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1.
Kardiologiia ; 62(3): 82-88, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789753

ABSTRACT

This review focuses on the pathogenesis, most common clinical manifestations, and methods for diagnosis of damages to the cardiovascular system in coronavirus infection. The search for studies to be reviewed included publications of Elsevier, PubMed, and Web of Science resources by the key words "COVID-19", "myocarditis", "coronavirus", and "myocardial injury". The clinical presentation of coronavirus infection can include acute heart failure, myocardial injury, arrhythmias, pericarditis, venous thromboembolism, and microcirculatory dysfunction. Since symptoms of this pathology are non-specific, it is important to pay attention to monitoring of clinical laboratory and instrumental indexes for early differential diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. In all cases of parameter deviation from the normal range, cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 should be suspected. Measures should be taken for specifying the occurrence and severity of cardiac and/or vascular injury, and approaches should be developed for comprehensive treatment or prevention of these conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Myocarditis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Humans , Microcirculation , Myocarditis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 50, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779649

ABSTRACT

The 7th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit on Cardiovascular, Renal, and Glycemic Outcomes, was held virtually on November 18-19, 2021. Pursuing the tradition of the previous summits, this reference congress served as a platform for in-depth discussion and exchange on recently completed CVOTs. This year's focus was placed on the outcomes of EMPEROR-Preserved, FIGARO-DKD, AMPLITUDE-O, SURPASS 1-5, and STEP 1-5. Trial implications for diabetes and obesity management and the impact on new treatment algorithms were highlighted for endocrinologists, diabetologists, cardiologists, nephrologists, and general practitioners. Discussions evolved from outcome trials using SGLT2 inhibitors as therapy for heart failure, to CVOTs with nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Furthermore, trials for glycemic and overweight/obesity management, challenges in diabetes management in COVID-19, and novel guidelines and treatment strategies were discussed.Trial registration The 8th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial Summit will be held virtually on November 10-11, 2022 ( http://www.cvot.org ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Blood Glucose , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects
3.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 79(4): 431-443, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778958

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has significant implications in patients with concomitant cardiovascular disease (CVD) because they are the population at the greatest risk of death. The treatment of such patients and complications may represent a new challenge for the fields of cardiology and pharmacology. Thus, understanding the involvement of this viral infection in CVD might help to reduce the aggressiveness of SARS-CoV-2 in causing multiorgan infection and damage. SARS-CoV-2 disturbs the host epigenome and several epigenetic processes involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 that can directly affect the function and structure of the cardiovascular system (CVS). Hence, it would be relevant to identify epigenetic alterations that directly impact CVS physiology after SARS-CoV-2 infection. This could contribute to the view of this virus-induced CVS injury and direct forthcoming tackles for COVID-19 treatment to reduce mortality in patients with CVD. Targeting epigenetic marks could offer strong evidence for the development of novel antiviral therapies, especially in the context of COVID-19-related CVS damage. In this review, we address some of the main signaling pathways that are currently known as being involved in COVID-19 pathophysiology and the importance of this glint on epigenetics and some of its modifiers (epidrugs) to control the unregulated epitope activity in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19, and underlying CVD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 753443, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775948

ABSTRACT

Background: District Health Authority in Ahmedabad, Gujarat has introduced Project Lifeline, 12-lead portable ECG devices across all primary health centers (PHC) in the district to screen cardiac abnormalities among high-risk and symptomatic adults for providing primary management and proper timely referral. The prime purpose of the study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of portable ECG for the screening of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among high-risk and symptomatic adults at the PHC in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Methods: Cost-effective analysis was conducted using a societal perspective. An incremental costing approach was adapted, and cost-effectiveness analysis was done using a decision-analytic model. We surveyed 73 patients who screened positive for cardiac abnormality, documented the type of ECG abnormalities, and diagnosed CVD. The program cost was obtained from the implementers. Transition probabilities were derived from primary data supported by expert opinion for the intervention arm, while a systematic search of the literature was undertaken to derive transition probabilities for the control arm. Results: The ECG screening at PHC saves 2.90 life years at an incremental cost of 89.97 USD (6657.47 INR), yielding a cost-effectiveness ratio of 31.07 USD (2,299.06 INR) per life-year saved, which is below the willingness to pay threshold. The budget impact analysis was also performed. Results are sensitive to the relative risk reduction associated with the non-participation and the cost of initial screening. Conclusion: Cost-effectiveness analysis clearly shows that the facility to screen cardiac abnormality at the PHC level is highly recommended for high-risk adults and symptomatic cases.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Electrocardiography , Humans , India
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 725009, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775842

