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1.
Ter Arkh ; 94(12): 1421-1425, 2023 Jan 16.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241378

ABSTRACT

Cell death is an important feature of the development of multicellular organisms, a critical factor in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Understanding the mechanisms that control cell death is crucial to determine its role in the development of the pathological process. However, the most well-known types of cell death cannot fully explain the pathophysiology of heart disease. Understanding how cardiomyocytes die and why their regeneration is limited is an important area of research. Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent cell death that differs from apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, and other forms of cell death in terms of morphology, metabolism, and protein expression. Ferroptotic cell death is characterized by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species resulting from lipid peroxidation and subsequent oxidative stress, which can be prevented by iron chelates (eg, deferoxamine) and small lipophilic antioxidants (eg, ferrostatin, liproхstatin). In recent years, many studies have been carried out on ferroptosis in the context of the development of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and other diseases. In addition to cardiovascular diseases, the review also presents data on the role of ferroptosis in the development of other socially significant diseases, such as COVID-19, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. With the study of ferroptosis, it turned out that ferroptosis participates in the development of bacterial infection associated with the persistence in the host body of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The review summarizes the recent advances in the study of ferroptosis, characterizing this type of cell death as a novel therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Ferroptosis , Humans , Ferroptosis/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Apoptosis , Cell Death , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 98(6): 915-926, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230820

ABSTRACT

Sauna bathing, a tradition deeply rooted in the Finnish culture, has been used for thousands of years for leisure, relaxation, and wellness. Sauna bathing is linked with substantial health benefits beyond its use for leisure and relaxation. Several observational and interventional studies suggest that regular or frequent sauna bathing reduces the incidence of vascular and nonvascular diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dementia, and respiratory conditions; may improve the severity of conditions such as musculoskeletal disorders, COVID-19, headache, and influenza; and increases the life span. The beneficial effects of sauna bathing on adverse outcomes have been linked to its blood pressure-reducing, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cytoprotective, and stress-reducing properties and its synergistic effect on neuroendocrine, circulatory, cardiovascular, and immune function. Evidence suggests that frequent sauna bathing is an emerging protective risk factor that may augment the beneficial effects of other protective risk or lifestyle factors, such as physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness, or attenuate or offset the adverse effects of other risk factors, such as high blood pressure, systemic inflammation, and low socioeconomic status. This review summarizes the available epidemiologic and interventional evidence linking the combined effects of Finnish sauna bathing and other risk factors on vascular outcomes including cardiovascular disease and intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes, nonvascular outcomes, and mortality. We also discuss the mechanistic pathways underlying the joint contributions of Finnish sauna bathing and other risk factors on health outcomes, the public health and clinical implications of the findings, gaps in the existing evidence base, and future directions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Steam Bath , Humans , Steam Bath/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/etiology , Hypertension/etiology , Inflammation/etiology
3.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 36(3): 253-255, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316965
4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(12): 3242-3251, 2022 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320517

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The plasma concentrations of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (pACE2) has been independently associated with cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: Higher pACE2 concentrations may be found in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) and might lead to increased cardiovascular events. METHODS: Using an inception observational cohort, we examined pACE2 among 168 incident patients with PA. The expression of ACE2, serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: Incident PA and essential hypertension (EH) patients had similarly elevated pACE2 (47.04 ± 22.06 vs 46.73 ± 21.06 ng/mL; P = .937). Age was negatively (ß = -2.15; P = .033) and higher serum potassium level (ß = 2.29; P = .024) was positively correlated with higher pACE2 in PA patients. Clinical complete hypertension remission after adrenalectomy (Primary Aldosteronism Surgery Outcome criteria) was achieved in 36 (50%) of 72 surgically treated unilateral PA (uPA) patients. At follow-up, pACE2 decreased in surgically treated patients who had (P < .001) or had no (P = .006) hypertension remission, but the pACE2 attenuation was not statistically significant in uPA (P = .085) and bilateral PA (P = .409) administered with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA). Persistently elevated pACE2 (> 23 ng/mL) after targeted treatments was related to all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events among PA patients (hazard ratio = 8.8; P = .04); with a mean follow-up of 3.29 years. TMPRSS2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was higher in uPA (P = .018) and EH (P = .038) patients than in normotensive controls; it was also decreased after adrenalectomy (P < .001). CONCLUSION: PA and EH patients had elevated pACE2 and higher expression of TMPRSS2 mRNA compared to those of normotensive population. Persistently elevated pACE2 (> 23 ng/mL) after targeted treatments was associated risk of mortality and incident cardiovascular events.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Hyperaldosteronism , Hypertension , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Adrenalectomy/adverse effects , Hypertension/etiology , Essential Hypertension/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , RNA, Messenger , Aldosterone
5.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e069251, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320812

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hyperglycaemia during pregnancy has been considered as one of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among women. Although the evidence regarding the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and subsequent CVD has been synthesised, there are no systematic reviews covering the evidence of the association among the non-GDM population. This systematic review and meta-analysis, therefore, aim to fill the gap by summarising existing evidence on the association between maternal glucose levels and the risk of future CVD in pregnant women with or without a diagnosis of GDM. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review protocol was reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols guidelines. Comprehensive literature searches were performed in the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL to identify relevant papers from inception to 31 December 2022. All observational studies (case-control studies, cohort studies and cross-sectional studies) will be included. Two reviewers will perform the abstract and full-text screening based on the eligibility criteria through Covidence. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale will be used to assess the methodological quality of included studies. Statistical heterogeneity will be assessed by using the I2 test and Cochrane's Q test. If the included studies are found to be homogeneous, pooled estimates will be calculated and meta-analysis will be performed using Review Manager 5 (RevMan) software. Random effects will be used to determine weights for meta-analysis, if needed. Pre-specified subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis will be performed, if needed. The study results will be presented in the sequence of main outcomes, secondary outcomes and important subgroup analysis for each type of glucose level separately. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Given no original data will be collected, ethics approval is not applicable for this review. The results of this review will be disseminated by publication and conference presentation. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022363037.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes, Gestational , Hyperglycemia , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Glucose , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
7.
J Med Life ; 16(3): 447-450, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315884

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the potential impact of this disease on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Patients with established cardiovascular (CV) disease are at increased risk of severe infection and hospital-acquired adverse outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. We analyzed data from 220 patients who previously contracted COVID-19. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. The average age of the patients was 54.6 ± 11.4 years, and arterial hypertension (AH) was the most common comorbidity, affecting 55% of patients. Obesity was observed in one-third of patients, while coronary heart disease (CHD) and coronary heart failure (CHF) were reported in 17.7% and 11.8% of patients, respectively. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), atrial fibrillation (AF), and obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were less common. Cardiovascular diseases, particularly AH, were the most frequent comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. Understanding the prevalence and characteristics of comorbidities in COVID-19 patients is crucial for developing appropriate management strategies and improving clinical outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying and managing comorbidities in COVID-19 patients to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19 and improve clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Comorbidity , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology
8.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 20(10): 1125-1133.e10, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence and survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) are increasing. There is an increasing number of long-term survivors, many of whom are elderly and have comorbidities. We conducted a population-based study in Hong Kong to assess the long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence associated with adjuvant fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy among CRC survivors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using the population-based electronic medical database of Hong Kong, we identified adults who were diagnosed with high-risk stage II-III CRC and treated with radical surgery followed by adjuvant fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy between 2010 and 2019. We evaluated the cause-specific cumulative incidence of CVD (including ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and stroke) using the flexible parametric competing risk modeling framework. The control group without a history of CVD was selected from among a noncancer random sample from primary care clinics in the same geographic area. RESULTS: We analyzed 1,037 treated patients with CRC and 5,078 noncancer controls. The adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio (HR) for CVD in the cancer cohort compared with the control group was 2.11 (95% CI, 1.39-3.20). The 1-, 5-, and 10-year cause-specific cumulative incidences were 2.0%, 4.5%, and 5.4% in the cancer cohort versus 1.2%, 3.0%, and 3.8% in the control group, respectively. Age at cancer diagnosis (HR per 5-year increase, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08-1.24), male sex (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06-1.86), comorbidity (HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.36-2.61 for 1 comorbidity vs none, and HR, 6.61; 95% CI, 4.55-9.60 for ≥2 comorbidities vs none), diabetes (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.04-1.84), hypertension (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.39-4.50), and dyslipidemia/hyperlipidemia (HR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.68-3.81) were associated with incident CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to adjuvant fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy was associated with an increased risk of CVD among survivors of high-risk stage II-III CRC. Cardiovascular risk monitoring of this group throughout cancer survivorship is advisable.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Colorectal Neoplasms , Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cohort Studies , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Male , Risk Factors , Survivors
9.
Am J Cardiol ; 183: 16-23, 2022 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307323

ABSTRACT

Although cardiovascular disease risk factors relate to COVID-19, the association of estimated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk with severe COVID-19 is not established. We examined the relation of the pooled-cohort ASCVD risk score to severe COVID-19 among 28,646 subjects from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative database who had positive SARS-CoV-2 test results from April 1, 2020 to April 1, 2021. In addition, 10-year ASCVD risk scores were calculated, and subjects were stratified into low-risk (<5%), borderline-risk (5% to <7.5%), intermediate-risk (7.5% to <20%), and high-risk (>=20%) groups. Severe COVID-19 outcomes (including death, remdesivir treatment, COVID-19 pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and mechanical ventilation) occurring during follow-up were examined individually and as a composite in relation to ASCVD risk group across race and gender. Multiple logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, and race, examined the relation of ASCVD risk group to the odds of severe COVID-19 outcomes. Our subjects had a mean age of 59.4 years; 14% were black and 57% were female. ASCVD risk group was directly related to severe COVID-19 prevalence. The adjusted odds ratio of the severe composite COVID-19 outcome by risk group (vs the low-risk group) was 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2.2) for the borderline-risk, 2.7 (2.3 to 3.2) for the intermediate-risk, and 4.6 (3.7 to 5.6) for the high-risk group. Black men and black women in the high-risk group showed higher severe COVID-19 prevalence compared with nonblack men and nonblack women. Prevalence of severe COVID-19 outcomes was similar in intermediate-risk black men and high-risk nonblack men (approximately 12%). In conclusion, although further research is needed, the 10-year ASCVD risk score in adults ages 40 to 79 years may be used to identify those who are at highest risk for COVID-19 complications and for whom more intensive treatment may be warranted.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Aged , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Am J Transplant ; 23(7): 1035-1047, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305313

ABSTRACT

Exogenous estrogen is associated with reduced coronavirus disease (COVID) mortality in nonimmunosuppressed/immunocompromised (non-ISC) postmenopausal females. Here, we examined the association of estrogen or testosterone hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with COVID outcomes in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) compared to non-ISC individuals, given known differences in sex-based risk in these populations. SOTRs ≥45 years old with COVID-19 between April 1, 2020 and July 31, 2022 were identified using the National COVID Cohort Collaborative. The association of HRT use in the last 24 months (exogenous systemic estrogens for females; testosterone for males) with major adverse renal or cardiac events in the 90 days post-COVID diagnosis and other secondary outcomes were examined using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression. We repeated these analyses in a non-ISC control group for comparison. Our study included 1135 SOTRs and 43 383 immunocompetent patients on HRT with COVID-19. In non-ISC, HRT use was associated with lower risk of major adverse renal or cardiac events (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.65 for females; aHR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.65-0.77 for males) and all secondary outcomes. In SOTR, HRT reduced the risk of acute kidney injury (aHR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63-0.98) and mortality (aHR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28-0.85) in males with COVID but not in females. The potentially modifying effects of immunosuppression on the benefits of HRT requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Organ Transplantation , Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Hormone Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Estrogens , Transplant Recipients
13.
N Engl J Med ; 387(21): 1923-1934, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High triglyceride levels are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but whether reductions in these levels would lower the incidence of cardiovascular events is uncertain. Pemafibrate, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator, reduces triglyceride levels and improves other lipid levels. METHODS: In a multinational, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned patients with type 2 diabetes, mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia (triglyceride level, 200 to 499 mg per deciliter), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels of 40 mg per deciliter or lower to receive pemafibrate (0.2-mg tablets twice daily) or matching placebo. Eligible patients were receiving guideline-directed lipid-lowering therapy or could not receive statin therapy without adverse effects and had low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels of 100 mg per deciliter or lower. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: Among 10,497 patients (66.9% with previous cardiovascular disease), the median baseline fasting triglyceride level was 271 mg per deciliter, HDL cholesterol level 33 mg per deciliter, and LDL cholesterol level 78 mg per deciliter. The median follow-up was 3.4 years. As compared with placebo, the effects of pemafibrate on lipid levels at 4 months were -26.2% for triglycerides, -25.8% for very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, -25.6% for remnant cholesterol (cholesterol transported in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins after lipolysis and lipoprotein remodeling), -27.6% for apolipoprotein C-III, and 4.8% for apolipoprotein B. A primary end-point event occurred in 572 patients in the pemafibrate group and in 560 of those in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.15), with no apparent effect modification in any prespecified subgroup. The overall incidence of serious adverse events did not differ significantly between the groups, but pemafibrate was associated with a higher incidence of adverse renal events and venous thromboembolism and a lower incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with type 2 diabetes, mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL and LDL cholesterol levels, the incidence of cardiovascular events was not lower among those who received pemafibrate than among those who received placebo, although pemafibrate lowered triglyceride, VLDL cholesterol, remnant cholesterol, and apolipoprotein C-III levels. (Funded by the Kowa Research Institute; PROMINENT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03071692.).


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertriglyceridemia , Hypolipidemic Agents , PPAR alpha , Humans , Apolipoprotein C-III/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cholesterol/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Double-Blind Method , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hyperlipidemias/blood , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Hypertriglyceridemia/blood , Hypertriglyceridemia/complications , Hypertriglyceridemia/drug therapy , Risk Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , PPAR alpha/agonists , Cholesterol, HDL/blood
14.
Ann Fam Med ; (21 Suppl 1)2023 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276989

ABSTRACT

Context: Breast cancer survivors have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk compared to those without cancer history. CVD is the leading cause of death for breast cancer survivors. Objective: To assess current CVD risk counseling practices and risk perception in breast cancer survivors. Study design and analysis: Interviews conducted with breast cancer survivors. Analysis of categorical data by frequency and quantitative variables by mean and standard deviation. Inductive qualitative analysis performed using NVIVO. Setting: Academic Family Medicine Outpatient Practices Population studied: Breast cancer survivors with an identified primary care provider. Intervention/instrument: Interviews on CVD risk behaviors, risk perception, challenges with risk reduction, and previous history of risk counseling. Outcome measures: Self-reported history of CVD, risk perception, and risk behaviors. Results: The average age of participants (n=19) was 57 with 57% being white and 32% African American. Of interviewed women, 89.5% reported a personal history and 89.5% reported a family history of CVD. Only 52.6% had previously reported receipt of CVD counseling. Primary care providers most commonly provided the counseling (72.7%), however it was additionally provided by oncology (27.3%). Among breast cancer survivors, 31.6% perceived they were at increased CVD risk and 47.5% were unsure of their relative CVD risk compared to women their age. Factors affecting perceived CVD risk included family history, cancer treatments, cardiovascular diagnoses, and lifestyle factors. Video (78.9%) and text messaging (68.4%) were the most highly reported mechanisms through which breast cancer survivors requested to receive additional information and counseling on CVD risk and risk reduction. Commonly reported barriers to adopting risk reduction strategies (such as increasing physical activity) included time, resources, physical limitations, and competing responsibilities. Barriers specific to survivorship status include concerns for immune status during COVID, physical limitations associated with cancer treatment, and psychosocial aspects of cancer survivorship. Conclusions: These data suggest improving the frequency and content of CVD risk reduction counseling is needed. Strategies should identify the best methods for providing CVD counseling, and should address general barriers as well as unique challenges faced by cancer survivors.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Cancer Survivors , Cardiovascular Diseases , Female , Humans , Perception , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Counseling
15.
Circ Res ; 132(6): 751-774, 2023 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282677

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is inflammation in the lungs, which is usually caused by an infection. The symptoms of pneumonia can vary from mild to life-threatening, where severe illness is often observed in vulnerable populations like children, older adults, and those with preexisting health conditions. Vaccines have greatly reduced the burden of some of the most common causes of pneumonia, and the use of antimicrobials has greatly improved the survival to this infection. However, pneumonia survivors do not return to their preinfection health trajectories but instead experience an accelerated health decline with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms of this association are not well understood, but a persistent dysregulated inflammatory response post-pneumonia appears to play a central role. It is proposed that the inflammatory response during pneumonia is left unregulated and exacerbates atherosclerotic vascular disease, which ultimately leads to adverse cardiac events such as myocardial infarction. For this reason, there is a need to better understand the inflammatory cross talk between the lungs and the heart during and after pneumonia to develop therapeutics that focus on preventing pneumonia-associated cardiovascular events. This review will provide an overview of the known mechanisms of inflammation triggered during pneumonia and their relevance to the increased cardiovascular risk that follows this infection. We will also discuss opportunities for new clinical approaches leveraging strategies to promote inflammatory resolution pathways as a novel therapeutic target to reduce the risk of cardiac events post-pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Myocardial Infarction , Pneumonia , Child , Humans , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Pneumonia/complications , Inflammation/complications , Myocardial Infarction/complications
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1058423, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227808

