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1.
Biomolecules ; 12(10)2022 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154887

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent the leading cause of death in the world despite innovations in therapies and advances in the general management of patients [...].


Subject(s)
Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Biomarkers
2.
Heart ; 108(4): 258-265, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137872

ABSTRACT

Ramadan fasting is observed by most of the 1.8 billion Muslims around the world. It lasts for 1 month per the lunar calendar year and is the abstention from any food and drink from dawn to sunset. While recommendations on 'safe' fasting exist for patients with some chronic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, guidance for patients with cardiovascular disease is lacking. We reviewed the literature to help healthcare professionals educate, discuss and manage patients with cardiovascular conditions, who are considering fasting. Studies on the safety of Ramadan fasting in patients with cardiac disease are sparse, observational, of small sample size and have short follow-up. Using expert consensus and a recognised framework, we risk stratified patients into 'low or moderate risk', for example, stable angina or non-severe heart failure; 'high risk', for example, poorly controlled arrhythmias or recent myocardial infarction; and 'very high risk', for example, advanced heart failure. The 'low-moderate risk' group may fast, provided their medications and clinical conditions allow. The 'high' or 'very high risk' groups should not fast and may consider safe alternatives such as non-consecutive fasts or fasting shorter days, for example, during winter. All patients who are fasting should be educated before Ramadan on their risk and management (including the risk of dehydration, fluid overload and terminating the fast if they become unwell) and reviewed after Ramadan to reassess their risk status and condition. Further studies to clarify the benefits and risks of fasting on the cardiovascular system in patients with different cardiovascular conditions should help refine these recommendations.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Fasting/adverse effects , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Islam
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18472, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096811

ABSTRACT

The northern region of Brazil is already vulnerable to other infectious diseases and it was no different in COVID-19. However, cardiovascular diseases still lead the causes of death. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the clinical predictors and outcome of severe COVID-19 in hospitalized patients with and without CVD in this region of the Amazon. A retrospective cohort, referring to the notifications from January 1 to December 31, 2020, including cases confirmed by molecular testing. The study consisted of 9223 confirmed cases for COVID-19. Of these, 6011 (65.17%) did not have cardiovascular disease and 3212 (34.83%) had some cardiovascular disease. The significance of deaths was in the age group of < 1 to 59 CVD carriers (< 0.001). Predictor of mortality were invasive ventilation for patients with CVD, (OR 23,688 CI 18,180-30,866), followed by chronic kidney disease (OR 2442 CI 1568-3740), dyspnea (OR 2312 CI 1817-3941), respiratory distress (OR 1523 CI 1210-2919), cough (OR 1268 CI 1005-1599), Lower oxygen saturation 95% (OR 1281 CI 1039-1579), diabetes mellitus (OR 1267 CI 1050-1528) and age (OR 1051 CI 1044-1058). Carriers of CVD had a lower survival rate (< 0.0001). The order of the predictors of death differed among the non-carriers, as well as the high odds ratio in the predictors of CVD, only cough was an independent predictor. The age group under 59 years was associated with deaths. We also show the shorter survival in CVD carriers, as well as the higher cardiovascular morbidity rate than other studies in the literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Cough/complications , Brazil/epidemiology , Dyspnea/complications
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Attainment of the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 (LS7) metrics reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; yet, Black Americans have the lowest LS7 attainment among all communities, the highest rate of CVD mortality, and low clinical trial participation. Social support is positively correlated with chronic disease self-management. Here, we describe the role of social support in a single-arm pilot clinical trial of a community-based lifestyle intervention among Black American men. METHODS: The 24-week intervention featured weekly team-based physical activity and LS7-themed education. Seventy-four Black men participated in the intervention; twenty agreed to participate in exit surveys via one of three semi-structured focus groups. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis framed by House's social support framework. RESULTS: Participants reported support from both peers and health coaches. The sub-themes of social support among peers were: (1) acknowledgement, understanding, and validation, (2) inspiration, (3) sense of community, (4) fear of disappointing fellow participants, and (5) group synergy. The sub-themes of social support from the health coaches and study team staff included: (1) contemplation of current health status, (2) racial concordance of health coaches and study team staff, (3) investment of the research team, (4) incentives, (5) access to healthcare providers, and (6) the COVID-19 pandemic. Emotional support was the most frequently discussed theme. CONCLUSIONS: Social support, especially emotional support, from peers and health coaches was a driver of clinical trial participation among participants. The intervention created a positive social environment and decreased medical mistrust. This intervention may provide a framework by which to facilitate clinical trial participation among Black men.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Clinical Trials as Topic , Patient Participation , Social Support , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/ethnology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Trust , United States
10.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2022: 6006127, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009237