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death globally and in Brazil. Evidence suggests that the risk of CVDs differs by race/ethnicity. Scarce information exists about the association between CVD risk, obesity indicators and sociodemographic characteristics in the Brazilian population. Objectives: We aimed to assess the CVD risk following the Framingham risk score in relation to the population's sociodemographic profile. Further, we examined the association between anthropometric markers and risk of CVDs. Methods: A total of 701 subjects aged ≥20 years from North-eastern Brazil were recruited randomly to participate in a population-based, cross-sectional survey. Age-adjusted data for CVD risk, sociodemographic characteristics, and anthropometric indices were assessed, and their relationships examined. Results: High CVD risk (Framingham risk score ≥10%) was observed in 18.9% of the population. Males (31.9 vs. 12.5%) and older subjects (age ≥45 years: 68.9% vs. age <45 years: 4.2%) had significantly higher risk of CVDs, whereas those employed in manual labor showed lower risk (7.6 vs. 21.7%). Central obesity measures like waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio were more strongly associated with predicted CVD risk than body mass index. Conclusions: Our population had a high risk of CVDs using the Framingham risk score. Cost-effective strategies for screening, prevention and treatment of CVDs may likely reduce disease burden and health expenditure in Brazil. Central obesity measures were strongly associated with predicted CVD risk and might be useful in the clinical assessment of patients. Follow-up studies are warranted to validate our findings.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Young Adult
6.
Anal Chem ; 94(10): 4426-4436, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713091

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a significant reduction in lipoprotein-bound serum phospholipids give rise to supramolecular phospholipid composite (SPC) signals observed in diffusion and relaxation edited 1H NMR spectra. To characterize the chemical structural components and compartmental location of SPC and to understand further its possible diagnostic properties, we applied a Statistical HeterospectroscopY in n-dimensions (SHY-n) approach. This involved statistically linking a series of orthogonal measurements made on the same samples, using independent analytical techniques and instruments, to identify the major individual phospholipid components giving rise to the SPC signals. Thus, an integrated model for SARS-CoV-2 positive and control adults is presented that relates three identified diagnostic subregions of the SPC signal envelope (SPC1, SPC2, and SPC3) generated using diffusion and relaxation edited (DIRE) NMR spectroscopy to lipoprotein and lipid measurements obtained by in vitro diagnostic NMR spectroscopy and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The SPC signals were then correlated sequentially with (a) total phospholipids in lipoprotein subfractions; (b) apolipoproteins B100, A1, and A2 in different lipoproteins and subcompartments; and (c) MS-measured total serum phosphatidylcholines present in the NMR detection range (i.e., PCs: 16.0,18.2; 18.0,18.1; 18.2,18.2; 16.0,18.1; 16.0,20.4; 18.0,18.2; 18.1,18.2), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs: 16.0 and 18.2), and sphingomyelin (SM 22.1). The SPC3/SPC2 ratio correlated strongly (r = 0.86) with the apolipoprotein B100/A1 ratio, a well-established marker of cardiovascular disease risk that is markedly elevated during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. These data indicate the considerable potential of using a serum SPC measurement as a metric of cardiovascular risk based on a single NMR experiment. This is of specific interest in relation to understanding the potential for increased cardiovascular risk in COVID-19 patients and risk persistence in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Lipoproteins , Phospholipids , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
7.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256330, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has proved to have an indirect impact on essential health services in several parts of the world which could lead to increased morbidity and mortality and loss of the gains made in the past decades. There were no synthesized scientific evidences which could show the impact of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic on essential health services in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impacts of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic on essential health services provision in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A pre-post study design was used to assess the impacts of COVID-19 on essential health services delivery in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia in the second quarter of 2020 (Post COVID-19) compared to similar quarter in 2019 (Pre COVID-19). The study focuses on five categories; namely; maternal, neonatal and child health care; communicable diseases with a focus on HIV and TB-HIV co-infection; prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV; basic emergency, outpatient, inpatient and blood bank services, non-communicable diseases and road traffic accidents (RTAs). Analysis was done using Stata version 14.0 software package. The effects of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic were calculated taking the differences between post COVID -19 and pre COVID-19 periods and the levels of service disruptions presented using proportions. Wilcoxon sign rank test was done and a significance level of ≤0.05 was considered as having significant difference among the two quarters. RESULTS: There were significant increase in institutional delivery, delivery by Caesarian Section (CS), still birth, postnatal care within 7 days of delivery, the number of children who received all vaccine doses before 1st birthday, the number of under 5 children screened and had moderate acute malnutrition, the number of under 5 children screened and had severe acute malnutrition and children with SAM admitted for management. However, there were significant decrease in HIV testing and detection along with enrolment to antiretroviral therapy (ART) care, number of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk ≥ 30% received treatment, RTAs, total units of blood received from national blood transfusion service (NBTS) and regional blood banks, total number of units of blood transfused and emergency referral. There were no significant changes in outpatient visits and admissions. CONCLUSION: Despite commendable achievements in maintaining several of the essential health services, COVID-19 has led to an increase in under nutrition in under five children, decline in HIV detection and care, CVD, cervical cancer screening and blood bank services. Therefore, governments, local and international agencies need to introduce innovative ways to rapidly expand and deliver services in the context of COVID-19. Moreover, lower income countries have to customize comprehensive and coordinated community-based health care approaches, including outreach and campaigns. In addition, countries should ensure that NCDs are incorporated in their national COVID-19 response plans to provide essential health care services to people living with NCDs and HIV or HIV-TB co-infection during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Ethiopia , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pandemics , Postnatal Care , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
8.
Elife ; 112022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677761

ABSTRACT

Protein biomarkers have been identified across many age-related morbidities. However, characterising epigenetic influences could further inform disease predictions. Here, we leverage epigenome-wide data to study links between the DNA methylation (DNAm) signatures of the circulating proteome and incident diseases. Using data from four cohorts, we trained and tested epigenetic scores (EpiScores) for 953 plasma proteins, identifying 109 scores that explained between 1% and 58% of the variance in protein levels after adjusting for known protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) genetic effects. By projecting these EpiScores into an independent sample (Generation Scotland; n = 9537) and relating them to incident morbidities over a follow-up of 14 years, we uncovered 137 EpiScore-disease associations. These associations were largely independent of immune cell proportions, common lifestyle and health factors, and biological aging. Notably, we found that our diabetes-associated EpiScores highlighted previous top biomarker associations from proteome-wide assessments of diabetes. These EpiScores for protein levels can therefore be a valuable resource for disease prediction and risk stratification.


Although our genetic code does not change throughout our lives, our genes can be turned on and off as a result of epigenetics. Epigenetics can track how the environment and even certain behaviors add or remove small chemical markers to the DNA that makes up the genome. The type and location of these markers may affect whether genes are active or silent, this is, whether the protein coded for by that gene is being produced or not. One common epigenetic marker is known as DNA methylation. DNA methylation has been linked to the levels of a range of proteins in our cells and the risk people have of developing chronic diseases. Blood samples can be used to determine the epigenetic markers a person has on their genome and to study the abundance of many proteins. Gadd, Hillary, McCartney, Zaghlool et al. studied the relationships between DNA methylation and the abundance of 953 different proteins in blood samples from individuals in the German KORA cohort and the Scottish Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. They then used machine learning to analyze the relationship between epigenetic markers found in people's blood and the abundance of proteins, obtaining epigenetic scores or 'EpiScores' for each protein. They found 109 proteins for which DNA methylation patterns explained between at least 1% and up to 58% of the variation in protein levels. Integrating the 'EpiScores' with 14 years of medical records for more than 9000 individuals from the Generation Scotland study revealed 137 connections between EpiScores for proteins and a future diagnosis of common adverse health outcomes. These included diabetes, stroke, depression, Alzheimer's dementia, various cancers, and inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Age-related chronic diseases are a growing issue worldwide and place pressure on healthcare systems. They also severely reduce quality of life for individuals over many years. This work shows how epigenetic scores based on protein levels in the blood could predict a person's risk of several of these diseases. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the EpiScore results replicated previous research linking protein levels in the blood to future diagnosis of diabetes. Protein EpiScores could therefore allow researchers to identify people with the highest risk of disease, making it possible to intervene early and prevent these people from developing chronic conditions as they age.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , DNA Methylation/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Epigenomics/methods , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Proteome/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Biomarkers , Epigenesis, Genetic , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Scotland , Young Adult
9.
Neurology ; 98(6): e564-e572, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although there is evidence of disruption in acute cerebrovascular and cardiovascular care during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, its downstream effect in primary care is less clear. We investigated how the pandemic affected utilization of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular care in general practices (GPs) and determined changes in GP-recorded diagnoses of selected cerebrovascular and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: From electronic health records of 166,929 primary care patients aged 30 or over within the Rotterdam region, the Netherlands, we extracted the number of consultations related to cerebrovascular and cardiovascular care, and first diagnoses of selected cerebrovascular and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, lipid disorders), conditions, and events (angina, atrial fibrillation, TIA, myocardial infarction, stroke). We quantified changes in those outcomes during the first COVID-19 wave (March-May 2020) and thereafter (June-December 2020) by comparing them to the same period in 2016-2019. We also estimated the number of potentially missed diagnoses for each outcome. RESULTS: The number of GP consultations related to cerebrovascular and cardiovascular care declined by 38% (0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.56-0.68) during the first wave, as compared to expected counts based on prepandemic levels. Substantial declines in the number of new diagnoses were observed for cerebrovascular events: 37% for TIA (0.63, 0.41-0.96) and 29% for stroke (0.71, 0.59-0.84), while no significant changes were observed for cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction [0.91, 0.74-1.14], angina [0.77, 0.48-1.25]). The counts across individual diagnoses recovered following June 2020, but the number of GP consultations related to cerebrovascular and cardiovascular care remained lower than expected throughout the June to December period (0.93, 0.88-0.98). DISCUSSION: While new diagnoses of acute cardiovascular events remained stable during the COVID-19 pandemic, diagnoses of cerebrovascular events declined substantially compared to prepandemic levels, possibly due to incorrect perception of risk by patients. These findings emphasize the need to improve symptom recognition of cerebrovascular events among the general public and to encourage urgent presentation despite any physical distancing measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Primary Health Care , Stroke , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/diagnosis
10.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 29(2): 91-102, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638838

