervous System Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis
5.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(2): 343-351, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310350

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a mystified cryptic virus has challenged the mankind that has brought life to a standstill. Catastrophic loss of life, perplexed healthcare system and the downfall of global economy are some of the outcomes of this pandemic. Humans are raging a war with an unknown enemy. Infections, irrespective of age and gender, and more so in comorbidities are escalating at an alarming rate. Cardiovascular diseases, are the leading cause of death globally with an estimate of 31% of deaths worldwide out of which nearly 85% are due to heart attacks and stroke. Theoretically and practically, researchers have observed that persons with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions are comparatively more vulnerable to the COVID-19 infection. Moreover, they have studied the data between less severe and more severe cases, survivors and non survivors, intensive care unit (ICU) patients and non ICU patients, to analyse the relationship and the influence of COVID-19 on cardiovascular health of an individual, further the risk of susceptibility to submit to the virus. This review aims to provide a comprehensive particular on the possible effects, either direct or indirect, of COVID-19 on the cardiovascular heath of an individual.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cardiovascular System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
6.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 59(8): 572-577, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302711

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the development of drug purchases over the course of the coronavirus crisis in Germany in 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluations in this retrospective cross-sectional study are based on the IMS RPM (Regional Pharmaceutical Market) weekly database, which shows weekly purchases by public pharmacies from full-service wholesalers at the time the pharmacy purchase is made in Germany. The outcome of this investigation was the development of cardiovascular drug sales by packing unit over all 52 weeks of 2020. RESULTS: We found an increase of 68% in week 12 compared to the average sales for weeks 2 - 11, 2020 (vs. -2% in week 12, 2019), while the increase in week 51 was 61%, compared to the average sales for weeks 13 - 50, 2020 (vs. 35% in week 51, 2019). The largest increases in week 12 were for calcium channel blockers (64%), and the largest increases in week 51 were for lipid-lowering drugs (67%). CONCLUSION: The results of this retrospective cross-sectional study suggest that the COVID-19 lockdown in Germany was associated with a significant surge in pharmacy purchases of cardiovascular drugs, indicating panic buying. Although there were no drug shortages during the first lockdown, this panic buying recurred shortly before the second lockdown, albeit to a lesser extent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Agents , Pharmacies , Pharmacy , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 20(10): 1191-1206, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221424

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) is an alarming social risk factor in cardiovascular patients. PIM administration may result in iatrogenic disorders and adverse consequences may be attenuated by limiting PIM intake.Areas covered: The goal of this review article is to discuss the trends, risks, and concerns regarding PIM administration with focus on cardiovascular patients. To find data, we searched literature using electronic databases (Pubmed/Medline 1966-2021 and Web of Science 1975-2021). The data search terms were cardiovascular diseases, potentially inappropriate medication, potentially harmful drug-drug combination, potentially harmful drug-disease combination, drug interaction, deprescribing, and electronic health record.Expert opinion: Drugs for heart diseases are the most commonly prescribed medications in older individuals. Despite the availability of explicit and implicit PIM criteria, the incidence of PIM use in cardiovascular patients remains high ranging from 7 to 85% in different patient categories. Physician-induced disorders often occur when PIM is administered and adverse effects may be reduced by limiting PIM intake. Main strategies promising for addressing PIM use include deprescribing, implementation of systematic electronic records, pharmacist medication review, and collaboration among cardiologists, internists, geriatricians, clinical pharmacologists, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals as basis of multidisciplinary assessment teams.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Inappropriate Prescribing/trends , Potentially Inappropriate Medication List/trends , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Agents/adverse effects , Drug Interactions , Humans , Inappropriate Prescribing/adverse effects , Polypharmacy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
11.
Cardiol J ; 28(3): 360-368, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors and usage of cardiovascular medication are prevalent among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Little is known about the cardiovascular implications of COVID-19. The goal herein, was to evaluate the prognostic impact of having heart disease (HD) and taking cardiovascular medications in a population diagnosed of COVID-19 who required hospitalization. Also, we studied the development of cardiovascular events during hospitalization. METHODS: Consecutive patients with definitive diagnosis of COVID-19 made by a positive real time- -polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal swabs who were admitted to the hospital from March 15 to April 14 were included in a retrospective registry. The association of HD with mortality and with mortality or respiratory failure were the primary and secondary objectives, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 859 patients were included in the present analysis. Cardiovascular risk factors were related to death, particularly diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio in the multivariate analysis: 1.810 [1.159- -2.827], p = 0.009). A total of 113 (13.1%) patients had HD. The presence of HD identified a group of patients with higher mortality (35.4% vs. 18.2%, p < 0.001) but HD was not independently related to prognosis; renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, diuretics and beta-blockers did not worsen prognosis. Statins were independently associated with decreased mortality (0.551 [0.329-0.921], p = 0.023). Cardiovascular events during hospitalization identified a group of patients with poor outcome (mortality 31.8% vs. 19.3% without cardiovascular events, p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of HD is related to higher mortality. Cardiovascular medications taken before admission are not harmful, statins being protective. The development of cardiovascular events during the course of the disease is related to poor outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 35-51, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061059

