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1.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 67(3): 133-139, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761758

ABSTRACT

The study of the characteristics and dynamics of laboratory biomarkers in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) undergoing COVID-19-associated pneumonia may be of great clinical importance. The study included 116 patients who underwent COVID-19-associated pneumonia. The patients were divided into 2 groups. The first group included 49 patients without CVD, the second group - 67 patients with CVD. A blood sample was performed in all patients at the time of hospitalization and 3 months after discharge from the hospital. The parameters of general blood count, biochemistry, hemostasis, and biomarkers of inflammation were assessed - concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), highly sensitive CRP (hs-CRP), homocysteine and IL-6. All patients initially underwent computed tomography of the chest organs. We found that ESR, WBC (leukocytes), NLR (neutrophils/lymphocytes ratio), fibrinogen, LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), LYM/CRP ratio (lymphocytes/CRP) were parameters that significantly distinguished patients in the 1st and 2nd groups. Three months after discharge from the hospital in patients of both groups the increased indicators approached the reference values, however, some parameters such as CRP, ESR, WBC, fibrinogen remained at a higher level in group 2 compared to group 1. Correlation analysis revealed the relationship between parameters of inflammation and hemostasis in the 2nd group of patients, which confirms the presence of latent vascular inflammatory potential in this group. It was revealed that such indicators as lymphocytes, neutrophils, APTT and LDH were associated with the initial volume of lung lesion more than 50%. Increase of these parameters by 1 unit contributes to increase in the volume of lung tissue damage by 6.5%, 6.4%, 11%, and 0.6%, respectively. Thus, dynamic control of laboratory parameters has prognostic value in assessing the nature of the course of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in patients with CVD and developing an algorithm for personalized monitoring of patients in the post-COVID period with the aim of timely correction of therapy to prevent unwanted vascular complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Humans
2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(2): 274-286, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566302

ABSTRACT

Based on the recent reports, cardiovascular events encompass a large portion of the mortality caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which drawn cardiologists into the management of the admitted ill patients. Given that common laboratory values may provide key insights into the illness caused by the life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 virus, it would be more helpful for screening, clinical management and on-time therapeutic strategies. Commensurate with these issues, this review article aimed to discuss the dynamic changes of the common laboratory parameters during COVID-19 and their association with cardiovascular diseases. Besides, the values that changed in the early stage of the disease were considered and monitored during the recovery process. The time required for returning biomarkers to basal levels was also discussed. Finally, of particular interest, we tended to abridge the latest updates regarding the cardiovascular biomarkers as prognostic and diagnostic criteria to determine the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Homocysteine/blood , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
3.
Pharmacol Res ; 169: 105689, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525917

ABSTRACT

Genome wide association, epidemiological, and clinical studies have established high lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Lp(a) is an apoB100 containing lipoprotein covalently bound to apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], a glycoprotein. Plasma Lp(a) levels are to a large extent determined by genetics. Its link to cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be driven by its pro-inflammatory effects, of which its association with oxidized phospholipids (oxPL) bound to Lp(a) is the most studied. Various inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and chronic renal failure are associated with high Lp(a) levels. In cases of RA, high Lp(a) levels are reversed by interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) blockade by tocilizumab, suggesting a potential role for IL-6 in regulating Lp(a) plasma levels. Elevated levels of IL-6 and IL-6R polymorphisms are associated with CVD. Therapies aimed at lowering apo(a) and thereby reducing plasma Lp(a) levels are in clinical trials. Their results will determine if reductions in apo(a) and Lp(a) decrease cardiovascular outcomes. As we enter this new arena of available treatments, there is a need to improve our understanding of mechanisms. This review will focus on the role of Lp(a) in inflammation and CVD.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/metabolism , Lipoprotein(a)/blood , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Lipoprotein(a)/metabolism , Lipoprotein(a)/physiology
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512376

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases are currently among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in many developed countries. They are distinguished by chronic and latent development, a course with stages of worsening of symptoms and a period of improvement, and a constant potential threat to life. One of the most important disorders in cardiovascular disease is ischemic stroke. The causes of ischemic stroke can be divided into non-modifiable and modifiable causes. One treatment modality from a neurological point of view is acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), which blocks cyclooxygenase and, thus, thromboxane synthesis. The legitimacy of its administration does not raise any doubts in the case of the acute phase of stroke in patients in whom thrombolytic treatment cannot be initiated. The measurement of thromboxane B2 (TxB2) in serum (a stable metabolic product of TxA2) is the only test that measures the effect of aspirin on the activity of COX-1 in platelets. Measurement of thromboxane B2 may be a potential biomarker of vascular disease risk in patients treated with aspirin. The aim of this study is to present the role of thromboxane B2 in ischemic stroke and to present effective therapies for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Scientific articles from the PubMed database were used for the work, which were selected on the basis of a search for "thromboxane and stroke". Subsequently, a restriction was introduced for works older than 10 years, those concerning animals, and those without full text access. Ultimately, 58 articles were selected. It was shown that a high concentration of TXB2 may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke or ischemic heart disease. However, there is insufficient evidence to suggest that thromboxane could be used in clinical practice as a marker of ischemic stroke. The inclusion of ASA in the prevention of stroke has a beneficial effect that is associated with the effect on thromboxane. However, its insufficient power in 25% or even 50% of the population should be taken into account. An alternative and/or additional therapy could be a selective antagonist of the thromboxane receptor. Thromboxane A2 production is inhibited by estrogen; therefore, the risk of CVD after the menopause and among men is higher. More research is needed in this area.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke/metabolism , Thromboxane B2/metabolism , Animals , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Thromboxane B2/blood
5.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(4): 1015-1032, 2021 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369073

ABSTRACT

The motivation for this review comes from the emerging complexity of the autonomic innervation of the carotid body (CB) and its putative role in regulating chemoreceptor sensitivity. With the carotid bodies as a potential therapeutic target for numerous cardiorespiratory and metabolic diseases, an understanding of the neural control of its circulation is most relevant. Since nerve fibres track blood vessels and receive autonomic innervation, we initiate our review by describing the origins of arterial feed to the CB and its unique vascular architecture and blood flow. Arterial feed(s) vary amongst species and, unequivocally, the arterial blood supply is relatively high to this organ. The vasculature appears to form separate circuits inside the CB with one having arterial venous anastomoses. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves are present with postganglionic neurons located within the CB or close to it in the form of paraganglia. Their role in arterial vascular resistance control is described as is how CB blood flow relates to carotid sinus afferent activity. We discuss non-vascular targets of autonomic nerves, their possible role in controlling glomus cell activity, and how certain transmitters may relate to function. We propose that the autonomic nerves sub-serving the CB provide a rapid mechanism to tune the gain of peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity based on alterations in blood flow and oxygen delivery, and might provide future therapeutic targets. However, there remain a number of unknowns regarding these mechanisms that require further research that is discussed.


Subject(s)
Arteries/innervation , Autonomic Nervous System/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Carotid Body/blood supply , Hemodynamics , Oxygen/blood , Reflex , Animals , Autonomic Nervous System/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Humans , Regional Blood Flow , Species Specificity
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344351

ABSTRACT

Progressive respiratory failure is seen as a major cause of death in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)-induced infection. Relatively little is known about the associated morphologic and molecular changes in the circulation of these patients. In particular, platelet and erythrocyte pathology might result in severe vascular issues, and the manifestations may include thrombotic complications. These thrombotic pathologies may be both extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary and may be central to respiratory failure. Previously, we reported the presence of amyloid microclots in the circulation of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we investigate the presence of related circulating biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin, and P-selectin. These biomarkers are well-known to interact with, and cause pathology to, platelets and erythrocytes. We also study the structure of platelets and erythrocytes using fluorescence microscopy (using the markers PAC-1 and CD62PE) and scanning electron microscopy. Thromboelastography and viscometry were also used to study coagulation parameters and plasma viscosity. We conclude that structural pathologies found in platelets and erythrocytes, together with spontaneously formed amyloid microclots, may be central to vascular changes observed during COVID-19 progression, including thrombotic microangiopathy, diffuse intravascular coagulation, and large-vessel thrombosis, as well as ground-glass opacities in the lungs. Consequently, this clinical snapshot of COVID-19 strongly suggests that it is also a true vascular disease and considering it as such should form an essential part of a clinical treatment regime.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Erythrocytes/pathology , Ferritins/blood , P-Selectin/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Erythrocytes/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology
7.
J Immunol Methods ; 497: 113108, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330965

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease has remained the world's biggest killer for 30 years. To aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients suffering cardiovascular-related disease accurate detection methods are essential. For over 20 years, the cardiac-specific troponins, I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), have acted as sensitive and specific biomarkers to assist in the diagnosis of various types of heart diseases. Various cardiovascular complications were commonly detected in patients with COVID-19, where cTn elevation is detectable, which suggested potential prognostic value of cTn in COVID-19-infected patients. Detection of these biomarkers circulating in the bloodstream is generally facilitated by immunoassays employing cTnI- and/or cTnT-specific antibodies. While several anti-troponin assays are commercially available, there are still obstacles to overcome to achieve optimal troponin detection. Such obstacles include the proteolytic degradation of N and C terminals on cTnI, epitope occlusion of troponin binding-sites by the cTnI/cTnT complex, cross reactivity of antibodies with skeletal troponins or assay interference caused by human anti-species antibodies. Therefore, further research into multi-antibody based platforms, multi-epitope targeting and rigorous validation of immunoassays is required to ensure accurate measurements. Moreover, in combination with various technical advances (e.g. microfluidics), antibody-based troponin detection systems can be more sensitive and rapid for incorporation into portable biosensor systems to be used at point-of care.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Immunoassay/methods , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Troponin I/immunology , Troponin T/immunology
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(6): e018477, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268159

ABSTRACT

Background The independent prognostic value of troponin and other biomarker elevation among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are unclear. We sought to characterize biomarker levels in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and develop and validate a mortality risk score. Methods and Results An observational cohort study of 1053 patients with COVID-19 was conducted. Patients with all of the following biomarkers measured-troponin-I, B-type natriuretic peptide, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and d-dimer (n=446) -were identified. Maximum levels for each biomarker were recorded. The primary end point was 30-day in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to construct a mortality risk score. Validation of the risk score was performed using an independent patient cohort (n=440). Mean age of patients was 65.0±15.2 years and 65.3% were men. Overall, 444 (99.6%) had elevation of any biomarker. Among tested biomarkers, troponin-I ≥0.34 ng/mL was the only independent predictor of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 4.38; P<0.001). Patients with a mortality score using hypoxia on presentation, age, and troponin-I elevation, age (HA2T2) ≥3 had a 30-day mortality of 43.7% while those with a score <3 had mortality of 5.9%. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the HA2T2 score was 0.834 for the derivation cohort and 0.784 for the validation cohort. Conclusions Elevated troponin and other biomarker levels are commonly seen in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. High troponin levels are a potent predictor of 30-day in-hospital mortality. A simple risk score can stratify patients at risk for COVID-19-associated mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Health Status Indicators , Hospitalization , Troponin I/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Up-Regulation
9.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 114(5): 394-406, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240129

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although women account for up to half of patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), no specific data have been reported in this population. AIMS: To assess the burden and impact of cardiovascular comorbidities in women with COVID-19. METHODS: All consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 across 24 hospitals from 26 February to 20 April 2020 were included. The primary composite outcome was transfer to an intensive care unit or in-hospital death. RESULTS: Among 2878 patients, 1212 (42.1%) were women. Women were older (68.3±18.0 vs. 65.4±16.0 years; P<0.001), but had less prevalent cardiovascular comorbidities than men. Among women, 276 (22.8%) experienced the primary outcome, including 161 (13.3%) transfers to an intensive care unit and 115 (9.5%) deaths without transfer to intensive care unit. The rate of in-hospital death or transfer to an intensive care unit was lower in women versus men (crude hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53-0.72). Age (adjusted HR: 1.05 per 5-year increase, 95% CI: 1.01-1.10), body mass index (adjusted HR: 1.06 per 2-unit increase, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10), chronic kidney disease (adjusted HR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.11-2.22) and heart failure (adjusted HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.04-2.22) were independently associated with the primary outcome in women. Elevated B-type natriuretic peptide/N-terminal prohormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (adjusted HR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.70-3.44) and troponin (adjusted HR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.39-2.88) concentrations at admission were also associated with the primary outcome, even in women free of previous coronary artery disease or heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: Although female sex was associated with a lower risk of transfer to an intensive care unit or in-hospital death, COVID-19 remained associated with considerable morbimortality in women, especially in those with cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Aged , Asthma/epidemiology , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Smoking/epidemiology , Troponin/blood
10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250956, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218423

ABSTRACT

Clinical and laboratory predictors of COVID-19 severity are now well described and combined to propose mortality or severity scores. However, they all necessitate saturable equipment such as scanners, or procedures difficult to implement such as blood gas measures. To provide an easy and fast COVID-19 severity risk score upon hospital admission, and keeping in mind the above limits, we sought for a scoring system needing limited invasive data such as a simple blood test and co-morbidity assessment by anamnesis. A retrospective study of 303 patients (203 from Bordeaux University hospital and an external independent cohort of 100 patients from Paris Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital) collected clinical and biochemical parameters at admission. Using stepwise model selection by Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), we built the severity score Covichem. Among 26 tested variables, 7: obesity, cardiovascular conditions, plasma sodium, albumin, ferritin, LDH and CK were the independent predictors of severity used in Covichem (accuracy 0.87, AUROC 0.91). Accuracy was 0.92 in the external validation cohort (89% sensitivity and 95% specificity). Covichem score could be useful as a rapid, costless and easy to implement severity assessment tool during acute COVID-19 pandemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/epidemiology , Paris/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Circ J ; 85(6): 921-928, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of age on the outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and on cardiac biomarker profiles, especially in patients with cardiovascular diseases and/or risk factors (CVDRF).Methods and Results:A nationwide multicenter retrospective study included 1,518 patients with COVID-19. Of these patients, 693 with underlying CVDRF were analyzed; patients were divided into age groups (<55, 55-64, 65-79, and ≥80 years) and in-hospital mortality and age-specific clinical and cardiac biomarker profiles on admission evaluated. Overall, the mean age of patients was 68 years, 449 (64.8%) were male, and 693 (45.7%) had underlying CVDRF. Elderly (≥80 years) patients had a significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality regardless of concomitant CVDRF than younger patients (P<0.001). Typical characteristics related to COVID-19, including symptoms and abnormal findings on baseline chest X-ray and computed tomography scans, were significantly less prevalent in the elderly group than in the younger groups. However, a significantly (P<0.001) higher proportion of elderly patients were positive for cardiac troponin (cTn), and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro BNP (NT-proBNP) levels on admission were significantly higher among elderly than younger patients (P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients with COVID-19 had a higher risk of mortality during the hospital course, regardless of their history of CVDRF, were more likely to be cTn positive, and had significantly higher BNP/NT-proBNP levels than younger patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Troponin/blood , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
12.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 129(6): 1413-1421, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064196

