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1.
Kardiologiia ; 61(10): 26-35, 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579612

ABSTRACT

Background     Heart damage is one of complications of the novel coronavirus infection. Searching for available predictors for in-hospital death and survival that determine the tactic of managing patients with COVID-19, is a challenge of the present time.Aim      To determine the role echocardiographic (EchoCG) parameters in evaluation of the in-hospital prognosis for patients with the novel coronavirus infection, COVID-19.Material and methods  The study included 158 patients admitted for COVID-19. EchoCG was performed for all patients. The role of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) was analyzed in various age groups. EchoCG data were compared with the clinical picture, including the severity of respiratory failure (RF), blood oxygen saturation (SрО2), data of computed tomography (CT) of the lungs, and blood concentration of troponin. Comorbidity was analyzed, and the highest significance of individual pathologies was determined.Results LV EF ≤40 % determined the worst prognosis of patients with COVID-19 (p<0.0001), including the age group older than 70 years (р=0.013). LV EF did not correlate with the degree of lung tissue damage determined by CT upon admission (р=0.54) and over time (р=0.23). The indexes that determined an adverse in-hospital prognosis to a considerable degree were pericardial effusion (p<0.0001) and pulmonary hypertension (p<0.0001). RV end-diastolic dimension and LV end-diastolic volume did not determine the in-hospital mortality and survival. Blood serum concentration of troponin I higher than 165.13 µg/l was an important predictor for in-hospital death with a high degree of significance (р<0.0001). Th degree of RF considerably influenced the in-hospital mortality (р<0.0001). RF severity was associated with LV EF (р=0.024). The SpO2 value determined an adverse immediate prognosis with a high degree of significance (р=0.0009). This parameter weakly correlated with LV EF (r=0.26; p=0.0009). Patients who required artificial ventilation (AV) constituted a group with the worst survival rate (р<0.0001). LV EF was associated with a need for AV with a high degree of significance (р=0.0006). Comorbidities, such as chronic kidney disease, postinfarction cardiosclerosis and oncologic diseases, to the greatest extent determined the risk of fatal outcome.Conclusion      EchoCG can be recommended for patients with COVID-19 at the hospital stage to determine the tactics of management and for the in-hospital prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular System , Aged , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 49(12): 1261-1266, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574288
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 652252, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463468

ABSTRACT

The rapid outbreak of COVID-19 caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China, has become a worldwide pandemic affecting almost 204 million people and causing more than 4.3 million deaths as of August 11 2021. This pandemic has placed a substantial burden on the global healthcare system and the global economy. Availability of novel prophylactic and therapeutic approaches are crucially needed to prevent development of severe disease leading to major complications both acutely and chronically. The success in fighting this virus results from three main achievements: (a) Direct killing of the SARS-CoV-2 virus; (b) Development of a specific vaccine, and (c) Enhancement of the host's immune system. A fundamental necessity to win the battle against the virus involves a better understanding of the host's innate and adaptive immune response to the virus. Although the role of the adaptive immune response is directly involved in the generation of a vaccine, the role of innate immunity on RNA viruses in general, and coronaviruses in particular, is mostly unknown. In this review, we will consider the structure of RNA viruses, mainly coronaviruses, and their capacity to affect the lungs and the cardiovascular system. We will also consider the effects of the pattern recognition protein (PRP) trident composed by (a) Surfactant proteins A and D, mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and complement component 1q (C1q), (b) C-reactive protein, and (c) Innate and adaptive IgM antibodies, upon clearance of viral particles and apoptotic cells in lungs and atherosclerotic lesions. We emphasize on the role of pattern recognition protein immune therapies as a combination treatment to prevent development of severe respiratory syndrome and to reduce pulmonary and cardiovascular complications in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and summarize the need of a combined therapeutic approach that takes into account all aspects of immunity against SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19 disease to allow mankind to beat this pandemic killer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus/physiology , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung/virology , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Animals , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/pathology
5.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 69(4): 377-388, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431235

