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1.
J Complement Integr Med ; 19(1): 145-154, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular diseases have a multifaceted, it causes modern epidemic; Recognizing in the risk factor stage, is crucial, given the risk of progression to cardiovascular disease. Ibn Sina, described CVDs as a resultant of gradual derangement of Quwwat ghadhiya (Nutritive faculty); in which management with ghidha' (diet), tadabir (regimens), dawa' (drug) has been received. To evaluate the effect of Arjun Chal (Terminalia arjuna) in CVD risk factors. And to evaluate the drug safety. METHODS: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Total 120 patients were screened at OPD of NIUM hospital, Bangalore during 2018-19, only 48 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and signed written informed consent and their detailed medical history was recorded. Arjun Chal powder (5 gm BD) for eight weeks administered in test group (n=24), Amlodipine (5 mg) and Atorvastatin (10 mg) once a day for same duration administered in control group (n=24). Efficacy of the drug assessed by the Lipid profile, BP and BMI; lipid profile were performed at baseline and at 8 weeks, while BP and BMI performed at baseline, 15, 30, 45, and 60th day intervals. Study was completed by 40 patients. The results of both the therapies were then compared and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Totally, both groups reduces assessment parameters i.e. statistically highly significant (p<0.001). Test group showed greater reduction in terms of all assessment parmeters. But, the difference between both the groups was statistically non-significant p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Both test and control drugs were effective, but Arjun Chal had a slight edge over amlodipne and atorvastatin, and was found to be safe and well tolerated. It has a cardio protective potential and hence effective to delay/prevent CVD in patient with cardiovascular risk factor.Keywords: Unani System of Medicine; T. arjuna; Arjun Chal; Efficacy; Safety; Cardiovascular risk factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , India , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 93, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736340

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-Co-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 is a disease with highly variable phenotypes, being asymptomatic in most patients. In symptomatic patients, disease manifestation is variable, ranging from mild disease to severe and critical illness requiring treatment in the intensive care unit. The presence of underlying cardiovascular morbidities was identified early in the evolution of the disease to be a critical determinant of the severe disease phenotype. SARS-CoV-2, though a primarily respiratory virus, also causes severe damage to the cardiovascular system, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality seen in COVID-19. Evidence on the impact of cardiovascular disorders in disease manifestation and outcome of treatment is rapidly emerging. The cardiovascular system expresses the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, the receptor used by SARS-CoV-2 for binding, making it vulnerable to infection by the virus. Systemic perturbations including the so-called cytokine storm also impact on the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system. Imaging plays a prominent role not only in the detection of cardiovascular damage induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection but in the follow-up of patients' clinical progress while on treatment and in identifying long-term sequelae of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709462

ABSTRACT

There is a reduced intake of selenium in many countries due to low levels of selenium in the soil. This results in an increased cardiovascular risk. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is active mainly in the metabolism of vitamin D and phosphorus. However, there are indications that FGF-23 may also provide information both on cardiovascular function and prognosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 on the FGF-23 concentration in an elderly population with low concentrations of both selenium and coenzyme Q10 and in which the supplementation improved cardiac function and mortality. In a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial, FGF-23 was measured in 219 individuals at the start and after 48 months. Selenium yeast (200 µg/day) and coenzyme Q10 (200 mg/day) (n = 118) or placebo (n = 101) were given as a dietary supplement. The intervention time was 48 months. t-Tests, repeated measures of variance, and ANCOVA analyses were used to evaluate the differences in FGF-23 concentration. Following supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10, a significantly lower level of FGF-23 could be seen (p = 0.01). Applying 10 years of follow-up, those who later died a cardiovascular death had a significantly higher FGF-23 concentration after 48 months compared with those who survived (p = 0.036), and a significantly lower FGF-23 concentration could be seen in those with a normal renal function compared to those with an impaired renal function (p = 0.027). Supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 to an elderly community-living population low in both substances prevented an increase of FGF-23 and also provided a reduced cardiovascular risk.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Selenium , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Humans , Prospective Studies , Selenium/pharmacology , Sweden/epidemiology , Ubiquinone
4.
Am J Cardiol ; 167: 133-138, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702670