ABSTRACT

The transport of oxygen between blood and tissue is limited by blood's capillary transit time, understood as the time available for diffusion exchange before blood returns to the heart. If all capillaries contribute equally to tissue oxygenation at all times, this physical limitation would render vasodilation and increased blood flow insufficient means to meet increased metabolic demands in the heart, muscle, and other organs. In 1920, Danish physiologist August Krogh was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his mathematical and quantitative, experimental demonstration of a solution to this conceptual problem: capillary recruitment, the active opening of previously closed capillaries to meet metabolic demands. Today, capillary recruitment is still mentioned in textbooks. When we suspect symptoms might represent hypoxia of a vascular origin, however, we search for relevant, flow-limiting conditions in our patients and rarely ascribe hypoxia or hypoxemia to short capillary transit times. This review describes how natural changes in capillary transit-time heterogeneity (CTH) and capillary hematocrit (HCT) across open capillaries during blood flow increases can account for a match of oxygen availability to metabolic demands in normal tissue. CTH and HCT depend on a number of factors: on blood properties, including plasma viscosity, the number, size, and deformability of blood cells, and blood cell interactions with capillary endothelium; on anatomical factors including glycocalyx, endothelial cells, basement membrane, and pericytes that affect the capillary diameter; and on any external compression. The review describes how risk factor- and disease-related changes in CTH and HCT interfere with flow-metabolism coupling and tissue oxygenation and discusses whether such capillary dysfunction contributes to vascular disease pathology.


Subject(s)
Capillaries/physiology , Microcirculation , Models, Cardiovascular , Oxygen Consumption , Oxygen/blood , Alzheimer Disease/blood , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood , Anemia, Sickle Cell/physiopathology , Animals , Blood Flow Velocity , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Diffusion , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Regional Blood Flow , Time Factors
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120857

ABSTRACT

The beneficial effects of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) in cardioprotection are widely known and generally accepted. In this literature review, we have focused on the known and postulated mechanisms of action of omega-3 PUFAs and their metabolites on various components of the haemostatic system, in particular on blood platelets and endothelium. We have also made an attempt to provide a comprehensive review of epidemiological studies with particular regard to clinical trials. Notably, the results of these studies are contradictory, and some of them failed to report the beneficial effects of taking or supplementing omega-3 PUFAs in the diet. A potential explanation, in our opinion, could be the need to use higher doses of omega-3 PUFAs and a proper ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs. An additional problem which is difficult to solve is the use of a proper neutral placebo for interventional studies. Despite some controversies regarding the beneficial effects of supplementation of omega-3 PUFAs in cardiovascular disease, our review suggests that a promising aspect of future studies and applications is to focus on the anti-thrombotic properties of these compounds. An argument supporting this assumption is the recent use of omega-3 PUFAs as a supporting tool for the treatment of COVID-19 complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Diet , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Omega-6/administration & dosage , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Hemostasis/drug effects , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/drug therapy
14.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 10(3): 310-319, 2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114844

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased awareness that severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) may have profound effects on the cardiovascular system. COVID-19 often affects patients with pre-existing cardiac disease, and may trigger acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), venous thromboembolism (VTE), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and acute heart failure (AHF). However, as COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory infectious disease, there remain substantial uncertainty and controversy whether and how cardiovascular biomarkers should be used in patients with suspected COVID-19. To help clinicians understand the possible value as well as the most appropriate interpretation of cardiovascular biomarkers in COVID-19, it is important to highlight that recent findings regarding the prognostic role of cardiovascular biomarkers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are similar to those obtained in studies for pneumonia and ARDS in general. Cardiovascular biomarkers reflecting pathophysiological processes involved in COVID-19/pneumonia and its complications have a role evaluating disease severity, cardiac involvement, and risk of death in COVID-19 as well as in pneumonias caused by other pathogens. First, cardiomyocyte injury, as quantified by cardiac troponin concentrations, and haemodynamic cardiac stress, as quantified by natriuretic peptide concentrations, may occur in COVID-19 as in other pneumonias. The level of those biomarkers correlates with disease severity and mortality. Interpretation of cardiac troponin and natriuretic peptide concentrations as quantitative variables may aid in risk stratification in COVID-19/pneumonia and also will ensure that these biomarkers maintain high diagnostic accuracy for AMI and AHF. Second, activated coagulation as quantified by D-dimers seems more prominent in COVID-19 as in other pneumonias. Due to the central role of endothelitis and VTE in COVID-19, serial measurements of D-dimers may help physicians in the selection of patients for VTE imaging and the intensification of the level of anticoagulation from prophylactic to slightly higher or even therapeutic doses.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Pandemics , Troponin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4930, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114731