ABSTRACT

From first cases reported on December 31, 2019, in Wuhan, Hubei-China, SARS-CoV2 has spread worldwide and finally the World Health Organization declared the pandemic status. We summarize what makes SARS-CoV2 different from previous highly pathogenic coronaviruses and why it is so contagious, with focus on its clinical presentation and diagnosis, which is mandatory to start the appropriate management and reduce the transmission. As far as infection pathophysiology is still not completely clarified, this review focuses also on the cardiovascular (CV) implication of COVID-19 and the capability of this virus to cause direct myocardial injury, myocarditis and other CV manifestations. Furthermore, we highlight the relationship between the virus, enzyme ACE2 and ACE inhibitors. Clinical management involves the intensive care approach with intubation and mechanical ventilation in the most serious cases and drug therapy with several apparently promising old and new molecules. Aim of this review is then to summarize what is actually known about the SARS-CoV2 and its cardiovascular implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular System , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430893

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death worldwide. The cardioprotective effects of natural polyphenols such as resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene) have been extensively investigated throughout recent decades. Many studies of RES have focused on its favorable effects on pathological conditions related to cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. The aim of this review was to summarize the wide beneficial effects of resveratrol on the cardiovascular system, including signal transduction pathways of cell longevity, energy metabolism of cardiomyocytes or cardiac remodeling, and its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In addition, this paper discusses the significant preclinical and human clinical trials of recent years with resveratrol on cardiovascular system. Finally, we present a short overview of antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties and possible future perspectives on RES against COVID-19 in cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Humans
7.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 99(11): 1119-1127, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430218

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute and highly transmissible infectious disease, has reached a pandemic level since 11 March 2020 and continues to challenge the healthcare system worldwide. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is a complex process involving mechanisms that suppress the host antiviral and innate immune response, while triggering marked activation of coagulation and hyperinflammation leading to cytokine storm in severe COVID-19. This review summarizes current evidence related to COVID-19-associated cardiovascular severe illness and mortality, which encompasses life-threatening clinical manifestations, including myocardial injury, fulminant myocarditis, cardiac arrhythmia, and ischemic stroke. The onset of hypercoagulable state is consistent with increased venous thromboembolism including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Thromboembolic manifestations include arterial thrombotic events such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and limb ischemia. Several treatment strategies have been investigated to mitigate COVID-19-associated cardiovascular clinical manifestations. The prevalence of thrombo-inflammatory syndrome and subsequent cardiovascular dysfunction prompted the implementation of antithrombotic therapy and strategies targeting major pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in COVID-19 cytokine storm. The development of new guidelines for effective treatment strategies requires concerted efforts to refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease and large-scale clinical trials to reduce the burden of COVID-19 hospitalization and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular System , Hospitalization , Humans , Treatment Outcome
8.
Radiology ; 301(2): 263-277, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398732

ABSTRACT

Despite the global coronavirus pandemic, cardiovascular imaging continued to evolve throughout 2020. It was an important year for cardiac CT and MRI, with increasing prominence in cardiovascular research, use in clinical decision making, and in guidelines. This review summarizes key publications in 2020 relevant to current and future clinical practice. In cardiac CT, these have again predominated in assessment of patients with chest pain and structural heart diseases, although more refined CT techniques, such as quantitative plaque analysis and CT perfusion, are also maturing. In cardiac MRI, the major developments have been in patients with cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, although coronary artery disease applications remain well represented. Deep learning applications in cardiovascular imaging have continued to advance in both CT and MRI, and these are now closer than ever to routine clinical adoption. Perhaps most important has been the rapid deployment of MRI in enhancing understanding of the impact of COVID-19 infection on the heart. Although this review focuses primarily on articles published in Radiology, attention is paid to other leading journals where published CT and MRI studies will have the most clinical and scientific value to the practicing cardiovascular imaging specialist.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Cardiovascular System/diagnostic imaging , Humans
9.
Tex Heart Inst J ; 48(3)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395362