ABSTRACT

Antecedent use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) prevents clinical deterioration and protects against cardiovascular/thrombotic complications of COVID-19, for indicated patients. Uncertainty exists regarding treatment continuation throughout infection and doing so with concomitant medications. Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the differential effect of RASi continuation in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 according to diuretic use. We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 4 regions of Italy. We used Firth logistic regression for adult (>50 years) cases with admission on/after February 22, 2020, with a known discharge status as of April 1, 2020. There were 286 patients in this analysis; 100 patients (35.0%) continued RASi and 186 (65%) discontinued. There were 98 patients treated with a diuretic; 51 (52%) of those continued RASi. The in-hospital mortality rates in patients treated with a diuretic and continued versus discontinued RASi were 8% versus 26% (p = 0.0179). There were 188 patients not treated with a diuretic; 49 (26%) of those continued RASi. The in-hospital mortality rates in patients not treated with a diuretic and continued versus discontinued RASi were 16% versus 9% (p = 0.1827). After accounting for age, cardiovascular disease, and laboratory values, continuing RASi decreased the risk of mortality by approximately 77% (odds ratio 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.95, p = 0.0419) for patients treated with diuretics, but did not alter the risk in patients treated with RASi alone. Continuing RASi in patients concomitantly treated with diuretics was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Deprescriptions , Hospital Mortality , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 24(1): 61-72, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653753

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights major studies across a broad array of topics presented at the virtual 2021 American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions. RECENT FINDINGS: Assessed studies examine a remotely delivered hypertension and lipid program in 10,000 patients across a diverse healthcare network; a cluster-randomized trial of a village doctor-led intervention for hypertension control; empagliflozin in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (EMPEROR-Preserved); efficacy and safety of empagliflozin in hospitalized heart failure patients (EMPULSE); icosapent ethyl versus placebo in outpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (PREPARE-IT 2); clinical safety, pharmacokinetics, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering efficacy of MK-0161, an oral proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor; and effects of aspirin on dementia and cognitive impairment in the ASCEND trial. Research presented at the 2021 AHA Scientific Sessions emphasized the importance of interventions for cardiovascular disease prevention.


Subject(s)
Anticholesteremic Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases , American Heart Association , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Proprotein Convertase 9 , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , United States/epidemiology
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572492

ABSTRACT

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) rank as one of the top 10 leading causes of death and illness in developed countries. ADRs show differential features depending upon genotype, age, sex, race, pathology, drug category, route of administration, and drug-drug interactions. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) provides the physician effective clues for optimizing drug efficacy and safety in major problems of health such as cardiovascular disease and associated disorders, cancer and brain disorders. Important aspects to be considered are also the impact of immunopharmacogenomics in cutaneous ADRs as well as the influence of genomic factors associated with COVID-19 and vaccination strategies. Major limitations for the routine use of PGx procedures for ADRs prevention are the lack of education and training in physicians and pharmacists, poor characterization of drug-related PGx, unspecific biomarkers of drug efficacy and toxicity, cost-effectiveness, administrative problems in health organizations, and insufficient regulation for the generalized use of PGx in the clinical setting. The implementation of PGx requires: (i) education of physicians and all other parties involved in the use and benefits of PGx; (ii) prospective studies to demonstrate the benefits of PGx genotyping; (iii) standardization of PGx procedures and development of clinical guidelines; (iv) NGS and microarrays to cover genes with high PGx potential; and (v) new regulations for PGx-related drug development and PGx drug labelling.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/genetics , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/metabolism , Pharmacogenetics/trends , Biomarkers , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Central Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drug Development , Genotype , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pharmacogenetics/methods , Phenotype
8.
Am J Cardiol ; 165: 101-108, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559455