ABSTRACT

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most common and serious sleep-related breathing disorders with a high prevalence among patients with cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Despite its widespread presence, OSA remains severely undiagnosed and untreated. CV mortality and morbidity are significantly increased in the presence of OSA as it is associated with an increased risk of resistant hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias, and coronary artery disease. Evaluation and treatment of OSA should focus on recognizing patients at risk of developing OSA. The use of screening questionnaires should be routine, but a formal polysomnography sleep study is fundamental in establishing and classifying OSA. Recognition of OSA patients will allow for the institution of appropriate therapy that should alleviate OSA-related symptoms with the intent of decreasing adverse CV risk. In this review, we focus on the impact OSA has on CV disease and evaluate contemporary OSA treatments. Our goal is to heighten awareness among CV practitioners.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Polysomnography/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology
11.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 21(3): 123-129, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001472

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic health emergency in March 2020. Elderly patients and those with pre-existing medical conditions including cardiovascular disease are at increased risk of developing severe disease. Not only is the viral infection with SARS-CoV-2 associated with higher mortality in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease, but development of cardiovascular complications is also common in patients with COVID-19. Even after recovery from the acute illness, post-acute COVID syndrome with cardiopulmonary manifestations can occur in some patients. Additionally, there are rare but increasingly recognized adverse events, including cardiovascular side effects, reported with currently available COVID-19 vaccines. In this review, we discuss the most common cardiovascular complications of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 vaccines, cardiopulmonary manifestations of post-acute COVID syndrome and the current evidence-based guidance on the management of such complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Diabetes Care ; 45(5): 1162-1169, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974556

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a long-term sequela of diabetes. Better individual-based continuity of care has been reported to reduce the risk of chronic complications among patients with diabetes. Maintaining a one-to-one patient-physician relationship is often challenging, especially in public health care settings. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between higher team-based continuity of care, defined as consultations provided by the same physician team, and CVD risks in patients with diabetes from public primary care clinics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study in Hong Kong of 312,068 patients with type 2 diabetes and without any history of CVD at baseline (defined as the earliest attendance at a doctor's consultation in a public-sector clinic between 2008 and 2018). Team-based continuity of care was measured using the usual provider continuity index (UPCI), calculated by the proportion of consultations provided by the most visited physician team in the 2 years before baseline. Patients were divided into quartiles based on their UPCI, and the characteristics of the quartiles were balanced using propensity score fine stratification weights. Multivariable Cox regression was applied to assess the effect of team-based continuity of care on CVD incidence. Patient demographics, smoking status, physiological measurements, number of attendances, comorbidities, and medications were adjusted for in the propensity weightings and regression analyses. RESULTS: After an average follow-up of 6.5 years, the total number of new CVD events was 52,428. Compared with patients in the 1st quartile, patients in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles of the UCPI had a CVD hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.95 (0.92-0.97), 0.92 (0.89-0.94), and 0.87 (0.84-0.89), respectively, indicating that higher continuity of care was associated with lower CVD risks. The subtypes of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke, also showed a similar pattern. Subgroup analyses suggested that patients <65 years of age had greater benefits from higher team-based continuity of care. CONCLUSIONS: Team-based continuity of care was associated with lower CVD risk among individuals with type 2 diabetes, especially those who were younger. This suggests a potential flexible alternative implementation of continuity of care in public clinics.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Continuity of Patient Care , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
13.
Cardiovasc Res ; 118(13): 2754-2767, 2022 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961021