ABSTRACT

Symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) typically affects the respiratory system but can involve the cardiovascular system. Cardiac complications of COVID-19 can result directly from myocarditis or indirectly from numerous other mechanisms. Differentiating between primary and secondary cardiovascular involvement-our focus in this review-may help to identify the long-term effects of COVID-19 on the heart in adults and children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Myocarditis , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Child , Heart , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394870

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are web-like structures of decondensed extracellular chromatin fibers and neutrophil granule proteins released by neutrophils. NETs participate in host immune defense by entrapping pathogens. They are pro-inflammatory in function, and they act as an initiator of vascular coagulopathies by providing a platform for the attachment of various coagulatory proteins. NETs are diverse in their ability to alter physiological and pathological processes including infection and inflammation. In this review, we will summarize recent findings on the role of NETs in bacterial/viral infections associated with vascular inflammation, thrombosis, atherosclerosis and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the complex role of NETs in bridging infection and chronic inflammation as well as discussing important questions related to their contribution to pathologies outlined above may pave the way for future research on therapeutic targeting of NETs applicable to specific infections and inflammatory disorders.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular System/pathology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Infections/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/pathology , Humans , Infections/virology , Models, Biological
12.
Eur Heart J ; 42(29): 2810-2812, 2021 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379457
13.
J Fam Pract ; 70(6S): S1-S6, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372160

ABSTRACT

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: At the end of the activity, participants will be able to: • Identify how heart failure (HF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated cardiovascular (CV) risks are interconnected. • Initiate guideline-recommended therapy to reduce CV risk in patients with HF, CKD, and/or T2DM. • Apply evidence for sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2 inhibitors) to clinical practice, based on recent and emerging trials. • Review evidence suggesting increased incidence and severity of COVID-19 infection in patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/drug therapy , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/prevention & control , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
15.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(6): 281-282, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354314
16.
Minerva Obstet Gynecol ; 73(4): 471-481, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348831

ABSTRACT

Fetal growth restriction is one of the most common obstetric complications, affecting 7-10% of all pregnancies. Affected fetuses are exposed to an adverse environment in utero during a critical time of development and may face long-term health consequences such as increased cardiovascular risk in adulthood. Growth restricted fetuses develop remodeled hearts with signs of systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Cardiac adaptations are more evident in early severe cases, but also present in late onset fetal growth restriction. Cardiovascular remodeling persists into postnatal life, from the neonatal period to adolescence, encompassing an increased susceptibility to adult disease. In this review, we summarize the current evidence on cardiovascular programming associated to fetal growth restriction, its postnatal consequences and potential strategies to reduce their cardiovascular risk.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular System , Fetal Growth Retardation , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Fetus , Heart , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Ventricular Remodeling
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15429, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333985

ABSTRACT

Evidences are escalating on the diverse neurological-disorders and asymptomatic cardiovascular-diseases associated with COVID-19 pandemic due to the Sanal-flow-choking. Herein, we established the proof of the concept of nanoscale Sanal-flow-choking in real-world fluid-flow systems using a closed-form-analytical-model. This mathematical-model is capable of predicting exactly the 3D-boundary-layer-blockage factor of nanoscale diabatic-fluid-flow systems (flow involves the transfer of heat) at the Sanal-flow-choking condition. As the pressure of the diabatic nanofluid and/or non-continuum-flows rises, average-mean-free-path diminishes and thus, the Knudsen-number lowers heading to a zero-slip wall-boundary condition with the compressible-viscous-flow regime in the nanoscale-tubes leading to Sanal-flow-choking due to the sonic-fluid-throat effect. At the Sanal-flow-choking condition the total-to-static pressure ratio (ie., systolic-to-diastolic pressure ratio) is a unique function of the heat-capacity-ratio of the real-world flows. The innovation of the nanoscale Sanal-flow-choking model is established herein through the entropy relation, as it satisfies all the conservation-laws of nature. The physical insight of the boundary-layer-blockage persuaded nanoscale Sanal-flow-choking in diabatic flows presented in this article sheds light on finding solutions to numerous unresolved scientific problems in physical, chemical and biological sciences carried forward over the centuries because the mathematical-model describing the phenomenon of Sanal-flow-choking is a unique scientific-language of the real-world-fluid flows. The 3D-boundary-layer-blockage factors presented herein for various gases are universal-benchmark-data for performing high-fidelity in silico, in vitro and in vivo experiments in nanotubes.


