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1.
J Complement Integr Med ; 19(1): 145-154, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular diseases have a multifaceted, it causes modern epidemic; Recognizing in the risk factor stage, is crucial, given the risk of progression to cardiovascular disease. Ibn Sina, described CVDs as a resultant of gradual derangement of Quwwat ghadhiya (Nutritive faculty); in which management with ghidha' (diet), tadabir (regimens), dawa' (drug) has been received. To evaluate the effect of Arjun Chal (Terminalia arjuna) in CVD risk factors. And to evaluate the drug safety. METHODS: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Total 120 patients were screened at OPD of NIUM hospital, Bangalore during 2018-19, only 48 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and signed written informed consent and their detailed medical history was recorded. Arjun Chal powder (5 gm BD) for eight weeks administered in test group (n=24), Amlodipine (5 mg) and Atorvastatin (10 mg) once a day for same duration administered in control group (n=24). Efficacy of the drug assessed by the Lipid profile, BP and BMI; lipid profile were performed at baseline and at 8 weeks, while BP and BMI performed at baseline, 15, 30, 45, and 60th day intervals. Study was completed by 40 patients. The results of both the therapies were then compared and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Totally, both groups reduces assessment parameters i.e. statistically highly significant (p<0.001). Test group showed greater reduction in terms of all assessment parmeters. But, the difference between both the groups was statistically non-significant p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Both test and control drugs were effective, but Arjun Chal had a slight edge over amlodipne and atorvastatin, and was found to be safe and well tolerated. It has a cardio protective potential and hence effective to delay/prevent CVD in patient with cardiovascular risk factor.Keywords: Unani System of Medicine; T. arjuna; Arjun Chal; Efficacy; Safety; Cardiovascular risk factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , India , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736900

ABSTRACT

There are significant gaps in knowledge about the synergistic and disparate burden of health disparities associated with cardiovascular health issues, poorer mental health outcomes, and suboptimal HIV-care management on the health of older Latinos living with HIV (OLLWH). This pilot study sought to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of an innovative application of an already established health-promotion intervention-Happy Older Latinos are Active (HOLA)-among this marginalized population. Eighteen self-identified Latino men with an undetectable HIV viral load and documented risk of cardiometabolic disease participated in this study. Although the attrition rate of 22% was higher than expected, participants attended 77% of the sessions and almost 95% of the virtual walks. Participants reported high satisfaction with the intervention, as evident by self-report quantitative (CSQ-8; M = 31, SD = 1.5) and qualitative metrics. Participants appreciated bonding with the community health worker and their peers to reduce social isolation. Results indicate that the HOLA intervention is an innovative way of delivering a health promotion intervention adapted to meet the diverse needs and circumstances of OLLWH, is feasible and acceptable, and has the potential to have positive effects on the health of OLLWH.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , HIV Infections , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Feasibility Studies , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Pilot Projects
4.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 23(2): 293-297, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718863

ABSTRACT

Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at high risk for adverse outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Further, COVID-19 infection is associated with numerous cardiovascular (CV) complications including arrhythmia, myocardial injury, cardiomyopathy, and thrombotic events. Increased susceptibility to COVID-19 and CV complications related to COVID-19 may be in part related to immune dysregulation and inflammation associated with CV disease which is exacerbated with viral infection. Vitamin D plays a major role in immune function and exerts anti-inflammatory effects, which may prove important in the context of CVD and COVID-19. To date, studies have shown minimal benefit for vitamin D supplementation in patients with COVID-19, though there are no studies specific to patients with CVD and related complications. Further, given that vitamin D has important protective effects on the CV system, including augmentation of myocardial contractility and anti-thrombotic effects, it is unknown if supplementation with vitamin D can mitigate CVD complications associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Vitamin D/physiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715393

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of human mortality worldwide. Oxidative stress and inflammation are pathophysiological processes involved in the development of CVD. That is why bioactive food ingredients, including lycopene, are so important in their prevention, which seems to be a compound increasingly promoted in the diet of people with cardiovascular problems. Lycopene present in tomatoes and tomato products is responsible not only for their red color but also for health-promoting properties. It is characterized by a high antioxidant potential, the highest among carotenoid pigments. Mainly for this reason, epidemiological studies show a number of favorable properties between the consumption of lycopene in the diet and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. While there is also some controversy in research into its protective effects on the cardiovascular system, growing evidence supports its beneficial role for the heart, endothelium, blood vessels, and health. The mechanisms of action of lycopene are now being discovered and may explain some of the contradictions observed in the literature. This review aims to present the current knowledge in recent years on the preventive role of lycopene cardiovascular disorders.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Lycopene/pharmacology , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Humans , Lycopersicon esculentum/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/drug effects
6.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 42(2): 84-89, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713761

