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1.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(6)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732625

ABSTRACT

Inflammasomes are cytosolic innate immune sensors of pathogen infection and cellular damage that induce caspase-1-mediated inflammation upon activation. Although inflammation is protective, uncontrolled excessive inflammation can cause inflammatory diseases and can be detrimental, such as in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, the underlying mechanisms that control inflammasome activation are incompletely understood. Here we report that the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein ribonuclease inhibitor (RNH1), which shares homology with LRRs of NLRP (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat, and pyrin domain containing) proteins, attenuates inflammasome activation. Deletion of RNH1 in macrophages increases interleukin (IL)-1ß production and caspase-1 activation in response to inflammasome stimulation. Mechanistically, RNH1 decreases pro-IL-1ß expression and induces proteasome-mediated caspase-1 degradation. Corroborating this, mouse models of monosodium urate (MSU)-induced peritonitis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia, which are dependent on caspase-1, respectively, show increased neutrophil infiltration and lethality in Rnh1 -/- mice compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, RNH1 protein levels were negatively related with disease severity and inflammation in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We propose that RNH1 is a new inflammasome regulator with relevance to COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , /metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Caspase 1/metabolism , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Patient Acuity , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674672

ABSTRACT

The inflammatory protease caspase-1 is associated with the release of cytokines. An excessive number of cytokines (a "cytokine storm") is a dangerous consequence of COVID-19 infection and has been indicated as being among the causes of death by COVID-19. The anti-inflammatory drug colchicine (which is reported in the literature to be a caspase-1 inhibitor) and the corticosteroid drugs, dexamethasone and methylprednisolone, are among the most effective active compounds for COVID-19 treatment. The SERM raloxifene has also been used as a repurposed drug in COVID-19 therapy. In this study, inhibition of caspase-1 by these four compounds was analyzed using computational methods. Our aim was to see if the inhibition of caspase-1, an important biomolecule in the inflammatory response that triggers cytokine release, could shed light on how these drugs help to alleviate excessive cytokine production. We also measured the antioxidant activities of dexamethasone and colchicine when scavenging the superoxide radical using cyclic voltammetry methods. The experimental findings are associated with caspase-1 active site affinity towards these compounds. In evaluating our computational and experimental results, we here formulate a mechanism for caspase-1 inhibition by these drugs, which involves the active site amino acid Cys285 residue and is mediated by a transfer of protons, involving His237 and Ser339. It is proposed that the molecular moiety targeted by all of these drugs is a carbonyl group which establishes a S(Cys285)-C(carbonyl) covalent bond.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caspase 1/drug effects , Caspase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Caspase 1/chemistry , Caspase 1/metabolism , Caspase Inhibitors/chemistry , Colchicine/chemistry , Colchicine/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/chemistry , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/pharmacology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674667

ABSTRACT

Mast cells (MCs) have relevant participation in inflammatory and vascular hyperpermeability events, responsible for the action of the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS), that affect patients inflicted by the severe form of COVID-19. Given a higher number of activated MCs present in COVID-19 patients and their association with vascular hyperpermeability events, we investigated the factors that lead to the activation and degranulation of these cells and their harmful effects on the alveolar septum environment provided by the action of its mediators. Therefore, the pyroptotic processes throughout caspase-1 (CASP-1) and alarmin interleukin-33 (IL-33) secretion were investigated, along with the immunoexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), bradykinin receptor B1 (B1R) and bradykinin receptor B2 (B2R) on post-mortem lung samples from 24 patients affected by COVID-19. The results were compared to 10 patients affected by H1N1pdm09 and 11 control patients. As a result of the inflammatory processes induced by SARS-CoV-2, the activation by immunoglobulin E (IgE) and degranulation of tryptase, as well as Toluidine Blue metachromatic (TB)-stained MCs of the interstitial and perivascular regions of the same groups were also counted. An increased immunoexpression of the tissue biomarkers CASP-1, IL-33, ACE2, B1R and B2R was observed in the alveolar septum of the COVID-19 patients, associated with a higher density of IgE+ MCs, tryptase+ MCs and TB-stained MCs, in addition to the presence of intra-alveolar edema. These findings suggest the direct correlation of MCs with vascular hyperpermeability, edema and diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) events that affect patients with a severe form of this disease. The role of KKS activation in events involving the exacerbated increase in vascular permeability and its direct link with the conditions that precede intra-alveolar edema, and the consequent DAD, is evidenced. Therapy with drugs that inhibit the activation/degranulation of MCs can prevent the worsening of the prognosis and provide a better outcome for the patient.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Capillary Permeability , Kallikrein-Kinin System/physiology , Lung/pathology , Mast Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Autopsy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Caspase 1/metabolism , Female , Humans , Interleukin-33/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mast Cells/virology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 799558, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662582