Subject(s)
Fluid Shifts/physiology , Models, Theoretical , Nanotubes/chemistry , Rheology/methods , Algorithms , Biophysical Phenomena , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Computational Biology/methods , Humans , Hydrodynamics , Physical Phenomena , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255263, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with the coronavirus-2019 disease (COVID-19) may have a high risk of cardiovascular adverse events, including death from cardiovascular causes. The long-term cardiovascular outcomes of these patients are entirely unknown. We aim to perform a registry of patients who have undergone a diagnostic nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 and to determine their long-term cardiovascular outcomes. STUDY AND DESIGN: This is a multicenter, observational, retrospective registry to be conducted at 17 centers in Spain and Italy (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04359927). Consecutive patients older than 18 years, who underwent a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV2 in the participating institutions, will be included since March 2020, to August 2020. Patients will be classified into two groups, according to the results of the RT-PCR: COVID-19 positive or negative. The primary outcome will be cardiovascular mortality at 1 year. The secondary outcomes will be acute myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure hospitalization, pulmonary embolism, and serious cardiac arrhythmias, at 1 year. Outcomes will be compared between the two groups. Events will be adjudicated by an independent clinical event committee. CONCLUSION: The results of this registry will contribute to a better understanding of the long-term cardiovascular implications of the COVID19.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular System/virology , Heart Failure/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Female , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Italy , Male , Myocardial Infarction/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Spain , Stroke/virology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(2): 343-351, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310350

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a mystified cryptic virus has challenged the mankind that has brought life to a standstill. Catastrophic loss of life, perplexed healthcare system and the downfall of global economy are some of the outcomes of this pandemic. Humans are raging a war with an unknown enemy. Infections, irrespective of age and gender, and more so in comorbidities are escalating at an alarming rate. Cardiovascular diseases, are the leading cause of death globally with an estimate of 31% of deaths worldwide out of which nearly 85% are due to heart attacks and stroke. Theoretically and practically, researchers have observed that persons with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions are comparatively more vulnerable to the COVID-19 infection. Moreover, they have studied the data between less severe and more severe cases, survivors and non survivors, intensive care unit (ICU) patients and non ICU patients, to analyse the relationship and the influence of COVID-19 on cardiovascular health of an individual, further the risk of susceptibility to submit to the virus. This review aims to provide a comprehensive particular on the possible effects, either direct or indirect, of COVID-19 on the cardiovascular heath of an individual.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cardiovascular System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
20.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 167: 94-101, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292747

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether recalling a social stress that evoked lonely feelings produces greater affective and blood pressure responses than recalling non-social stress or a relaxing event. METHODS: Young adults (n = 114) underwent one of three inductions: recalling a social stressor in which one felt lonely, recalling a non-social non-lonely stressor, and relaxation. Negative affect was assessed during baseline, induction, and recovery. Blood pressure was assessed continuously using a finger cuff. RESULTS: Both the lonely and non-lonely stress conditions reported increased negative affect following the induction, with neither condition having fully recovered to baseline levels by the end of the study. For blood pressure, during recovery, blood pressure increased linearly for the lonely stress condition, but remained steady for the other conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Recalling a social stress evoking lonely feelings may be more harmful for cardiovascular health than recalling non-social stressors. Results extend work demonstrating that in vivo stressors involving social evaluation elicit larger stress responses compared to stressors without this component.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular System , Loneliness , Blood Pressure , Emotions , Humans , Stress, Psychological , Young Adult
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