ABSTRACT

Multiple Biomarkers have recently been shown to be elevated in COVID-19, a respiratory infection with multi-organ dysfunction; however, information regarding the prognostic value of cardiac biomarkers as it relates to disease severity and cardiac injury are inconsistent. The goal of this meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence regarding the prognostic relevance of cardiac biomarkers from data available in published reports. PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were searched from inception through April 2020 for studies comparing median values of cardiac biomarkers in critically ill versus non-critically ill COVID-19 patients, or patients who died versus those who survived. The weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between the groups were calculated for each study and combined using a random effects meta-analysis model. The odds ratio (OR) for mortality based on cardiac injury was combined from studies reporting it. Troponin levels were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients who died or were critically ill versus those who were alive or not critically ill (WMD 0.57, 95% CI 0.43-0.70, p < 0.001). Additionally, BNP levels were also significantly higher in patients who died or were critically ill (WMD 0.45, 95% CI - 0.21-0.69, p < 0.001). Cardiac injury was independently associated with significantly increased odds of mortality (OR 6.641, 95% CI 1.26-35.1, p = 0.03). A significant difference in levels of D-dimer was seen in those who died or were critically ill. CK levels were only significantly higher in those who died versus those who were alive (WMD 0.79, 95% CI 0.25-1.33, p = 0.004). Cardiac biomarkers add prognostic value to the determination of the severity of COVID-19 and can predict mortality.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Myocardium/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Creatine Kinase/metabolism , Critical Illness , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/analysis , Peptide Fragments/analysis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
17.
Circulation ; 143(1): 78-88, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066978

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with substantial cardiovascular implications. Although infection with SARS-CoV-2 is usually mild in children, some children later develop a severe inflammatory disease that can have manifestations similar to toxic shock syndrome or Kawasaki disease. This syndrome has been defined by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Although the prevalence is unknown, >600 cases have been reported in the literature. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children appears to be more common in Black and Hispanic children in the United States. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children typically occurs a few weeks after acute infection and the putative etiology is a dysregulated inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Persistent fever and gastrointestinal symptoms are the most common symptoms. Cardiac manifestations are common, including ventricular dysfunction, coronary artery dilation and aneurysms, arrhythmia, and conduction abnormalities. Severe cases can present as vasodilatory or cardiogenic shock requiring fluid resuscitation, inotropic support, and in the most severe cases, mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Empirical treatments have aimed at reversing the inflammatory response using immunomodulatory medications. Intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and other immunomodulatory agents have been used frequently. Most patients recover within days to a couple of weeks and mortality is rare, although the medium- and long-term sequelae, particularly cardiovascular complications, are not yet known. This review describes the published data on multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, focusing on cardiac complications, and provides clinical considerations for cardiac evaluation and follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Male , Steroids/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
18.
EBioMedicine ; 64: 103228, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Developing insight into the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of critical importance to overcome the global pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). In this study, we have applied Mendelian randomization (MR) to systematically evaluate the effect of 10 cardiometabolic risk factors and genetic liability to lifetime smoking on 97 circulating host proteins postulated to either interact or contribute to the maladaptive host response of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We applied the inverse variance weighted (IVW) approach and several robust MR methods in a two-sample setting to systemically estimate the genetically predicted effect of each risk factor in turn on levels of each circulating protein. Multivariable MR was conducted to simultaneously evaluate the effects of multiple risk factors on the same protein. We also applied MR using cis-regulatory variants at the genomic location responsible for encoding these proteins to estimate whether their circulating levels may influence severe SARS-CoV-2. FINDINGS: In total, we identified evidence supporting 105 effects between risk factors and circulating proteins which were robust to multiple testing corrections and sensitivity analyzes. For example, body mass index provided evidence of an effect on 23 circulating proteins with a variety of functions, such as inflammatory markers c-reactive protein (IVW Beta=0.34 per standard deviation change, 95% CI=0.26 to 0.41, P = 2.19 × 10-16) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IVW Beta=0.23, 95% CI=0.17 to 0.30, P = 9.04 × 10-12). Further analyzes using multivariable MR provided evidence that the effect of BMI on lowering immunoglobulin G, an antibody class involved in protection from infection, is substantially mediated by raised triglycerides levels (IVW Beta=-0.18, 95% CI=-0.25 to -0.12, P = 2.32 × 10-08, proportion mediated=44.1%). The strongest evidence that any of the circulating proteins highlighted by our initial analysis influence severe SARS-CoV-2 was identified for soluble glycoprotein 130 (odds ratio=1.81, 95% CI=1.25 to 2.62, P = 0.002), a signal transductor for interleukin-6 type cytokines which are involved in inflammatory response. However, based on current case samples for severe SARS-CoV-2 we were unable to replicate findings in independent samples. INTERPRETATION: Our findings highlight several key proteins which are influenced by established exposures for disease. Future research to determine whether these circulating proteins mediate environmental effects onto risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or covid-19 progression are warranted to help elucidate therapeutic strategies for severe covid-19 disease. FUNDING: The Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust, the British Heart Foundation and UK Research and Innovation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , C-Reactive Protein/genetics , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Female , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Interleukin-1/blood , Interleukin-1/genetics , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/genetics , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes ; 28(2): 159-173, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061205