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed significant disparities within certain population subsets that manifest through greater disease burden and worse outcomes. In this commentary, we propose specific preventive interventions to address these disparities within the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
7.
J Nutr ; 151(12): 3701-3709, 2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Practical risk reduction strategies are needed to address cardiovascular disease. Beans can decrease LDL cholesterol; however, research into different daily amounts and varieties is warranted. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of canned beans (daily rotation of black, navy, pinto, dark red kidney, white kidney) in 1-cup (1CB, 180 g) and ½-cup (½CB, 90 g) daily amounts compared with a 1-cup white rice (WR) control on serum lipid and glycemic biomarkers in adults with elevated LDL cholesterol. METHODS: Adults [n = 73, mean ± SD age: 48.1 ± 14.2 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 25.9 ± 4.22; fasting serum LDL cholesterol: 3.0-5.0 mmol/L] consumed 1CB, ½CB, and WR for 4-wk treatment periods separated by ≥4-wk washouts in a multicenter, randomized, crossover study. Fasting serum LDL cholesterol (primary outcome) and other lipids and glycemic biomarkers (secondary outcomes) were measured on study days 1 and 29 of each treatment period with study day 29 values compared using repeated-measures ANCOVA, including study day 1 values as covariates. RESULTS: Treatment completion was n = 66 for 1CB, n = 68 for ½CB, and n = 64 for WR. Total cholesterol on study day 29 was lower for 1CB (P = 0.04) but not ½CB (P = 0.77) compared with WR (-5.46%, -2.74%, -0.65% changes from study day 1, respectively) and did not differ between 1CB and ½CB (P = 0.17). LDL cholesterol on study day 29 was also lower for 1CB (P = 0.002) but not ½CB (P = 0.30) compared with WR (-8.08%, -3.84%, +0.49% changes from study day 1, respectively) and did not differ between 1CB and ½CB (P = 0.11). Other lipids and glycemic biomarkers did not differ among treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of 1 cup (180 g) of canned beans of multiple varieties decreased total and LDL cholesterol in adults with elevated LDL cholesterol, supporting a practical strategy for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03830970.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Vegetables , Adult , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cholesterol, LDL , Cross-Over Studies , Humans , Middle Aged
8.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 63, 2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular and renal diseases (CVRD) are major causes of mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies of lifetime risk have neither considered all CVRD together nor the relative contribution of major risk factors to combined disease burden. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study using national electronic health records, we studied 473,399 individuals with T2D in England 2007-2018. Lifetime risk of individual and combined major adverse renal cardiovascular events, MARCE (including CV death and CVRD: heart failure; chronic kidney disease; myocardial infarction; stroke or peripheral artery disease), were estimated, accounting for baseline CVRD status and competing risk of death. We calculated population attributable risk for individual CVRD components. Ideal cardiovascular health was defined by blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose, smoking, physical activity, diet, and body mass index (i.e. modifiable risk factors). RESULTS: In individuals with T2D, lifetime risk of MARCE was 80% in those free from CVRD and was 97%, 93%, 98%, 89% and 91% in individuals with heart failure, chronic kidney disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral arterial disease, respectively at baseline. Among CVRD-free individuals, lifetime risk of chronic kidney disease was highest (54%), followed by CV death (41%), heart failure (29%), stroke (20%), myocardial infarction (19%) and peripheral arterial disease (9%). In those with HF only, 75% of MARCE after index T2D can be attributed to HF after adjusting for age, gender, and comorbidities. Compared with those with > 1, < 3 and ≥3 modifiable health risk behaviours, achieving ideal cardiovascular health could reduce MARCE by approximately 41.5%, 23.6% and 17.2%, respectively, in the T2D population. CONCLUSIONS: Four out of five individuals with T2D free from CVRD, and nearly all those with history of CVRD, will develop MARCE over their lifetime. Early preventive measures in T2D patients are clinical, public health and policy priorities.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Heart Failure , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Risk Factors
9.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686895

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress is involved in the onset and development of several human diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases [...].