ABSTRACT

The poor outcome of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is associated with systemic hyperinflammatory response and immunopathology. Although inflammasome and oxidative stress have independently been implicated in COVID-19, it is poorly understood whether these two pathways cooperatively contribute to disease severity. Herein, we found an enrichment of CD14highCD16- monocytes displaying inflammasome activation evidenced by caspase-1/ASC-speck formation in severe COVID-19 patients when compared to mild ones and healthy controls, respectively. Those cells also showed aberrant levels of mitochondrial superoxide and lipid peroxidation, both hallmarks of the oxidative stress response, which strongly correlated with caspase-1 activity. In addition, we found that NLRP3 inflammasome-derived IL-1ß secretion by SARS-CoV-2-exposed monocytes in vitro was partially dependent on lipid peroxidation. Importantly, altered inflammasome and stress responses persisted after short-term patient recovery. Collectively, our findings suggest oxidative stress/NLRP3 signaling pathway as a potential target for host-directed therapy to mitigate early COVID-19 hyperinflammation and also its long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Caspase 1/metabolism , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitochondria/pathology , Monocytes/pathology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology
5.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554985

ABSTRACT

Inflammation involves a complex biological response of the body tissues to damaging stimuli. When dysregulated, inflammation led by biomolecular mediators such as caspase-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) can play a detrimental role in the progression of different medical conditions such as cancer, neurological disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cytokine storms caused by viral infections such as COVID-19. Computational approaches can accelerate the search for dual-target drugs able to simultaneously inhibit the aforementioned proteins, enabling the discovery of wide-spectrum anti-inflammatory agents. This work reports the first multicondition model based on quantitative structure-activity relationships and a multilayer perceptron neural network (mtc-QSAR-MLP) for the virtual screening of agency-regulated chemicals as versatile anti-inflammatory therapeutics. The mtc-QSAR-MLP model displayed accuracy higher than 88%, and was interpreted from a physicochemical and structural point of view. When using the mtc-QSAR-MLP model as a virtual screening tool, we could identify several agency-regulated chemicals as dual inhibitors of caspase-1 and TNF-alpha, and the experimental information later retrieved from the scientific literature converged with our computational results. This study supports the capabilities of our mtc-QSAR-MLP model in anti-inflammatory therapy with direct applications to current health issues such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Caspase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning/methods , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caspase 1/metabolism , Caspase Inhibitors/chemistry , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 748417, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528820

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Myocardial injury associates significantly and independently with mortality in COVID-19 patients. However, the pathogenesis of myocardial injury in COVID-19 remains unclear, and cardiac involvement by SARS-CoV-2 presents a major challenge worldwide. Objective: This histological and immunohistochemical study sought to clarify the pathogenesis and propose a mechanism with pathways involved in COVID-19 myocardial injury. Methods and Results: Postmortem minimally invasive autopsies were performed in six patients who died from COVID-19, and the myocardium samples were compared to a control group (n=11). Histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue staining. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed using monoclonal antibodies against targets: caspase-1, caspase-9, gasdermin-d, ICAM-1, IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-6, CD163, TNF-α, TGF-ß, MMP-9, type 1 and type 3 collagen. The samples were also assessed for apoptotic cells by TUNEL. Histological analysis showed severe pericardiocyte interstitial edema and higher mast cells counts per high-power field in all COVID-19 myocardium samples. The IHC analysis showed increased expression of caspase-1, ICAM-1, IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-9, TNF-α, and other markers in the hearts of COVID-19 patients. Expression of caspase-9 did not differ from the controls, while gasdermin-d expression was less. The TUNEL assay was positive in all the COVID-19 samples supporting endothelial apoptosis. Conclusions: The pathogenesis of COVID-19 myocardial injury does not seem to relate to primary myocardiocyte involvement but to local inflammation with associated interstitial edema. We found heightened TGF-ß and interstitial collagen expression in COVID-affected hearts, a potential harbinger of chronic myocardial fibrosis. These results suggest a need for continued clinical surveillance of patients for myocardial dysfunction and arrythmias after recovery from the acute phase of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Heart Injuries/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Apoptosis , Biopsy , COVID-19/pathology , Caspase 1/metabolism , Collagen/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Heart Injuries/pathology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology
7.
Mol Neurobiol ; 59(1): 445-458, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491383

ABSTRACT

In addition to respiratory complications produced by SARS-CoV-2, accumulating evidence suggests that some neurological symptoms are associated with the disease caused by this coronavirus. In this study, we investigated the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 stimulation on neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia. Analyses of culture supernatants revealed an increase in the production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß and iNOS/NO. S1 also increased protein levels of phospho-p65 and phospho-IκBα, as well as enhanced DNA binding and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. These effects of the protein were blocked in the presence of BAY11-7082 (1 µM). Exposure of S1 to BV-2 microglia also increased the protein levels of NLRP3 inflammasome and enhanced caspase-1 activity. Increased protein levels of p38 MAPK was observed in BV-2 microglia stimulated with the spike protein S1 (100 ng/ml), an action that was reduced in the presence of SKF 86,002 (1 µM). Results of immunofluorescence microscopy showed an increase in TLR4 protein expression in S1-stimulated BV-2 microglia. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition with TAK 242 (1 µM) and transfection with TLR4 small interfering RNA resulted in significant reduction in TNF-α and IL-6 production in S1-stimulated BV-2 microglia. These results have provided the first evidence demonstrating S1-induced neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia. We propose that induction of neuroinflammation by this protein in the microglia is mediated through activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK, possibly as a result of TLR4 activation. These results contribute to our understanding of some of the mechanisms involved in CNS pathologies of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Microglia/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cell Line , Furans/pharmacology , Indenes/pharmacology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice , Microglia/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitriles/pharmacology , RNA, Small Interfering , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfones/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
9.
Cell Rep ; 36(8): 109614, 2021 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370458

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic pathogens, such as COVID-19, reside in animal hosts before jumping species to infect humans. The Carnivora, like mink, carry many zoonoses, yet how diversity in host immune genes across species affect pathogen carriage is poorly understood. Here, we describe a progressive evolutionary downregulation of pathogen-sensing inflammasome pathways in Carnivora. This includes the loss of nucleotide-oligomerization domain leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs), acquisition of a unique caspase-1/-4 effector fusion protein that processes gasdermin D pore formation without inducing rapid lytic cell death, and the formation of a caspase-8 containing inflammasome that inefficiently processes interleukin-1ß. Inflammasomes regulate gut immunity, but the carnivorous diet has antimicrobial properties that could compensate for the loss of these immune pathways. We speculate that the consequences of systemic inflammasome downregulation, however, can impair host sensing of specific pathogens such that they can reside undetected in the Carnivora.


Subject(s)
Carnivora/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Zoonoses/pathology , Animals , Caspase 1/genetics , Caspase 1/metabolism , Caspase 8/metabolism , Caspases, Initiator/genetics , Caspases, Initiator/metabolism , Cell Death , Cell Line , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages/cytology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NLR Proteins/genetics , NLR Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Salmonella typhi/pathogenicity , Zoonoses/immunology , Zoonoses/parasitology
10.
EMBO J ; 40(18): e108249, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323479

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging coronavirus that causes dysfunctions in multiple human cells and tissues. Studies have looked at the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells mediated by the viral spike protein and human receptor ACE2. However, less is known about the cellular immune responses triggered by SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. Here, we show that the nucleocapsid of SARS-CoV-2 inhibits host pyroptosis by blocking Gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage. SARS-CoV-2-infected monocytes show enhanced cellular interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) expression, but reduced IL-1ß secretion. While SARS-CoV-2 infection promotes activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1, GSDMD cleavage and pyroptosis are inhibited in infected human monocytes. SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein associates with GSDMD in cells and inhibits GSDMD cleavage in vitro and in vivo. The nucleocapsid binds the GSDMD linker region and hinders GSDMD processing by caspase-1. These insights into how SARS-CoV-2 antagonizes cellular inflammatory responses may open new avenues for treating COVID-19 in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Pyroptosis/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Caspase 1/immunology , Caspase 1/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/immunology , Mice , Monocytes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , THP-1 Cells
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1040994

ABSTRACT

The inflammasome is a three-component (sensor, adaptor, and effector) filamentous signaling platform that shields from multiple pathogenic infections by stimulating the proteolytical maturation of proinflammatory cytokines and pyroptotic cell death. The signaling process initiates with the detection of endogenous and/or external danger signals by specific sensors, followed by the nucleation and polymerization from sensor to downstream adaptor and then to the effector, caspase-1. Aberrant activation of inflammasomes promotes autoinflammatory diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiometabolic disorders. Therefore, an equitable level of regulation is required to maintain the equilibrium between inflammasome activation and inhibition. Recent advancement in the structural and mechanistic understanding of inflammasome assembly potentiates the emergence of novel therapeutics against inflammasome-regulated diseases. In this review, we have comprehensively discussed the recent and updated insights into the structure of inflammasome components, their activation, interaction, mechanism of regulation, and finally, the formation of densely packed filamentous inflammasome complex that exists as micron-sized punctum in the cells and mediates the immune responses.


