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JAMA Cardiol ; 8(5): 417-418, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233385
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 22(1): 122, 2023 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243209


Diabetes mellitus, a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high levels of blood glucose caused by insulin defect or impairment, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and related mortality. Patients with diabetes experience a state of chronic or intermittent hyperglycemia resulting in damage to the vasculature, leading to micro- and macro-vascular diseases. These conditions are associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and accelerated atherosclerosis. Several classes of leukocytes have been implicated in diabetic cardiovascular impairment. Although the molecular pathways through which diabetes elicits an inflammatory response have attracted significant attention, how they contribute to altering cardiovascular homeostasis is still incompletely understood. In this respect, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a still largely under-investigated class of transcripts that may play a fundamental role. This review article gathers the current knowledge on the function of ncRNAs in the crosstalk between immune and cardiovascular cells in the context of diabetic complications, highlighting the influence of biological sex in such mechanisms and exploring the potential role of ncRNAs as biomarkers and targets for treatments. The discussion closes by offering an overview of the ncRNAs involved in the increased cardiovascular risk suffered by patients with diabetes facing Sars-CoV-2 infection.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 91(Suplemento COVID): 110-122, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318299


The authors of the image chapters of the National Association of Cardiologists of Mexico (ANCAM) and the Mexican Society of Cardiology (SMC), as well as personnel from the Department of Medicine and Nutrition of the University of Guanajuato, together with prominent experts in cardiovascular imaging from Mexico, have collaborated in the review, analysis and expansion of the various health strategies published in the first year of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, to safely perform cardiac imaging studies. This update aims to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission among patients and health-care personnel in the CT, MRI, and nuclear cardiology services. This work was expanded with supplementary information available free of charge on the website

Los capítulos de imagen de la Asociación Nacional de Cardiólogos de México (ANCAM) y de la Sociedad Mexicana de Cardiología (SMC), así como personal del Departamento de Medicina y Nutrición de la Universidad de Guanajuato, en conjunto con destacados expertos de la imagen cardiovascular en México, han colaborado en la revisión, análisis y ampliación de las diversas estrategias sanitarias publicadas en los primeros 15 meses de la pandemia de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) para realizar con seguridad los estudios de imagen cardiaca; esta actualización tiene como objetivo principal disminuir el riesgo de transmisión de la COVID-19 entre los pacientes y el personal de salud en los servicios de tomografía, resonancia y cardiología nuclear. Este trabajo se amplió con información suplementaria disponible sin costo en el sitio

COVID-19 , Cardiology , Infection Control , Societies, Medical , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular System/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Mexico
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 91(Suplemento COVID): 074-078, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313458


The COVID-19 pandemic has had an important impact on older adults, conferring a worse prognosis. Older adults may have atypical presentations, which can delay the diagnosis of the disease, making its evolution more unfavorable. In addition to the cardiovascular damage mechanisms conferred by SARS-CoV-2 infection, the changes inherent in the aging cardiovascular and immune system favor the appearance of cardiovascular complications in a more relevant way in this population. The objective of this article will be to summarize the knowledge about cardiovascular involvement in older adults and explain its pathophysiological mechanisms, to alert about the early recognition and timely treatment of these complications.

La pandemia por COVID-19 ha impactado de forma importante en los adultos mayores, confiriéndoles un peor pronóstico. Los adultos mayores pueden tener presentaciones atípicas, las cuales pueden retrasar el diagnóstico de la enfermedad, haciendo su evolución más desfavorable. Además de los mecanismos de daño cardiovascular conferidos por la infección por SARS-CoV-2, los cambios inherentes al sistema cardiovascular e inmune ya envejecido, favorecen la aparición de complicaciones cardiovasculares de forma más relevante en esta población. El objetivo de este artículo será resumir los conocimientos sobre el involucro cardiovascular en adultos mayores y explicar los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de este, para alertar sobre el reconocimiento temprano y tratamiento oportuno de estas complicaciones.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cardiovascular System , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pandemics
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 91(Suplemento COVID): 086-094, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313261


Currently, myocardial injury has been reported in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The studies also show a correlation between cardiac events and severe forms of the disease. COVID-19 begins with an early infection phase in which the virus infiltrates the lung parenchyma and proliferates. It then progresses to the pulmonary phase, where the initial inflammatory process, characterized by vasodilation, vascular permeability, and leukocyte recruitment, leads to lung damage, hypoxemia, and cardiovascular stress. The renin angiotensin aldosterone system is important in the pathophysiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and in the propagation of systemic inflammation. Within this system, the pathway mediated by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) produces vasodilation, cardioprotection, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Furthermore, the free form of ECA2 prevents binding of the virus to host cells and reduces its damage to the lung.

