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World Neurosurg ; 156: 11, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454571


Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are acquired pathologic shunts between the carotid circulation and the cavernous sinus that result in venous congestion.1 They often present with ocular symptoms, such as chemosis, proptosis, and blurry vision. Cranial nerve deficits and increased intraocular pressure are often seen on the neuro-ophthalmologic examination.2 If left untreated, they can lead to cortical venous reflux and intracranial hemorrhage. A cerebral angiogram is the gold standard to diagnose these lesions. The hallmark of dural CCF is opacification of venous structures in the arterial phase of the angiogram. Dependent on carotid branches contributing to the fistula, 4 types are classically defined by Barrow et al.3 When the fistula is indirect (types B-D), the goal of treatment is obliteration via the transvenous route.4 We present the case of a patient who had chemosis and proptosis of the left eye with imaging findings concerning for dural CCF (Video 1). An informed consent was obtained and the patient underwent a cerebral angiogram and treatment of the CCF. In the operative video, we showcase the treatment of a type D CCF using transvenous embolization with Onyx (Covidien, Irvine, CA) and achieve angiographic cure of the fistula. We were able to use Onyx for embolization since the superselective injection did not show cortical venous drainage. This is important as obliteration of cortical veins with liquid embolisate could cause venous infarcts. To our knowledge, this is the first video article that illustrates the endovascular embolization of a CCF and highlights the angiographic findings pre- and post-embolization.

Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/therapy , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/administration & dosage , Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Polyvinyls/administration & dosage , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/complications , Exophthalmos/diagnostic imaging , Exophthalmos/etiology , Exophthalmos/therapy , Humans , Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Middle Aged
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 20(2): 174-182, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455340


BACKGROUND: Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are acquired pathological shunting lesions between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus leading to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). CCFs are commonly treated via endovascular embolization, which theoretically restores physiological pressure differentials. OBJECTIVE: To present our institutional data with CCF treated with embolization and discuss endovascular routes, recurrence rates, and dynamic IOP changes. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 42 CCF patients who underwent Onyx (Covidien, Irvine, California) embolization and pre- and postoperative IOP measurement at a single institution. RESULTS: CCFs were 19.0% direct (type A) and 81.0% indirect (types B, C, or D). Onyx-18 liquid embolisate was used during all embolizations. Overall rate of total occlusion was 83.3% and was statistically similar between direct and indirect fistulas. Preoperative IOP was elevated in 37.5%, 100.0%, 75.0%, and 50% in type A, B, C, and D fistulas, respectively. Average ΔIOP was -7.3 ± 8.5 mmHg (range: -33 to +8). Follow-up time was 4.64 ± 7.62 mo. Full angiographic occlusion was a predictor of symptom resolution at 1 mo (P = .026) and 6 mo (P = .021). Partial occlusion was associated with persistent symptoms postoperatively at 1 mo (P = .038) and 6 mo follow-up (P = .012). Beyond 6 mo, negative ΔIOP was associated with continued symptom improvement. Recurrence occurred in 9.5% of patients, all of which were indirect CCFs. CONCLUSION: Onyx embolization of CCF is an effective treatment for CCF and often results in the reversal of IOP elevation. Full occlusion predicts favorable clinical outcomes up to 6 mo. Postoperative IOP reduction may indicate favorable long-term clinical outcomes.

Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula , Cavernous Sinus , Embolization, Therapeutic , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/therapy , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Retrospective Studies