Subject(s)
Food Analysis , Phenols/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Humans , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Neurodegenerative Diseases/prevention & control
10.
Life Sci ; 294: 120392, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670857

ABSTRACT

The SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) causes Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), is an emerging viral infection. SARS CoV-2 infects target cells by attaching to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE2). SARS CoV-2 could cause cardiac damage in patients with severe COVID-19, as ACE2 is expressed in cardiac cells, including cardiomyocytes, pericytes, and fibroblasts, and coronavirus could directly infect these cells. Cardiovascular disorders are the most frequent comorbidity found in COVID-19 patients. Immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, and T cells may produce inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that contribute to COVID-19 pathogenesis if their functions are uncontrolled. This causes a cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients, which has been associated with cardiac damage. Tregs are a subset of immune cells that regulate immune and inflammatory responses. Tregs suppress inflammation and improve cardiovascular function through a variety of mechanisms. This is an exciting research area to explore the cellular, molecular, and immunological mechanisms related to reducing risks of cardiovascular complications in severe COVID-19. This review evaluated whether Tregs can affect COVID-19-related cardiovascular complications, as well as the mechanisms through which Tregs act.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/physiology , Adoptive Transfer , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology
11.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 24(1): 61-72, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653753

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights major studies across a broad array of topics presented at the virtual 2021 American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions. RECENT FINDINGS: Assessed studies examine a remotely delivered hypertension and lipid program in 10,000 patients across a diverse healthcare network; a cluster-randomized trial of a village doctor-led intervention for hypertension control; empagliflozin in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (EMPEROR-Preserved); efficacy and safety of empagliflozin in hospitalized heart failure patients (EMPULSE); icosapent ethyl versus placebo in outpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (PREPARE-IT 2); clinical safety, pharmacokinetics, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering efficacy of MK-0161, an oral proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor; and effects of aspirin on dementia and cognitive impairment in the ASCEND trial. Research presented at the 2021 AHA Scientific Sessions emphasized the importance of interventions for cardiovascular disease prevention.


Subject(s)
Anticholesteremic Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases , American Heart Association , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Proprotein Convertase 9 , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , United States/epidemiology
12.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 29(2): 91-102, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638838

ABSTRACT

This executive document reflects and updates the key points of a Consensus document on Cardiovascular (CV) Prevention realized through the contribution of a number of Italian Scientific Societies and coordinated by the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Prevention (SIPREC). The aim of this executive document is to analyze and discuss the new recommendations introduced by international guidelines for the management of major CV risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemias and type 2 diabetes, consisting in the identification of lower therapeutic targets, in the promotion of combination fixed drug therapies and in the introduction in routine clinical practice of new effective pharmacological classes. Moreover, the document highlights the importance of effective CV prevention strategies during the the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak which has dramatically changed the priorities and the use of available resources by the national healthcare systems and have caused a reduction of programmed follow-up visits and procedures and even of hospital admissions for severe acute pathologies. In addition, the pandemic and the consequent lockdown measures imposed have caused a widespread diffusion of unhealthy behaviors with detrimental effects on the CV system. In such a context, reinforcement of CV prevention activities may play a key role in reducing the future impact of these deleterious conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dyslipidemias , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Humans
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625368

ABSTRACT

AIM: The paper aims to describe the impact of the increasing sedentary lifestyle due to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic restrictions in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), healthy individuals, and athletes. METHODS: A review of studies investigating the impact of the COVID-19 restrictions on patients with CVDs, healthy subjects, and athletes has been conducted in the PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar medical databases. RESULTS: The review highlighted the significant decrease of active behavior in patients with CVDs and mainly heart-failure patients, illustrated by a reduction of their daily steps and hours of being active during the COVID-19 pandemic. This review also enlightened a significant increase of the time spent in sedentary behavior and the sleep in healthy individuals. Finally, this review reported that the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions induced detraining periods in athletes, altering their health. These periods might also lead to a decrease of their future performances. CONCLUSIONS: Staying active and maintaining sufficient levels of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic are essential to preserve good health, despite the circumstances of quarantine. Alternatives such as completing a cardiac telerehabilitation for CVD patients or training at home for healthy subjects and athletes may be taken into consideration to maintain a regular active behavior in this sanitary context and potential future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Athletes , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nutr Res ; 100: 19-32, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586919