ABSTRACT

The results from epidemiological studies suggest that environmental noise including aircraft, railway, road traffic, wind turbine, and leisure-related noise is a growing public health concern. According to the WHO, at least 100 million people in the European Union are affected by traffic noise levels above the WHO-recommended thresholds. Environmental noise can adversely affect physical and mental health, as well as wellbeing. Chronic low-level noise exposure typical for most environmental sources is associated with psychophysiological stress causing non-auditory or indirect noise effects leading ultimately to cardiovascular diseases. Among all environmental noise sources, aircraft noise is considered the most annoying, and its leading mechanism of action is autonomic system activation such as increases in heart rate and blood pressure. Previously, we observed that long-term exposure to aircraft noise was associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, arterial stiffness (as assessed by pulse wave velocity), and impaired left ventricular diastolic function. All mentioned above effects are early, subclinical, and potentially reversible changes which preceded late noise effects in the cardiovascular system, that is, established cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. However, even a short-term reduction in aircraft noise exposure as observed during the COVID-19 lockdown may reverse these negative effects on arterial stiffness and blood pressure and may decrease the prevalence of insomnia. In this review, we aimed to critically discuss our obtained results considering recent studies on the influence of aircraft noise (and other traffic noises) on cardiovascular diseases in the context of the WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Noise, Transportation , Humans , Noise, Transportation/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Pulse Wave Analysis/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Communicable Disease Control , Aircraft
18.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 23(2): 293-297, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174753

ABSTRACT

Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at high risk for adverse outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Further, COVID-19 infection is associated with numerous cardiovascular (CV) complications including arrhythmia, myocardial injury, cardiomyopathy, and thrombotic events. Increased susceptibility to COVID-19 and CV complications related to COVID-19 may be in part related to immune dysregulation and inflammation associated with CV disease which is exacerbated with viral infection. Vitamin D plays a major role in immune function and exerts anti-inflammatory effects, which may prove important in the context of CVD and COVID-19. To date, studies have shown minimal benefit for vitamin D supplementation in patients with COVID-19, though there are no studies specific to patients with CVD and related complications. Further, given that vitamin D has important protective effects on the CV system, including augmentation of myocardial contractility and anti-thrombotic effects, it is unknown if supplementation with vitamin D can mitigate CVD complications associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Vitamin D/physiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
19.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200565

ABSTRACT

Background: This study assessed how two food groups­omnivores (OMN) and vegetarians (VEGE)­differ in lifestyle changes, including dietary habits during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials: A total of 861 persons participated in the survey and were divided into two groups: persons following a mixed diet (n = 489) and vegetarians, including vegans (n = 372). The mean age shows no significant differences. Methods: An online survey was conducted on the Polish population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data was collected using social media; the survey was intended for adults and included separate sheets for different diets (OMN vs. VEGE). Results: The results in both groups were similar regarding the burden of premature diseases. Most respondents (~90%) did not indicate cardiovascular disease abnormalities. In the OMN group, overweight and obesity occurred more often, and the OMN group also showed a higher percentage of people reporting weight gain (OMN 42.7% vs. VEGE 35.9%). The results disclosed the VEGE group significantly more frequently chose products, i.e., vegetables (p = 0.029), legumes (p < 0.001), and dairy products or their plant substitutes (p = 0.002), compared to the OMN group. Conclusions: The VEGE group revealed the most regularities in dietary habits during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Vegetarians , Diet/adverse effects , Feeding Behavior , Vegetables , Life Style , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Diet, Vegetarian/adverse effects
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(12): e2247341, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172226

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is an urgent need for evidence to inform preoperative risk assessment for the millions of people who have had SARS-CoV-2 infection and are awaiting elective surgery, which is critical to surgical care planning and informed consent. Objective: To assess the association of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection with death, major adverse cardiovascular events, and rehospitalization after elective major noncardiac surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included adults who had received a polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV-2 infection within 6 months prior to elective major noncardiac surgery in Ontario, Canada, between April 2020 and October 2021, with 30 days follow-up. Exposures: Positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test result. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the composite of death, major adverse cardiovascular events, and all-cause rehospitalization within 30 days after surgery. Results: Of 71 144 patients who underwent elective major noncardiac surgery (median age, 66 years [IQR, 57-73 years]; 59.8% female), 960 had prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (1.3%) and 70 184 had negative test results (98.7%). Prior infection was not associated with the composite risk of death, major adverse cardiovascular events, and rehospitalization within 30 days of elective major noncardiac surgery (5.3% absolute event rate [n = 3770]; 960 patients with a positive test result; adjusted relative risk [aRR], 0.91; 95% CI, 0.68-1.21). There was also no association between prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 and postoperative outcomes when the time between infection and surgery was less than 4 weeks (aRR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.64-2.09) or less than 7 weeks (aRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.56-1.61) and among those who were previously vaccinated (aRR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.52-1.26). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 was not associated with death, major adverse cardiovascular events, or rehospitalization following elective major noncardiac surgery, although low event rates and wide 95% CIs do not preclude a potentially meaningful increase in overall risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Humans , Female , Aged , Male , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Risk Assessment , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Ontario/epidemiology
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