ABSTRACT

Here, we review the highlights of cardiovascular basic science published in 2021 and early 2022 on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology Council for Basic Cardiovascular Science. We begin with non-coding RNAs which have emerged as central regulators cardiovascular biology, and then discuss how technological developments in single-cell 'omics are providing new insights into cardiovascular development, inflammation, and disease. We also review recent discoveries on the biology of extracellular vesicles in driving either protective or pathogenic responses. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2021 recognized the importance of the molecular basis of mechanosensing and here we review breakthroughs in cardiovascular sensing of mechanical force. We also summarize discoveries in the field of atherosclerosis including the role of clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential, and new mechanisms of crosstalk between hyperglycaemia, lipid mediators, and inflammation. The past 12 months also witnessed major advances in the field of cardiac arrhythmia including new mechanisms of fibrillation. We also focus on inducible pluripotent stem cell technology which has demonstrated disease causality for several genetic polymorphisms in long-QT syndrome and aortic valve disease, paving the way for personalized medicine approaches. Finally, the cardiovascular community has continued to better understand COVID-19 with significant advancement in our knowledge of cardiovascular tropism, molecular markers, the mechanism of vaccine-induced thrombotic complications and new anti-viral therapies that protect the cardiovascular system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Humans , Precision Medicine , Biomarkers , Inflammation , Lipids , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy
14.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(8): e008612, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations in the United States. However, it is unknown whether hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from socially vulnerable communities experience higher rates of death and/or major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). Thus, we evaluated the association between county-level social vulnerability and in-hospital mortality and MACE in a national cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Our study population included patients with COVID-19 in the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry across 107 US hospitals between January 14, 2020 to November 30, 2020. The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), a composite measure of community vulnerability developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was used to classify the county-level social vulnerability of patients' place of residence. We fit a hierarchical logistic regression model with hospital-level random intercepts to evaluate the association of SVI with in-hospital mortality and MACE. RESULTS: Among 16 939 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the registry, 5065 (29.9%) resided in the most vulnerable communities (highest national quartile of SVI). Compared with those in the lowest quartile of SVI, patients in the highest quartile were younger (age 60.2 versus 62.3 years) and more likely to be Black adults (36.7% versus 12.2%) and Medicaid-insured (31.1% versus 23.0%). After adjustment for demographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity) and insurance status, the highest quartile of SVI (compared with the lowest) was associated with higher likelihood of in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.25 [1.03-1.53]; P=0.03) and MACE (OR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.05-1.50]; P=0.01). These findings were not attenuated after accounting for clinical comorbidities and acuity of illness on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 residing in more socially vulnerable communities experienced higher rates of in-hospital mortality and MACE, independent of race, ethnicity, and several clinical factors. Clinical and health system strategies are needed to improve health outcomes for socially vulnerable patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , American Heart Association , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Ethnicity , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Registries , Social Vulnerability , United States/epidemiology
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e056408, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923238

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the use of telemedicine to maintain continuity of care for patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a nurse-led teleconsultation strategy for CVD management during the COVID-19 pandemic in India and evaluated the impact of nurse-led teleconsultations on patient treatment satisfaction. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We developed a two-stage teleconsultation strategy and tested the feasibility of implementing a nurse-led teleconsultation strategy to manage CVD in a northern state (Punjab) in India. A multidisciplinary team of experts developed the treatment protocol used for teleconsultations to manage CVD. Nurses were trained to provide teleconsultation, triaging of patients and referrals to the physicians. Patients with CVD who had an outpatient visit or hospitalisation between September 2019 and March 2020 at the Dayanand Medical College Hospital, Ludhiana, India, were contacted by phone and offered teleconsultations. Telemedicine strategy comprised: stage 1 nurse-led teleconsultations and stage 2 physician-led teleconsultations. Descriptive analysis was performed to report the proportion of patients triaged by the two-stage telemedicine strategy, and patient's clinical characteristics, and treatment satisfaction between the nurse-led versus physician-led teleconsultations. RESULTS: Overall, nurse-led stage 1 teleconsultations were provided to 12 042 patients with CVD. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 58.9 years (12.8), and men were 65.4%. A relatively small proportion of patients (6.3%) were referred for the stage-2 physician-led teleconsultations and of these only 8.4% required hospitalisations. During stage 1 nurse-led teleconsultations, patients were referred to the physicians due to uncontrolled diabetes (24.9%), uncontrolled hypertension (18.7%) and congestive heart failure (16.2%). The patient's treatment satisfaction was similar between the nurse-led versus physician-led teleconsultations (p=0.07). CONCLUSION: This study showed that a nurse-led telemedicine strategy is feasible to implement in a resource-constraint setting for triaging patients with CVD and reduces physician's burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Remote Consultation , Telemedicine , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nurse's Role , Pandemics , Remote Consultation/methods , Telemedicine/methods
16.
Curr Diab Rep ; 22(7): 311-316, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906516

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the existing information regarding cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) manifestations among underrepresented minority populations, underrepresented minorities' representation in the cardiometabolic workforce, and the models that successfully recruit and retain underrepresented minorities in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: The scientific literature is replete with information on methods to recruit and train URM in research careers. However, there are few programs that are specifically designed to train URM to become diabetes researchers, or more specifically cardiometabolic researchers. The CMS scientific community leaders do not have to design a new learning program to engage URM in research. They only have to follow the prototypes by other organizations and make applicable to cardiometabolic research.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Public Health , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Minority Groups , United States
17.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 18(3): 78-86, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893410