Actualmente, se ha reportado injuria miocárdica en pacientes hospitalizados por enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Los estudios, además, demuestran una correlación entre los eventos cardiacos y formas severas de la enfermedad. La COVID-19 comienza con una fase de infección temprana en la que el virus infiltra el parénquima pulmonar y prolifera. Luego progresa a la fase pulmonar, donde el proceso inflamatorio inicial, caracterizado por vasodilatación, permeabilidad vascular y reclutamiento de leucocitos, lleva a daño pulmonar, hipoxemia y estrés cardiovascular. El sistema renina angiotensina aldosterona es importante en la fisiopatología de la infección por el coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave y en la propagación de la inflamación sistémica. Dentro de este sistema, la vía mediada por la enzima convertidora de angiotensina 2 (ECA2) produce vasodilatación, cardioprotección, antioxidación y antiinflamación. Además, la forma libre de la ECA2 previene la unión del virus a las células huésped y reduce su daño al pulmón.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular System , Heart Diseases/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Humans , Lung/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System
Circ Res ; 132(10): 1358-1373, 2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319368


COVID-19 has become the first modern-day pandemic of historic proportion, affecting >600 million individuals worldwide and causing >6.5 million deaths. While acute infection has had devastating consequences, postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection appears to be a pandemic of its own, impacting up to one-third of survivors and often causing symptoms suggestive of cardiovascular phenomena. This review will highlight the suspected pathophysiology of postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2, its influence on the cardiovascular system, and potential treatment strategies.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular System , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Lung , Disease Progression
Trials ; 24(1): 328, 2023 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318414


BACKGROUND: The clinical manifestation of COVID-19 is associated with infection and inflammation of the lungs, but there is evidence to suggest that COVID-19 may also affect the structure and function of the cardiovascular system. At present, it is not fully understood to what extent COVID-19 impacts cardiovascular function in the short- and long-term following infection. The aim of the present study is twofold: (i) to define the effect of COVID-19 on cardiovascular function (i.e. arterial stiffness, cardiac systolic and diastolic function) in otherwise healthy individuals and (ii) to evaluate the effect of a home-based physical activity intervention on cardiovascular function in people with a history of COVID-19. METHODS: This prospective, single-centre, observational study will recruit 120 COVID-19-vaccinated adult participants aged between 50 and 85 years, i.e. 80 with a history of COVID-19 and 40 healthy controls without a history of COVID-19. All participants will undergo baseline assessments including 12-lead electrocardiography, heart rate variability, arterial stiffness, rest and stress echocardiography with speckle tracking imaging, spirometry, maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing, 7-day physical activity and sleep measures and quality of life questionnaires. Blood samples will be collected to assess the microRNA expression profiles, cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers, i.e. cardiac troponin T; N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide; tumour necrosis factor alpha; interleukins 1, 6 and 10; C-reactive protein; D-dimer; and vascular endothelial growth factors. Following baseline assessments, COVID-19 participants will be randomised 1:1 into a 12-week home-based physical activity intervention aiming to increase their daily number of steps by 2000 from baseline. The primary outcome is change in left ventricular global longitudinal strain. Secondary outcomes are arterial stiffness, systolic and diastolic function of the heart, functional capacity, lung function, sleep measures, quality of life and well-being (depression, anxiety, stress and sleep efficiency). DISCUSSION: The study will provide insights into the cardiovascular implications of COVID-19 and their malleability with a home-based physical activity intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05492552. Registered on 7 April 2022.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular System , Middle Aged , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , SARS-CoV-2 , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Exercise , Lung , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic
Heart ; 109(11): 803-805, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317658
Circ Res ; 132(10): 1255-1258, 2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316219
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 24(Suppl 1): e1-e2, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315574
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 49(12): 1261-1266, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288152
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 74: 1, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249744
Rev Esp Med Nucl Imagen Mol (Engl Ed) ; 42(2): 106-112, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272145