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarize recent recommendations on clinical management of adults and youth with elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] who are at-risk of or affected by cardiovascular disease (CVD). RECENT FINDINGS: There is ample evidence to support elevated Lp(a) levels, present in approximately 20% of the general population, as a causal, independent risk factor for CVD and its role as a significant risk enhancer. Several guidelines and position statements have been published to assist in the identification, treatment and follow-up of adults with elevated levels of Lp(a). There is growing interest in Lp(a) screening and strategies to improve health behaviors starting in youth, although published recommendations for this population are limited. In addition to the well established increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and valvular aortic stenosis, data from the coronavirus pandemic suggest adults with elevated Lp(a) may have a particularly high-risk of cardiovascular complications. Lp(a)-specific-lowering therapies are currently in development. Despite their inability to lower Lp(a), use of statins have been shown to improve outcomes in primary and secondary prevention. SUMMARY: Considerable differences exist amongst published guidelines for adults on the use of Lp(a) in clinical practice, and recommendations for youth are limited. With increasing knowledge of Lp(a)'s role in CVD, including recent observations of COVID-19-related risk of cardiovascular complications, more harmonized and comprehensive guidelines for Lp(a) in clinical practice are required. This will facilitate clinical decision-making and help define best practices for identification and management of elevated Lp(a) in adults and youth.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hyperlipoproteinemias/therapy , Lipoprotein(a)/blood , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Aortic Valve Stenosis/complications , Aortic Valve Stenosis/epidemiology , Aortic Valve Stenosis/therapy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Child , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hyperlipoproteinemias/blood , Hyperlipoproteinemias/diagnosis , Hyperlipoproteinemias/epidemiology , Lipoprotein(a)/physiology , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/standards , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
20.
Physiol Rep ; 8(24): e14644, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994581

ABSTRACT

This review examines the stress hormone cortisol which plays an important role in regulating and supporting different bodily functions. Disruption in cortisol production has an impact on health and this review looks at a wide range of papers where cortisol has been indicated as a factor in numerous chronic conditions-especially those which are classed as "noncommunicable diseases" (NCDs). Timely detection, screening, and treatment for NCDs are vital to address the growing problem of NCDs worldwide-this would have health and socioeconomic benefits. Interestingly, many of the papers highlight the pro-inflammatory consequences of cortisol dysregulation and its deleterious effects on the body. This is particularly relevant given the recent findings concerning COVID-19 where pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in severe inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Circadian Rhythm , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Hydrocortisone/blood , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Inflammation/blood , Stress, Physiological , Animals , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cytokines/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation Mediators/blood
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