Subject(s)
DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Animals , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/chemistry , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/metabolism , Caspase 1/chemistry , Caspase 1/metabolism , DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry , Humans , Inflammasomes/chemistry , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/chemistry , Protein Domains , Protein Multimerization
12.
Front Immunol ; 11: 583373, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902402

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are members of the genus Betacoronavirus and the Coronaviridiae family responsible for infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and more recently, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). CoV infections present mainly as respiratory infections that lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, CoVs, such as COVID-19, also present as a hyperactivation of the inflammatory response that results in increased production of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1ß and its downstream molecule IL-6. The inflammasome is a multiprotein complex involved in the activation of caspase-1 that leads to the activation of IL-1ß in a variety of diseases and infections such as CoV infection and in different tissues such as lungs, brain, intestines and kidneys, all of which have been shown to be affected in COVID-19 patients. Here we review the literature regarding the mechanism of inflammasome activation by CoV infection, the role of the inflammasome in ARDS, ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) as well as the potential mechanism by which the inflammasome may contribute to the damaging effects of inflammation in the cardiac, renal, digestive, and nervous systems in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Caspase 1/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Inflammasomes/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/pathology
13.
Inflamm Res ; 70(1): 7-10, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880306

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The orf8b protein of the coronavirus SARS-CoV, analogous to SARS-CoV-2, triggers the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages in vitro. Deregulated inflammasome-mediated release of interleukin-1 family cytokines is important in hyper-inflammatory syndromes, like happens in SARS-CoV-2-mediated cytokine release syndrome. We propose that an intense inflammasome formation characterizes the lungs of patients with fatal COVID-19 disease due to pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Samples from four patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia who had been hospitalized at the Hospital of the University of Trieste (Italy) and died of ARDS and four lung samples from a historical repository from subjects who had died of cardiopulmonary arrest and had not been placed on mechanical ventilation and without evidence of pulmonary infection at postmortem examination were collected. Pathology samples had been fixed in formalin 10% at time of collection and subsequently embedded in paraffin. We conducted staining for ASC (Apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a Caspase recruitment domain), NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3), and cleaved caspase-1. RESULTS: Intense expression of the inflammasome was detected, mainly in leukocytes, within the lungs of all patients with fatal COVID-19 in the areas of lung injury. The number of ASC inflammasome specks per high power fields was significantly higher in the lungs of patients with fatal COVID-19 as compared with the lungs of control subjects (52 ± 22 vs 6 ± 3, P = 0.0064). CONCLUSIONS: These findings identify the presence of NLRP3 inflammasome aggregates in the lungs of fatal COVID-19 pneumonia thus providing the potential molecular link between viral infection and cytokine release syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Inflammasomes , Lung/pathology , Adult , Aged , Autopsy , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/analysis , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/metabolism , Caspase 1/analysis , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Female , Heart Arrest/etiology , Humans , Leukocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/analysis , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology
14.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 69, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) increases inflammatory cleaved caspase-1 activity in myocytes, and that caspase-1/11 is protective in sterile liver injury. However, the role of caspase-1/11 in the recovery of muscle from ischemia caused by peripheral arterial disease is unknown. We hypothesized that caspase-1/11 mediates recovery in muscle via effects on autophagy and this is modulated by CQ. METHODS: C57Bl/6 J (WT) and caspase-1/11 double-knockout (KO) mice underwent femoral artery ligation (a model of hind-limb ischemia) with or without CQ (50 mg/kg IP every 2nd day). CQ effects on autophagosome formation, microtubule associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3), and caspase-1 expression was measured using electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging documented perfusion every 7 days. After 21 days, in situ physiologic testing in tibialis anterior muscle assessed peak force contraction, and myocyte size and fibrosis was also measured. Muscle satellite cell (MuSC) oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate was measured. Caspase-1 and glycolytic enzyme expression was detected by Western blot. RESULTS: CQ increased autophagosomes, LC3 consolidation, total caspase-1 expression and cleaved caspase-1 in muscle. Perfusion, fibrosis, myofiber regeneration, muscle contraction, MuSC fusion, OCR, ECAR and glycolytic enzyme expression was variably affected by CQ depending on presence of caspase-1/11. CQ decreased perfusion recovery, fibrosis and myofiber size in WT but not caspase-1/11KO mice. CQ diminished peak force in whole muscle, and myocyte fusion in MuSC and these effects were exacerbated in caspase-1/11KO mice. CQ reductions in maximal respiration and ATP production were reduced in caspase-1/11KO mice. Caspase-1/11KO MuSC had significant increases in protein kinase isoforms and aldolase with decreased ECAR. CONCLUSION: Caspase-1/11 signaling affects the response to ischemia in muscle and effects are variably modulated by CQ. This may be critically important for disease treated with CQ and its derivatives, including novel viral diseases (e.g. COVID-19) that are expected to affect patients with comorbidities like cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Caspase 1/metabolism , Caspases, Initiator/metabolism , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Ischemia/pathology , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Animals , Autophagosomes/metabolism , Autophagy/drug effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Glycolysis/physiology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Muscle Cells/metabolism , Muscle Development , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Pandemics , Peripheral Arterial Disease/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Regeneration , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
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