ABSTRACT

This executive document reflects and updates the key points of a Consensus document on Cardiovascular (CV) Prevention realized through the contribution of a number of Italian Scientific Societies and coordinated by the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Prevention (SIPREC). The aim of this executive document is to analyze and discuss the new recommendations introduced by international guidelines for the management of major CV risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemias and type 2 diabetes, consisting in the identification of lower therapeutic targets, in the promotion of combination fixed drug therapies and in the introduction in routine clinical practice of new effective pharmacological classes. Moreover, the document highlights the importance of effective CV prevention strategies during the the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak which has dramatically changed the priorities and the use of available resources by the national healthcare systems and have caused a reduction of programmed follow-up visits and procedures and even of hospital admissions for severe acute pathologies. In addition, the pandemic and the consequent lockdown measures imposed have caused a widespread diffusion of unhealthy behaviors with detrimental effects on the CV system. In such a context, reinforcement of CV prevention activities may play a key role in reducing the future impact of these deleterious conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dyslipidemias , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Humans
11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(2): 274-286, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566302

ABSTRACT

Based on the recent reports, cardiovascular events encompass a large portion of the mortality caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which drawn cardiologists into the management of the admitted ill patients. Given that common laboratory values may provide key insights into the illness caused by the life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 virus, it would be more helpful for screening, clinical management and on-time therapeutic strategies. Commensurate with these issues, this review article aimed to discuss the dynamic changes of the common laboratory parameters during COVID-19 and their association with cardiovascular diseases. Besides, the values that changed in the early stage of the disease were considered and monitored during the recovery process. The time required for returning biomarkers to basal levels was also discussed. Finally, of particular interest, we tended to abridge the latest updates regarding the cardiovascular biomarkers as prognostic and diagnostic criteria to determine the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Homocysteine/blood , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1318: 263-291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536207

ABSTRACT

We herein seek to expound on up-to-the-minute information regarding cardiovascular disease in the era of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by highlighting acute myocardial injury caused by COVID-19 and probing into its pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnostic tests, and treatment modalities. We aim to share the latest research findings vis-à-vis cardiovascular disease patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 on the association between hypertension and this infectious disease along with the relevant recommendations; describe the mechanism of coronary artery disease in such patients together with the necessary measures in the setting of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and chronic coronary syndrome; discuss tachy- and bradyarrhythmias in the COVID-19 setting alongside their treatments; elucidate coagulopathies, venous thromboembolism, and its prophylactic measures in the context of this infection; set out the cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocol as well as the pertinent safety concerns during the current pandemic; and, finally, explicate drug-drug interactions between COVID-19 and cardiovascular medication in hypertension, acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, venous thromboembolism, and arrhythmias.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur Heart J ; 43(11): 1059-1103, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522177

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Since its emergence in early 2020, the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached pandemic levels, and there have been repeated outbreaks across the globe. The aim of this two part series is to provide practical knowledge and guidance to aid clinicians in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular (CV) disease in association with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: A narrative literature review of the available evidence has been performed, and the resulting information has been organized into two parts. The first, which was reported previously, focused on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of CV conditions that may be manifest in patients with COVID-19. This second part addresses the topics of: care pathways and triage systems and management and treatment pathways, both of the most commonly encountered CV conditions and of COVID-19; and information that may be considered useful to help patients with CV disease (CVD) to avoid exposure to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: This comprehensive review is not a formal guideline but rather a document that provides a summary of current knowledge and guidance to practicing clinicians managing patients with CVD and COVID-19. The recommendations are mainly the result of observations and personal experience from healthcare providers. Therefore, the information provided here may be subject to change with increasing knowledge, evidence from prospective studies, and changes in the pandemic. Likewise, the guidance provided in the document should not interfere with recommendations provided by local and national healthcare authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Critical Pathways , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
15.
Eur Heart J ; 43(11): 1033-1058, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522176

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Since its emergence in early 2020, the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached pandemic levels, and there have been repeated outbreaks across the globe. The aim of this two-part series is to provide practical knowledge and guidance to aid clinicians in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in association with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: A narrative literature review of the available evidence has been performed, and the resulting information has been organized into two parts. The first, reported here, focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of cardiovascular (CV) conditions that may be manifest in patients with COVID-19. The second part, which will follow in a later edition of the journal, addresses the topics of care pathways, treatment, and follow-up of CV conditions in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: This comprehensive review is not a formal guideline but rather a document that provides a summary of current knowledge and guidance to practicing clinicians managing patients with CVD and COVID-19. The recommendations are mainly the result of observations and personal experience from healthcare providers. Therefore, the information provided here may be subject to change with increasing knowledge, evidence from prospective studies, and changes in the pandemic. Likewise, the guidance provided in the document should not interfere with recommendations provided by local and national healthcare authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512385

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) is a key molecule in cardiovascular homeostasis and its abnormal delivery is highly associated with the occurrence and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The assessment and manipulation of NO delivery is crucial to the diagnosis and therapy of CVD, such as endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerotic progression, pulmonary hypertension, and cardiovascular manifestations of coronavirus (COVID-19). However, due to the low concentration and fast reaction characteristics of NO in the cardiovascular system, clinical applications centered on NO delivery are challenging. In this tutorial review, we first summarized the methods to estimate the in vivo NO delivery process, based on computational modeling and flow-mediated dilation, to assess endothelial function and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque. Then, emerging bioimaging technologies that have the potential to experimentally measure arterial NO concentration were discussed, including Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical sensors. In addition to diagnostic methods, therapies aimed at controlling NO delivery to regulate CVD were reviewed, including the NO release platform to treat endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis and inhaled NO therapy to treat pulmonary hypertension and COVID-19. Two potential methods to improve the effectiveness of existing NO therapy were also discussed, including the combination of NO release platform and computational modeling, and stem cell therapy, which currently remains at the laboratory stage but has clinical potential for the treatment of CVD.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Arteries/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Optical Imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(1): 40-55, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498264

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular medicine is facing several challenges in the current era, dominated by the rapid spread of a previously unknown virus around the world. Indeed, the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic set the course of cardiovascular science and education in an extraordinary way, hogging the attention of the medical community. Notably, while COVID-19 impacted research progress, there has been considerable effort in exploring topics of great interest, from the management of acute coronary syndromes to new horizons in the treatment of heart failure, from novelties in the surgical treatment of cardiovascular disease to new data on implantable cardiac devices, and from new diagnostic applications of multimodal imaging techniques to relevant basic science findings. Minerva Cardiology and Angiology, formerly Minerva Cardioangiologica, has strived to inform its readers on these topics and novelties, aiming for a succinct yet poignant melding of timeliness and accuracy. Accordingly, the purpose of this narrative review is to highlight and summarize the major research and review articles published during 2020. In particular, we provide a broad overview of the novelties identifying six major areas of interest in the field of cardiovascular sciences in which new evidences have contributed to improving prevention, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vessels diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 17(4): 68-78, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481240

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been the defining healthcare issue since its outbreak, consuming healthcare systems and disrupting all aspects of human life throughout 2020 and continuing through 2021. When reviewing cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the first tendency may be to focus on the negative disruption. Months of quarantine, isolation, and missed healthcare visits or delayed care may have exacerbated the epidemic of CVD in the United States. Looking back, however, perhaps it wasn't a lost year as much as a health crisis that better prepared us for the battle to improve cardiovascular health. The pandemic brought new platforms for interacting with patients eager to engage, presenting a unique opportunity to reset how we approach preventive care. In this review, we discuss what the pandemic has taught us about caring for those vulnerable patients who were most afflicted-older adults, persons of color, and people facing adverse socioeconomic circumstances-and who continue to be impacted by CVD. We also identify opportunities for enhanced CVD prevention now boosted by the overnight adoption of telemedicine and other innovative cardiac care models. Lastly, we discuss how the COVID-19 pandemic has motivated physicians and patients alike to prioritize our health above all else, if only transiently, and how we can leverage this increased health awareness and investment into long-term, meaningful disease prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Telemedicine , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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