ABSTRACT

During the first 2 years of the coronavirus-19 pandemic, many changes and innovations occurred to overcome the challenges associated with the pandemic and improve cardiovascular training. This review highlights the literature on the pandemic response regarding cardiovascular fellowship education and identifies areas of need to ensure future opportunities for fellows to achieve competency and career advancement. Specifically, we describe the recent changes to the four cornerstones of cardiovascular training: core content education, procedural training, career development, and the well-being of trainees.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Education, Medical/standards , Education, Medical/trends , Students, Medical/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fellowships and Scholarships , Humans , Pandemics
18.
Cardiovasc J Afr ; 33(2): 88-94, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887305

ABSTRACT

The 15th biennial Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) congress held in Mombasa, Kenya, in November 2021, convened in its legacy of being the largest Pan-African conference on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The congress brough together members of cardiovascular societies from across the continent in the shared mission of advancing cardiovascular health in Africa. In partnership with the Kenyan Cardiac Society (KCS), the specific aims of the PASCAR conference were to (1) advance knowledge on CVDs in the region; (2) share local data, clinical cases, challenges and solutions and reinforce collaborative capacity initiatives in research and workforce training; (3) engage with policy makers to address health-system issues affecting access to CVD care in Africa; and (4) bring together local and international thought leaders in cardiovascular medicine to strengthen the partnerships between PASCAR, KCS, other African cardiac societies and key global stakeholders. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, this congress demonstrated great success in providing both an in-person and a virtual platform of attendance, therefore making this an inaugural hybrid PASCAR congress, with inclusive and widespread participation from across the globe. We highlight the key areas of focus, various educational programmes and innovative initiatives that shaped the 15th PASCAR congress, including expert consensus on the future directions for advancing CVD care in Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics , Societies, Medical
19.
Eur Heart J ; 43(33): 3164-3178, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886397

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on care and outcomes across non-COVID-19 cardiovascular (CV) diseases is unknown. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to quantify the effect and investigate for variation by CV disease, geographic region, country income classification and the time course of the pandemic. METHODS AND RESULTS: From January 2019 to December 2021, Medline and Embase databases were searched for observational studies comparing a pandemic and pre-pandemic period with relation to CV disease hospitalisations, diagnostic and interventional procedures, outpatient consultations, and mortality. Observational data were synthesised by incidence rate ratios (IRR) and risk ratios (RR) for binary outcomes and weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. The study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021265930). A total of 158 studies, covering 49 countries and 6 continents, were used for quantitative synthesis. Most studies (80%) reported information for high-income countries (HICs). Across all CV disease and geographies there were fewer hospitalisations, diagnostic and interventional procedures, and outpatient consultations during the pandemic. By meta-regression, in low-middle income countries (LMICs) compared to HICs the decline in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) hospitalisations (RR 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.94) and revascularisation (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.62-0.87) was more severe. In LMICs, but not HICs, in-hospital mortality increased for STEMI (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.10-1.37) and heart failure (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.12). The magnitude of decline in hospitalisations for CV diseases did not differ between the first and second wave. CONCLUSIONS: There was substantial global collateral CV damage during the COVID-19 pandemic with disparity in severity by country income classification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics
20.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 24(6): 631-644, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877492

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) has paved the way for new in vitro models of human cardiomyopathy. Herein, we will review existing models of disease as well as strengths and limitations of the system. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies have now demonstrated that iPSCs generated from patients with both acquired or heritable genetic diseases retain properties of the disease in vitro and can be used as a model to study novel therapeutics. iPSCs can be differentiated in vitro into the cardiomyocyte lineage into cells resembling adult ventricular myocytes that retain properties of cardiovascular disease from their respective donor. iPSC pluripotency allows for them to be frozen, stored, and continually used to generate iPSC-derived myocytes for future experiments without need for invasive procedures or repeat myocyte isolations to obtain animal or human cardiac tissues. While not without their limitations, iPSC models offer new ways for studying patient-specific cardiomyopathies. iPSCs offer a high-throughput avenue for drug development, modeling of disease pathophysiology in vitro, and enabling experimental repair strategies without need for invasive procedures to obtain cardiac tissues.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies , Cardiovascular Diseases , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Animals , Cardiomyopathies/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac
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