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2019, it is gaining worldwide attention at the moment. Apart from respiratory manifestations, neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, especially the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), has been intensively investigated. In this review, the effects of COVID-19 infection on CVD were summarized as follows: (I) angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) may be involved in the attack on vascular endothelial cells by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), leading to endothelial damage and increased subintimal inflammation, which are followed by hemorrhage or thrombosis; (II) SARS-CoV-2 could alter the expression/activity of ACE2, consequently resulting in the disruption of renin-angiotensin system which is associated with the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis; (III) upregulation of neutrophil extracellular traps has been detected in COVID-19 patients, which is closely associated with immunothrombosis; (IV) the inflammatory cascade induced by SARS-CoV-2 often leads to hypercoagulability and promotes the formation and progress of atherosclerosis; (V) antiphospholipid antibodies are also detected in plasma of some severe cases, which aggravate the thrombosis through the formation of immune complexes; (VI) hyperglycemia in COVID-19 patients may trigger CVD by increasing oxidative stress and blood viscosity; (VII) the COVID-19 outbreak is a global emergency and causes psychological stress, which could be a potential risk factor of CVD as coagulation, and fibrinolysis may be affected. In this review, we aimed to further our understanding of CVD-associated COVID-19 infection, which could improve the therapeutic outcomes of patients. Personalized treatments should be offered to COVID-19 patients at greater risk for stroke in future clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Hemorrhage/complications , Hyperglycemia/complications , Stroke/complications , Thrombosis/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Atherosclerosis/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Extracellular Traps/drug effects , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/virology , Inflammation , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/virology , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/virology
14.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 943-952, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047171

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Patients with advanced heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) and concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) might have a higher risk of severe events. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively studied 16 patients with advanced HFrEF who developed COVID-19 between 1 March and 29 May 2020. Follow-up lasted until 30 September. Ten patients previously hospitalized with decompensated HFrEF were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during hospitalization. Six patients undergoing ambulatory care at initiation of COVID-19 symptoms were hospitalized because of advanced HFrEF. All patients who experienced worsening of HFrEF due to COVID-19 required higher doses or introduction of additional inotropic drugs or intra-aortic balloon pump in the intensive care unit. The mean intravenous dobutamine dose before SARS-CoV-2 infection in previously hospitalized patients (n = 10) and the median (inter-quartile range) peak intravenous dobutamine dose during SARS-CoV-2 infection in all patients (n = 16) were 2 (0-7) µg/kg/min and 20 (14-20) (P < 0.001), respectively. During follow-up, 56% underwent heart transplantation (n = 2) or died (n = 7). Four patients died during hospitalization from mixed shock consequent to severe acute respiratory syndrome with inflammatory storm syndrome associated with septic and cardiogenic shock during COVID-19. After COVID-19 recovery, two patients died from mixed septic and cardiogenic shock and one from sustained ventricular tachycardia and cardiogenic shock. Five patients were discharged from hospital to ambulatory care. Four were awaiting heart transplantation. CONCLUSION: Worsening of advanced HF by COVID-19 is associated with high mortality. This report highlights the importance of preventing COVID-19 in patients with advanced HF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Critical Care , Female , Heart Failure/virology , Heart Transplantation , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
15.
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 91(Suplemento COVID): 079-085, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034279

ABSTRACT

In severe coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 patients, an extraordinary systemic inflammatory response is seen. It could impact in multiple organ disorders, specially a severe myocardial injury, an acute myocarditis results in focal or global myocardial inflammation and necrosis. Those events can be present in healthy subjects or cardiovascular (CV) patients. It is clinically associated with ventricular dysfunction exacerbation or worsening and tachyarrhythmias. It is also related to a poor outcome for CV patients with ischemic heart disease, hypertensión, and heart failure. COVID-19 patients require multiple and complex treatment that alleviates symptoms, the vast variety of agents interacts with diseases and CV drugs. Our purpose is to correlate in guidance synopsis: Adverse effects, pharmacological interactions, and CV drugs in COVID-19 treatment.


En pacientes con COVID-19 grave se ha observado una extraordinaria respuesta inflamatoria sistémica. Este impacto se traduce en múltiples trastornos de órganos, especialmente cardíacos, por lesión miocárdica grave, miocarditis aguda que resulta en inflamación focal o miocárdica global, necrosis cardiaca. Estos tremendos eventos son observados en sujetos sanos como pacientes cardiovasculares. Clínicamente asociados con nueva presentación o empeoramiento de la disfunción ventricular y taquiarritmias. Relacionado a un predictor principal de malos resultado en pacientes cardiovasculares (CV), especialmente en aquellos con cardiopatía isquémica, hipertensión e insuficiencia cardíaca. Los enfermos con COVID-19 requieren múltiples y complejos tratamientos que alivien los síntomas, esta gran variedad de agentes interactúa con enfermedades y medicamentos CV. Nuestro propósito es correlacionar, en una guía sinóptica: efectos adversos, interacciones farmacológicas y fármacos cardiovasculares en el tratamiento del COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases , Myocarditis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Agents/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Drug Interactions , Humans , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/virology
17.
Blood Purif ; 50(4-5): 513-519, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, pneumonia associated with COVID-19 has spread from Wuhan to other areas in China. In the present study, we aimed to further clarify the clinical features and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients infected with COVID-19 in Xiangyang, Hubei, China. METHODS: All confirmed cases of COVID-19 with AKI in Xiangyang Central Hospital from January 22 to May 31, 2020, were included in this retrospective study. Data of epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological tests, treatment, complication, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Patients were divided into intensive care unit (ICU) group and isolation ward (non-ICU) group. RESULTS: Of the total patients, 33.3% in the non-ICU group and 85.7% in the ICU group had chronic diseases. In addition, 85.7% of patients in the ICU group died. The most common symptoms were fever, cough, and fatigue. The lymphocyte count in the ICU group was significantly reduced compared with the non-ICU group. The chest computed tomography (CT) images appeared showed multiple mottles and ground-glass opacity. Strip shadow could be found in chest CT images of some recovered patients. All patients received antiviral treatment. Most patients in the ICU group were given methylprednisolone, immunoglobulin, antibiotics, and mechanical ventilation and 35.7% of patients in the ICU group received continuous renal replacement therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly with chronic comorbidities were more susceptible to COVID-19, showing a higher mortality rate due to multiple organ damage, and 35.7% of patients with AKI in ICU received renal replacement therapy. Moreover, part of the cured patients might need additional time to recover for poor lung function.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Plasma Exchange/methods , Plasma Exchange/statistics & numerical data , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Am Heart J ; 232: 105-115, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893406