SARS-CoV-2 infection has a very important relationship with cardiovascular disease. Since the beginning of the pandemic, a close relationship has been observed between cardiovascular comorbidity and a worse prognosis in COVID-19 patients. The study of the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiovascular disease suggests several concomitant hypotheses: direct myocardial damage by the virus, hypoxemia secondary to respiratory failure, inflammatory response to infection and/or thromboembolic phenomena. Cardiovascular damage can manifest in the acute phase of infection with acute myocardial infarction, myocarditis, arrhythmias…, during this phase Nuclear Cardiology procedures have not played a determining role in the diagnosis and management of these patients. On the other hand, in the subacute phase of the infection and in the post-acute COVID syndrome, Nuclear Cardiology seems to shed light on what happens in the cardiovascular system in this phase of the disease. The COVID-19 pandemic has represented a great challenge for health systems, with a significant reduction in non-urgent diagnostic procedures with the aim of reducing the risk of transmission to patients and health personnel. Nuclear Cardiology has not been an exception. In addition to the prioritization of urgent/non-deferrable procedures and general screening, hygiene and distance measures, the main organizations and scientific societies of Nuclear Medicine and Nuclear Cardiology released recommendations and guidelines for safe practice, introducing significant changes in myocardial perfusion SPECT protocols.

COVID-19 , Cardiology , Cardiovascular System , Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 21(3): 211-218, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276398


INTRODUCTION: TheSARS-CoV-2 virus caused a pandemic affecting healthcare deliveryglobally. Despite the presentation of COVID-19 infection beingfrequently dominated by respiratory symptoms; it is now notorious tohave potentially serious cardiovascular sequelae. This articleexplores current data to provide a comprehensive overview of thepathophysiology, cardiovascular risk factors, and implications ofCOVID-19. AREAS COVERED: Inherentstructure of SARS-CoV-2, and its interaction with both ACE-2 andnon-ACE-2 mediated pathways have been implicated in the developmentof cardiovascular manifestations, progressively resulting in acuterespiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan failure, cytokine releasesyndrome, and subsequent myocardial damage. The interplay betweenexisting and de novo cardiac complications must be noted. Forindividuals taking cardiovascular medications, pharmacologicinteractions are a crucial component. Short-term cardiovascularimpacts include arrhythmia, myocarditis, pericarditis, heart failure,and thromboembolism, whereas long-term impacts include diabetes andhypertension. To identify suitable studies, a PubMed literaturesearch was performed including key words such as 'Covid 19,''Cardiovascular disease,' 'Long covid,' etc. EXPERT OPINION: Moresophisticated planning and effective management for cardiologyhealthcare provision is crucial, especially for accommodatingchallenges associated with Long-COVID. With the potential applicationof AI and automated data, there are many avenues and sequelae thatcan be approached for investigation.

Deemed the pandemic of the century, COVID-19 is an illness affecting multiple organ systems. Although the virus is best known for its lung-related complications, its adverse effects on the heart and blood vessels are now becoming more apparent. Rapidly mutating and evolving, its unique structure enables it to undergo interactions with various proteins in the body, resulting in complications of both the heart itself and blood vessels throughout the body. Numerous risk factors have been identified to facilitate these manifestations, including existing heart disease, medication usage, and age. Research has shown that certain drug interactions induce disturbances of the heart rhythm and function. In addition to this, they can also exacerbate preexisting heart-related complications, resulting in severe manifestations. The effects on the heart and blood vessels can be divided into acute and chronic complications. Acute complications include heart failure, rhythm disturbances, heart muscle weakness, and inflammation. In addition to this, chronic complications such as high blood pressure and the new onset of diabetes could also be a consequence. Further research is necessary to improve and enhance both our understanding of the virus and our ability to anticipate heart-related symptoms early on.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Myocarditis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis