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1.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 322(2): C218-C230, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673516

ABSTRACT

Selective autophagy of mitochondria, known as mitophagy, is a major quality control pathway in the heart that is involved in removing unwanted or dysfunctional mitochondria from the cell. Baseline mitophagy is critical for maintaining fitness of the mitochondrial network by continuous turnover of aged and less-functional mitochondria. Mitophagy is also critical in adapting to stress associated with mitochondrial damage or dysfunction. The removal of damaged mitochondria prevents reactive oxygen species-mediated damage to proteins and DNA and suppresses activation of inflammation and cell death. Impairments in mitophagy are associated with the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancers, inflammatory diseases, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease. Mitophagy is a highly regulated and complex process that requires the coordination of labeling dysfunctional mitochondria for degradation while simultaneously promoting de novo autophagosome biogenesis adjacent to the cargo. In this review, we provide an update on our current understanding of these steps in mitophagy induction and discuss the physiological and pathophysiological consequences of altered mitophagy in the heart.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitophagy/physiology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Humans , Mitochondria/pathology , Phagocytosis/physiology
2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(2): 274-286, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566302

ABSTRACT

Based on the recent reports, cardiovascular events encompass a large portion of the mortality caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which drawn cardiologists into the management of the admitted ill patients. Given that common laboratory values may provide key insights into the illness caused by the life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 virus, it would be more helpful for screening, clinical management and on-time therapeutic strategies. Commensurate with these issues, this review article aimed to discuss the dynamic changes of the common laboratory parameters during COVID-19 and their association with cardiovascular diseases. Besides, the values that changed in the early stage of the disease were considered and monitored during the recovery process. The time required for returning biomarkers to basal levels was also discussed. Finally, of particular interest, we tended to abridge the latest updates regarding the cardiovascular biomarkers as prognostic and diagnostic criteria to determine the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Homocysteine/blood , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 652252, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463468

ABSTRACT

The rapid outbreak of COVID-19 caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China, has become a worldwide pandemic affecting almost 204 million people and causing more than 4.3 million deaths as of August 11 2021. This pandemic has placed a substantial burden on the global healthcare system and the global economy. Availability of novel prophylactic and therapeutic approaches are crucially needed to prevent development of severe disease leading to major complications both acutely and chronically. The success in fighting this virus results from three main achievements: (a) Direct killing of the SARS-CoV-2 virus; (b) Development of a specific vaccine, and (c) Enhancement of the host's immune system. A fundamental necessity to win the battle against the virus involves a better understanding of the host's innate and adaptive immune response to the virus. Although the role of the adaptive immune response is directly involved in the generation of a vaccine, the role of innate immunity on RNA viruses in general, and coronaviruses in particular, is mostly unknown. In this review, we will consider the structure of RNA viruses, mainly coronaviruses, and their capacity to affect the lungs and the cardiovascular system. We will also consider the effects of the pattern recognition protein (PRP) trident composed by (a) Surfactant proteins A and D, mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and complement component 1q (C1q), (b) C-reactive protein, and (c) Innate and adaptive IgM antibodies, upon clearance of viral particles and apoptotic cells in lungs and atherosclerotic lesions. We emphasize on the role of pattern recognition protein immune therapies as a combination treatment to prevent development of severe respiratory syndrome and to reduce pulmonary and cardiovascular complications in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and summarize the need of a combined therapeutic approach that takes into account all aspects of immunity against SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19 disease to allow mankind to beat this pandemic killer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus/physiology , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung/virology , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Animals , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/pathology
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430893

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death worldwide. The cardioprotective effects of natural polyphenols such as resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene) have been extensively investigated throughout recent decades. Many studies of RES have focused on its favorable effects on pathological conditions related to cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. The aim of this review was to summarize the wide beneficial effects of resveratrol on the cardiovascular system, including signal transduction pathways of cell longevity, energy metabolism of cardiomyocytes or cardiac remodeling, and its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In addition, this paper discusses the significant preclinical and human clinical trials of recent years with resveratrol on cardiovascular system. Finally, we present a short overview of antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties and possible future perspectives on RES against COVID-19 in cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Humans
5.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394870

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are web-like structures of decondensed extracellular chromatin fibers and neutrophil granule proteins released by neutrophils. NETs participate in host immune defense by entrapping pathogens. They are pro-inflammatory in function, and they act as an initiator of vascular coagulopathies by providing a platform for the attachment of various coagulatory proteins. NETs are diverse in their ability to alter physiological and pathological processes including infection and inflammation. In this review, we will summarize recent findings on the role of NETs in bacterial/viral infections associated with vascular inflammation, thrombosis, atherosclerosis and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the complex role of NETs in bridging infection and chronic inflammation as well as discussing important questions related to their contribution to pathologies outlined above may pave the way for future research on therapeutic targeting of NETs applicable to specific infections and inflammatory disorders.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular System/pathology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Infections/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/pathology , Humans , Infections/virology , Models, Biological
6.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 28(5): 439-445, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281351

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection determines a disease that predominantly affects lungs. However the cytokines storms, determined by the huge immune response to the infection, could affect also other organs and apparatus such as heart and vessels. Beyond the acute inflammation itself also hypercoagulative status has been linked to SARSCoV-2 infection and this surely relates to the increase seen in prevalence of pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction. A number of cardiac abnormalities and pathologies have been observed, with special attention to cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial involvement. Furthermore, indirect damages determined by the reduction in acute and chronic cardiovascular care, results in a strong mortality and morbidity outcomes in cardiological patients. In this review we will summarise current knowledge on both direct and indirect cardiovascular damages determined by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cardiovascular System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Prognosis , Telemedicine , Vaccination
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115421

ABSTRACT

In this Review, we briefly describe the basic virology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, highlighting how stem cell technology and organoids can contribute to the understanding of SARS-CoV-2 cell tropisms and the mechanism of disease in the human host, supporting and clarifying findings from clinical studies in infected individuals. We summarize here the results of studies, which used these technologies to investigate SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in different organs. Studies with in vitro models of lung epithelia showed that alveolar epithelial type II cells, but not differentiated lung alveolar epithelial type I cells, are key targets of SARS-CoV-2, which triggers cell apoptosis and inflammation, while impairing surfactant production. Experiments with human small intestinal organoids and colonic organoids showed that the gastrointestinal tract is another relevant target for SARS-CoV-2. The virus can infect and replicate in enterocytes and cholangiocytes, inducing cell damage and inflammation. Direct viral damage was also demonstrated in in vitro models of human cardiomyocytes and choroid plexus epithelial cells. At variance, endothelial cells and neurons are poorly susceptible to viral infection, thus supporting the hypothesis that neurological symptoms and vascular damage result from the indirect effects of systemic inflammatory and immunological hyper-responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stem Cells/virology , Animals , Apoptosis , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular System/cytology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Central Nervous System/cytology , Central Nervous System/pathology , Central Nervous System/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/cytology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Lung/cytology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Organoids/pathology , Stem Cells/pathology , Viral Tropism , Virus Internalization
10.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 13(3): 161-167, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967822

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global public health emergency. Despite being caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), besides the lung, this infectious disease also has severe implications in the cardiovascular system. In this review, we summarize diverse clinical complications of the heart and vascular system, as well as the relevant high mortality, in COVID-19 patients. Systemic inflammation and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-involved signaling networking in SARS-CoV-2 infection and the cardiovascular system may contribute to the manifestations of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, integration of clinical observations and experimental findings can promote our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, which would aid in identifying and treating cardiovascular injury in patients with COVID-19 appropriately.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular System/virology , Inflammation/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
Future Microbiol ; 15: 1287-1305, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732937

ABSTRACT

Aim: Despite the similarities in the pathogenesis of the beta coronaviruses, the precise infective mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 remain unclear. Objective: In this review, we aim to focus on the proposed theories behind the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and highlight the clinical complications related to COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a literature search in Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar for the relevant articles regarding clinical complications and pathogenesis of COVID-19. Results: Related articles were included and discussed. Conclusion: Respiratory system and the lungs are the most commonly involved sites of COVID-19 infection. Cardiovascular, liver, kidneys, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems are involved with different frequencies and degrees of severity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Central Nervous System/pathology , Central Nervous System/virology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cytokines/blood , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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