ABSTRACT

Persons with underlying noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are more likely to acquire severe coronavirus disease 2019 disease and to die from coronavirus disease 2019. An urgent need for potential therapy to prevent and control NCDs is critical. We hypothesized that higher intakes of multiple individual nutrients, fruits, or vegetables would be linked with a low risk of NCDs in the Korean population. Thus, we aim to explore the association between NCDs, including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), arthritis, depression, and dietary factors. A total of 56,462 adults aged 18 years (2009-2019) were included. Dietary factors, including intakes of multiple individual nutrients, fruits, and vegetables, were assessed. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to explore the associations between dietary factors and NCDs. Interactions were found between intakes of multiple individual nutrients and sex for T2DM, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Only in women was a 2-fold increase in daily multiple individual nutrient intake (vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, C; potassium, protein; phosphorus; calcium; iron; monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid; n-3 fatty acid and n-6 fatty acid; and water) associated with a lower prevalence of T2DM, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, arthritis, and osteoarthritis. In both women and men, high fruit or vegetable consumption was linked with a lower risk of T2DM, hypertension, dyslipidemia, osteoarthritis, and depression than low consumption. Our findings found higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and multiple individual nutrients are linked with a lower risk of NCDs in the Korean adult population. Further work is needed to identify whether interactions between intake of multiple individual nutrients, vegetables, and fruits affect the presence of NCDs.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adolescent , Adult , Arthritis/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Depression/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Diet , Female , Fruit , Humans , Male , Nutrients , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Vegetables
15.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574048

ABSTRACT

North of Italy was severely hit by the COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 19) pandemic. This induced the government to adopt severely restrictive measures to reduce the contagion risk, forcing most of the population to stop working and from leisure activities, and to remain at home for several weeks. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of COVID-related quarantine on smoking and dietary habits of a well-characterized northern Italian rural population. For this purpose, while lockdown restrictions were in place (February-April 2020), 359 subjects from the Brisighella Heart Study cohort underwent a phone interview about their lifestyle habit changes during COVID-19-related quarantine. Quarantine did not significantly modify smoking habit nor body mass index. Subjects significantly increased daily carbohydrates consumption, all fresh vegetables, healthy vegetable oils, milk and yogurt, alcoholic drinks, sugars and sweets, and coffee. The weekly consumption of low-fat meat, cured meat other than ham, cheeses, eggs, nuts and mixed seed oils significantly increased, while the weekly intake of fish, mussels, and legumes significantly decreased during lockdown. The Dietary Quality Index was reduced from 42.4 ± 4.1 to 37.8 ± 4.7 (p < 0.03). In accordance with our findings, COVID-19-related quarantine might worsen the quality of diet, also leading to an increased intake of almost all food categories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding Behavior , Life Style , Quarantine , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Italy , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(24): e022721, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566422

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the social, economic, and health care systems in the United States and shined a spotlight on the burden of disease associated with social determinants of health (SDOH). Addressing SDOH, while a challenge, provides important opportunities to mitigate cardiovascular disease incidence, morbidity, and mortality. We present a conceptual framework to examine the differential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on SDOH across demographically diverse populations, focusing on the short- and long-term development of cardiovascular disease, as well as future research opportunities for cardiovascular disease prevention. The COVID-19 pandemic exerted negative shifts in SDOH and cardiovascular risk factors (ie, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, dietary behavior, cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood sugar). For example, evidence suggests that unemployment and food insecurity have increased, whereas health care access and income have decreased; changes to SDOH have resulted in increases in loneliness and processed food consumption, as well as decreases in physical activity and hypertension management. We found that policy measures enacted to mitigate economic, social, and health issues inadequately protected populations. Low-income and racial and ethnic minority communities, historically underserved populations, were not only disproportionately adversely affected by the pandemic but also less likely to receive assistance, likely attributable in part to the deep structural inequities pervasive in our society. Effective and culturally appropriate interventions are needed to mitigate the negative health impacts of historical systems, policies, and programs that created and maintain structural racism, especially for immigrants, racial and ethnic minorities, and populations experiencing social disadvantage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Social Determinants of Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
17.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542681

ABSTRACT

Nutrition interventions can support Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review examines nutritional interventions aiming to improve CVD outcomes and appraises peer-reviewed interventions using an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Quality Appraisal Tool. Five electronic databases and grey literature were searched, applying no time limit. Two reviewers completed the screening, data extraction and quality assessment independently. The study quality was assessed using the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute and the Centre of Research Excellence in Aboriginal Chronic Disease Knowledge Translation and Exchange Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Quality Appraisal Tool (QAT). Twenty-one nutrition programs were included in this review. Twelve reported on anthropometric measurements, ten on biochemical and/or hematological measurements and sixteen on other outcome domains. Most programs reported improvements in measurable CVD risk factors, including reduced body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), weight, blood pressure and improved lipid profiles. Most programs performed well at community engagement and capacity strengthening, but many lacked the inclusion of Indigenous research paradigms, governance and strengths-based approaches. This review highlights the need for contemporary nutrition programs aimed at improving cardiovascular health outcomes to include additional key cultural components.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diet, Healthy/methods , Health Promotion/methods , Australia , Cardiovascular Diseases/ethnology , Diet, Healthy/ethnology , Health Services, Indigenous , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Program Evaluation
18.
Curr Probl Dermatol ; 55: 329-338, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541964

ABSTRACT

While UV radiation is a skin carcinogen, this should not obscure the growing evidence that sunlight has significant health benefits, including impacts on cardiovascular and metabolic health. Epidemiological and mechanistic evidences for the importance of different wavelengths of sunlight, including blue light and UV radiation, are presented.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Skin/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Vitamin D/biosynthesis , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/radiation effects , Risk Assessment , Skin/metabolism , Skin/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/etiology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2082, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the health risks of sedentary working environments become more clear, greater emphasis on the implementation of walking interventions to reduce sitting time is needed. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigate the role of treadmill-desk interventions on energy expenditure, sitting time, and cardiometabolic health in adults with sedentary occupations. METHODS: Relevant studies published in English were identified using CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases up to December 2020. Random effects meta-analysis models were used to pool study results. RESULTS: Thirteen relevant studies (six workplaces and seven laboratories) were found with a total of 351 participants. Pooled analysis of laboratory studies showed a significant increase in energy expenditure (105.23 kcal per hour, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 90.41 to 120.4), as well as metabolic rate (5.0 mL/kg/min, 95% CI: 3.35 to 6.64), among treadmill desk users compared to sitting conditions. No evidence of significant differences in blood pressure were found. In workplace studies, we observed a significant reduction in sitting time over a 24-h period (- 1.73 min per hour, 95% CI: - 3.3 to - 0.17) among users of treadmill desks, compared to a conventional desk. However, there were no evidence of statistically significant changes in other metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Treadmill desks offer a feasible and effective intervention to increase energy expenditure and metabolic rate and reduce sitting time while performing work-related tasks. Future studies are needed to increase generalizability to different workplace settings and further evaluate their impact on cardiometabolic health.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Occupational Health , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Sitting Position , Walking , Workplace
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(21): 6797-6812, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524867

ABSTRACT

Cytokines in cardiac tissue plays a key role in progression of cardiometabolic diseases and cardiotoxicity induced by several anticancer drugs. Interleukin-1ß is one on the most studied regulator of cancer progression, survival and resistance to anticancer treatments. Recent findings indicate that interleukin1-ß exacerbates myocardial damages in cancer patients treated with chemotherapies and immune check-point inhibitors. Interleukin1-ß blocking agent canakinumab reduces major adverse cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death in recent cardiovascular trials. We focalized on the main biological functions of interleukin1-ß in cancer and cardiovascular diseases, summarizing the main clinical evidence available to date in literature. Especially in the era of SARS-CoV-2 infection, associated to coagulopathies, myocarditis and heart failure, cancer patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular complications compared to general population, therefore, the pharmacological inhibition of interleukin1-ß should be discussed and considered.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Cardiotoxicity/prevention & control , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Anthracyclines/adverse effects , Anthracyclines/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Neoplasms/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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