ABSTRACT

Morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 has increased exponentially, and patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease are at risk for poor outcomes. Several lines of evidence suggest a potential role for CV therapies in COVID-19 treatment. Characteristics of clinical trials of CV therapies related to COVID-19 registered on ClinicalTrials.gov have not been described. METHODS: ClinicalTrials.gov was queried on August 7, 2020 for COVID-19 related trials. Studies evaluating established CV drugs, other fibrinolytics (defibrotide), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were included. Studies evaluating anti-microbial, convalescent plasma, non-colchicine anti-inflammatory, and other therapies were excluded. Trial characteristics were tabulated from study-specific entries. RESULTS: A total of 2,935 studies related to COVID-19 were registered as of August 7, 2020. Of these, 1,645 were interventional studies, and the final analytic cohort consisted of 114 studies evaluating 10 CV therapeutic categories. Antithrombotics (32.5%; n = 37) were most commonly evaluated, followed by pulmonary vasodilators (14.0%; n = 16), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system-related therapies (12.3%; n = 14), and colchicine (8.8%; n = 10). Trials evaluating multiple CV therapy categories and CV therapies in combination with non-CV therapies encompassed 4.4% (n = 5) and 9.6% (n = 11) of studies, respectively. Most studies were designed for randomized allocation (87.7%; n = 100), enrollment of less than 1000 participants (86.8%; n = 99), single site implementation (55.3%; n = 63), and had a primary outcome of mortality or a composite including mortality (56.1%; n = 64). Most study populations consisted of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 (81.6%; n = 93). At the time of database query, 28.9% (n = 33) of studies were not yet recruiting and the majority were estimated to be completed after December 2020 (67.8%; n = 78). Most lead sponsors were located in North America (43.9%; n = 50) or Europe (36.0%; n = 41). CONCLUSIONS: A minority (7%) of clinical trials related to COVID-19 registered on ClinicalTrials.gov plan to evaluate CV therapies. Of CV therapy studies, most were planned to be single center, enroll less than 1000 inpatients, sponsored by European or North American academic institutions, and estimated to complete after December 2020. Collectively, these findings underscore the need for a network of sites with a platform protocol for rapid evaluation of multiple therapies and generalizability to inform clinical care and health policy for COVID-19 moving forward.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , National Library of Medicine (U.S.) , Registries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Combined Modality Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Renin-Angiotensin System , Treatment Outcome , United States , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Shock ; 54(5): 644-651, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-867936

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has spread around the world. However, the dynamic course of critically ill COVID-19 has not been described thoroughly. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 195 critically ill COVID-19 patients in Hubei province, China, between January 5, 2020 and April 3, 2020. Epidemiologic data, clinical features, treatments, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Most critically ill patients were older with higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores. After critical illness onset, a total of 181 (92.8%) patients received ventilation support, of which 84 (43.1%) received noninvasive and 97 (49.7%) received invasive mechanic ventilation (IMV). Among the 97 patients with IMV, 28 (28.9%) received prone ventilation, 57 (58.8%) received neuromuscular blocked therapy, and 22 (11.3%) received tracheostomy due to prolonged ventilator use. Early hypoxemia, subsequent hypercapnia, pulmonary hypertension, and finally pulmonary fibrosis were notable in the clinical course of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Eighty-nine (45.6%) patients presented with shock. Acute kidney injury (29.7%) and secondary infection (28.2%) were also notable. The overall mortality of critically ill patients at day 28 was 42.1%. Intensive care unit (ICU) mortality was around 33%, as 16 patients died prior to ICU admission. A low PaO2/FiO2 ratio was an independent risk factor for death. High viral load was observed in most non-survivors. CONCLUSION: ARDS and shock were notable in the critical illness of COVID-19. Ventilation support and hemodynamic support were the cornerstones for critical care. High viral load was associated with death of critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Agents/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Disease Progression , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
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