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor as an entry point to the cell. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a risk factor for COVID-19 with poor outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that the rate of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use is associated with the rate of COVID-19-confirmed cases and deaths. We conducted a geospatial, ecological study using publicly available county-level data. The Medicare ACEI and ARB prescription rate was exposure. The COVID-19-confirmed case and death rates were outcomes. Spatial autoregression models were adjusted for the rate of births and deaths; Group Quarters population; percentage of female; percentage of Native American, Pacific Islander, Hispanic, and Black; percentage of children and older (>65 years) adults; percentage of uninsured; percentage of those living in poverty; percentage of those who are obese, smoking, admitting insufficient sleep, and those with at least some college degree; median household income; air quality index; CVD hospitalization rate in Medicare beneficiaries; and CVD death rate in a total county population. After adjustment for confounders, the ACEI use rate did not associate with COVID-19-confirmed case rate (direct county-own effect + 0.027%; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.080 to 1.134; p = 0.962; indirect spillover effect + 0.26%; 95% CI -70.0 to 70.5; p = 0.994). Similarly, the ARB use rate was not associated with COVID-19-confirmed case rate (direct effect + 0.029%; 95% CI -0.803 to 0.862; p = 0.945; indirect effect + 0.19%; 95% CI -52.8 to 53.2; p = 0.994). In both unadjusted and adjusted Bayesian zero inflation Poisson analysis, neither ACEI nor ARB use rates were associated with COVID-19 death rates. In conclusion, ACEI and ARB use rates were not associated with COVID-19 infectivity and death rate in this ecological study.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Survival Rate , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 772865, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556281

ABSTRACT

The potential relationship between diabetes and COVID-19 has been evaluated. However, new knowledge is rapidly emerging. In this study, we systematically reviewed the relationship between viral cell surface receptors (ACE2, AXL, CD147, DC-SIGN, L-SIGN and DPP4) and SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, and emphasized the implications of ACE2 on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 pathogenesis. Besides, we updated on the two-way interactions between diabetes and COVID-19, as well as the treatment options for COVID-19 comorbid patients from the perspective of ACE2. The efficacies of various clinical chemotherapeutic options, including anti-diabetic drugs, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, lipid-lowering drugs, anticoagulants, and glucocorticoids for COVID-19 positive diabetic patients were discussed. Moreover, we reviewed the significance of two different forms of ACE2 (mACE2 and sACE2) and gender on COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. This review summarizes COVID-19 pathophysiology and the best strategies for clinical management of diabetes patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Aged , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Hypertension , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Risk , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542693

ABSTRACT

Bromelain is a major sulfhydryl proteolytic enzyme found in pineapple plants, having multiple activities in many areas of medicine. Due to its low toxicity, high efficiency, high availability, and relative simplicity of acquisition, it is the object of inexhaustible interest of scientists. This review summarizes scientific reports concerning the possible application of bromelain in treating cardiovascular diseases, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis disorders, infectious diseases, inflammation-associated diseases, and many types of cancer. However, for the proper application of such multi-action activities of bromelain, further exploration of the mechanism of its action is needed. It is supposed that the anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and anti-coagulatory activity of bromelain may become a complementary therapy for COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 patients. During the irrepressible spread of novel variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, such beneficial properties of this biomolecule might help prevent escalation and the progression of the COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Bromelains/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Plant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Ananas/enzymology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Bromelains/chemistry , Cardiotonic Agents/chemistry , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Humans , Plant Proteins/chemistry
11.
Essays Biochem ; 65(6): 847-856, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537347

ABSTRACT

Nuclear receptors are classically defined as ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate key functions in reproduction, development, and physiology. Humans have 48 nuclear receptors, which when dysregulated are often linked to diseases. Because most nuclear receptors can be selectively activated or inactivated by small molecules, they are prominent therapeutic targets. The basic understanding of this family of transcription factors was accelerated in the 1980s upon the cloning of the first hormone receptors. During the next 20 years, a deep understanding of hormone signaling was achieved that has translated to numerous clinical applications, such as the development of standard-of-care endocrine therapies for hormonally driven breast and prostate cancers. A 2004 issue of this journal reviewed progress on elucidating the structures of nuclear receptors and their mechanisms of action. In the current issue, we focus on the broad application of new knowledge in this field for therapy across diverse disease states including cancer, cardiovascular disease, various inflammatory diseases, the aging brain, and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/pharmacology , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Male , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors/metabolism
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512385

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) is a key molecule in cardiovascular homeostasis and its abnormal delivery is highly associated with the occurrence and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The assessment and manipulation of NO delivery is crucial to the diagnosis and therapy of CVD, such as endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerotic progression, pulmonary hypertension, and cardiovascular manifestations of coronavirus (COVID-19). However, due to the low concentration and fast reaction characteristics of NO in the cardiovascular system, clinical applications centered on NO delivery are challenging. In this tutorial review, we first summarized the methods to estimate the in vivo NO delivery process, based on computational modeling and flow-mediated dilation, to assess endothelial function and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque. Then, emerging bioimaging technologies that have the potential to experimentally measure arterial NO concentration were discussed, including Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical sensors. In addition to diagnostic methods, therapies aimed at controlling NO delivery to regulate CVD were reviewed, including the NO release platform to treat endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis and inhaled NO therapy to treat pulmonary hypertension and COVID-19. Two potential methods to improve the effectiveness of existing NO therapy were also discussed, including the combination of NO release platform and computational modeling, and stem cell therapy, which currently remains at the laboratory stage but has clinical potential for the treatment of CVD.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Arteries/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Optical Imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512376

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases are currently among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in many developed countries. They are distinguished by chronic and latent development, a course with stages of worsening of symptoms and a period of improvement, and a constant potential threat to life. One of the most important disorders in cardiovascular disease is ischemic stroke. The causes of ischemic stroke can be divided into non-modifiable and modifiable causes. One treatment modality from a neurological point of view is acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), which blocks cyclooxygenase and, thus, thromboxane synthesis. The legitimacy of its administration does not raise any doubts in the case of the acute phase of stroke in patients in whom thrombolytic treatment cannot be initiated. The measurement of thromboxane B2 (TxB2) in serum (a stable metabolic product of TxA2) is the only test that measures the effect of aspirin on the activity of COX-1 in platelets. Measurement of thromboxane B2 may be a potential biomarker of vascular disease risk in patients treated with aspirin. The aim of this study is to present the role of thromboxane B2 in ischemic stroke and to present effective therapies for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Scientific articles from the PubMed database were used for the work, which were selected on the basis of a search for "thromboxane and stroke". Subsequently, a restriction was introduced for works older than 10 years, those concerning animals, and those without full text access. Ultimately, 58 articles were selected. It was shown that a high concentration of TXB2 may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke or ischemic heart disease. However, there is insufficient evidence to suggest that thromboxane could be used in clinical practice as a marker of ischemic stroke. The inclusion of ASA in the prevention of stroke has a beneficial effect that is associated with the effect on thromboxane. However, its insufficient power in 25% or even 50% of the population should be taken into account. An alternative and/or additional therapy could be a selective antagonist of the thromboxane receptor. Thromboxane A2 production is inhibited by estrogen; therefore, the risk of CVD after the menopause and among men is higher. More research is needed in this area.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke/metabolism , Thromboxane B2/metabolism , Animals , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Thromboxane B2/blood
14.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512697

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters host cells mainly by the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, which can recognize the spike (S) protein by its extracellular domain. Previously, recombinant soluble ACE2 (sACE2) has been clinically used as a therapeutic treatment for cardiovascular diseases. Recent data demonstrated that sACE2 can also be exploited as a decoy to effectively inhibit the cell entry of SARS-CoV-2, through blocking SARS-CoV-2 binding to membrane-anchored ACE2. In this study, we summarized the current findings on the optimized sACE2-based strategies as a therapeutic agent, including Fc fusion to prolong the half-life of sACE2, deep mutagenesis to create high-affinity decoys for SARS-CoV-2, or designing the truncated functional fragments to enhance its safety, among others. Considering that COVID-19 patients are often accompanied by manifestations of cardiovascular complications, we think that administration of sACE2 in COVID-19 patients may be a promising therapeutic strategy to simultaneously treat both cardiovascular diseases and SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review would provide insights for the development of novel therapeutic agents against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Protein Binding , Protein Engineering , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
15.
Molecules ; 26(22)2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512512

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the reason for worldwide pandemic, has already masked around 220 countries globally. This disease is induced by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Arising environmental stress, increase in the oxidative stress level, weak immunity and lack of nutrition deteriorates the clinical status of the infected patients. Though several researches are at its peak for understanding and bringing forward effective therapeutics, yet there is no promising solution treating this disease directly. Medicinal plants and their active metabolites have always been promising in treating many clinical complications since time immemorial. Mother nature provides vivid chemical structures, which act multi-dimensionally all alone or synergistically in mitigating several diseases. Their unique antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity with least side effects have made them more effective candidate for pharmacological studies. These medicinal plants inhibit attachment, encapsulation and replication of COVID-19 viruses by targeting various signaling molecules such as angiotensin converting enzyme-2, transmembrane serine protease 2, spike glycoprotein, main protease etc. This property is re-examined and its potency is now used to improve the existing global health crisis. This review is an attempt to focus various antiviral activities of various noteworthy medicinal plants. Moreover, its implications as prophylactic or preventive in various secondary complications including neurological, cardiovascular, acute kidney disease, liver disease are also pinpointed in the present review. This knowledge will help emphasis on the therapeutic developments for this novel coronavirus where it can be used as alone or in combination with the repositioned drugs to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Humans , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/metabolism , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
16.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512509

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF) are the main causes of mortality and morbidity around the globe. New therapies are needed to better manage ischemic heart disease and HF as existing strategies are not curative. Resveratrol is a stilbene polyphenolic compound with favorable biological effects that counter chronic diseases. Current evidence suggests that resveratrol is cardioprotective in animal models of atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, and HF. Though clinical studies for resveratrol have been promising, evidence remains inadequate to introduce it to the clinical setting. In this narrative review, we have comprehensively discussed the relevant compelling evidence regarding the efficacy of resveratrol as a new therapeutic agent for the management of atherosclerosis, MI and HF.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , Animals , Humans
17.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(3): 586-593, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491307

ABSTRACT

This study aims to review the available literature pertinent to vascular complications in COVID-19. A systematic search was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar to identify all relevant studies based on our study objective. Multiple studies have reported widespread systemic inflammation and procoagulant/hypercoagulable state in COVID-19, including thrombotic microangiopathy, endothelial dysfunction, bleeding disorder, and thrombosis. However, large specialised studies on vascular complications are lacking despite current evidence indicating dysfunctional coagulation pathways. Furthermore, there are no clear and definitive recommendations regarding thromboprophylaxis or full therapeutic anticoagulation in COVID-19. Several studies have reported hypercoagulability and vascular complications as important predictors of patient outcome in COVID-19. Therefore, it is important to understand the pathogenesis, epidemiology, management, and outcomes of patients who develop venous or arterial thrombosis and those with a pre-existing thrombotic disease who contract COVID-19 for risk stratification, thromboprophylaxis, optimal antithrombotic therapy during active infection and long-term anticoagulation following discharge or recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Thrombophilia/complications , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
20.
Pharmacol Rev ; 73(3): 924-967, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447969

ABSTRACT

The endothelium, a cellular monolayer lining the blood vessel wall, plays a critical role in maintaining multiorgan health and homeostasis. Endothelial functions in health include dynamic maintenance of vascular tone, angiogenesis, hemostasis, and the provision of an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic interface. Dysfunction of the vascular endothelium presents with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, heightened oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, leukocyte adhesion and hyperpermeability, and endothelial cell senescence. Recent studies have implicated altered endothelial cell metabolism and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition as new features of endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is regarded as a hallmark of many diverse human panvascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes. Endothelial dysfunction has also been implicated in severe coronavirus disease 2019. Many clinically used pharmacotherapies, ranging from traditional lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensive drugs, and antidiabetic drugs to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors and interleukin 1ß monoclonal antibodies, counter endothelial dysfunction as part of their clinical benefits. The regulation of endothelial dysfunction by noncoding RNAs has provided novel insights into these newly described regulators of endothelial dysfunction, thus yielding potential new therapeutic approaches. Altogether, a better understanding of the versatile (dys)functions of endothelial cells will not only deepen our comprehension of human diseases but also accelerate effective therapeutic drug discovery. In this review, we provide a timely overview of the multiple layers of endothelial function, describe the consequences and mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction, and identify pathways to effective targeted therapies. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The endothelium was initially considered to be a semipermeable biomechanical barrier and gatekeeper of vascular health. In recent decades, a deepened understanding of the biological functions of the endothelium has led to its recognition as a ubiquitous tissue regulating vascular tone, cell behavior, innate immunity, cell-cell interactions, and cell metabolism in the vessel wall. Endothelial dysfunction is the hallmark of cardiovascular, metabolic, and emerging infectious diseases. Pharmacotherapies targeting endothelial dysfunction have potential for treatment of cardiovascular and many other diseases.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases , Endothelium, Vascular , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Agents/classification , Cardiovascular Agents/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Drug Discovery , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/trends , SARS-CoV-2
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