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1.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869823

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for COVID-19 in people, has been detected in companion animals on rare occasions. A limited number of large-scale studies have investigated the exposure of companion animals to SARS-CoV-2. The objective of this prospective study was to estimate seroprevalence in privately owned dogs and cats presented in veterinary clinics in different French regions and to test the hypothesis that the occurrence of an episode of COVID-19 in the household and close contact with the owner would increase the chances of the animals being seropositive. One hundred and sixty-five dogs and 143 cats were blood-sampled between March 2020 and December 2021. Neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 8.4% of cats (12/143) and 5.4% of dogs (9/165). Seven animals (three dogs and four cats) were seropositive in the absence of an episode of COVID-19 in the household. Despite not being statistically significant (chi-square test, p-value = 0.55), our data may suggest that the occurrence of an episode of COVID-19 in the household could increase the risk of animal seropositivity (odds ratio = 1.38; 95% confidence interval = 0.55-3.77). This survey indirectly shows that SARS-CoV-2 circulates in canine and feline populations, but its circulation appears to be too low for pets to act as a significant viral reservoir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
2.
Res Vet Sci ; 148: 52-64, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867752

ABSTRACT

Of the numerous animal species affected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, cats are one of the most susceptible, and cat-to-cat transmission has been described. Although cat-to-human infection has not, as yet, been demonstrated, preventive measures should be taken in order to avoid both viral infection in cats and transmission among them. In this respect, the application of an effective vaccine to at-risk populations would be a useful tool for controlling the disease in this species. Here, we test a new vaccine prototype based on the Spike protein of the virus in order to prevent infection and infectious virus shedding in cats. The vaccine employed in experimentation, and which is easily produced, triggered a strong neutralizing antibody response in vaccinated animals. In contrast to that which occurred with control animals, no infectious virus was detected in the oropharyngeal or rectal swabs of vaccinated cats submitted to a SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These results are of great interest as regards future considerations related to implementing vaccination programs in pets. The value of cats as vaccination trial models is also described herein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/prevention & control , Cats , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Subunit , Virus Shedding
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1154-1162, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862554

ABSTRACT

We tested swab specimens from pets in households in Ontario, Canada, with human COVID-19 cases by quantitative PCR for SARS-CoV-2 and surveyed pet owners for risk factors associated with infection and seropositivity. We tested serum samples for spike protein IgG and IgM in household pets and also in animals from shelters and low-cost neuter clinics. Among household pets, 2% (1/49) of swab specimens from dogs and 7.7% (5/65) from cats were PCR positive, but 41% of dog serum samples and 52% of cat serum samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG or IgM. The likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in pet samples was higher for cats but not dogs that slept on owners' beds and for dogs and cats that contracted a new illness. Seropositivity in neuter-clinic samples was 16% (35/221); in shelter samples, 9.3% (7/75). Our findings indicate a high likelihood for pets in households of humans with COVID-19 to seroconvert and become ill.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Ontario/epidemiology , Pets , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8403, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852501

ABSTRACT

In June-September 2021, we investigated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in domestic dogs and cats (n = 225) in Bangkok and the vicinities, Thailand. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in a dog and a cat from COVID-19 positive households. Whole genome sequence analysis identified SARS-CoV-2 delta variant of concern (B.1.617.2). Phylogenetic analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 isolated from dog and cat were grouped into sublineage AY.30 and AY.85, respectively. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 could be detected in both dog (day 9) and cat (day 14) after viral RNA detection. This study raises awareness on spill-over of variant of concern in domestic animals due to human-animal interface. Thus, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in domestic pets should be routinely conducted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thailand/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 in domestic animals has been related to close contact with humans diagnosed with COVID-19. Objectives: To assess the exposure, infection, and persistence by SARS-CoV-2 of dogs and cats living in the same households of humans that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and to investigate clinical and laboratory alterations associated with animal infection. METHODS: Animals living with COVID-19 patients were longitudinally followed and had nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal and rectal swabs collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis, and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) to investigate specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: Between May and October 2020, 39 pets (29 dogs and 10 cats) of 21 patients were investigated. Nine dogs (31%) and four cats (40%) from 10 (47.6%) households were infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Animals tested positive from 11 to 51 days after the human index COVID-19 case onset of symptoms. Three dogs tested positive twice within 14, 30, and 31 days apart. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were detected in one dog (3.4%) and two cats (20%). In this study, six out of thirteen animals either infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 have developed mild but reversible signs of the disease. Using logistic regression analysis, neutering, and sharing bed with the ill owner were associated with pet infection. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified in dogs and cats from households with human COVID-19 cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. People with COVID-19 should avoid close contact with their pets during the time of their illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases , Cats , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
J Vet Intern Med ; 36(2): 532-540, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with Bartonella species is common in cats but reported effects of bacteremia on laboratory variables differ. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate for associations between Bartonella bacteremia and CBC and serum biochemical changes in sick and healthy cats throughout the United States. ANIMALS: A total of 3964 client-owned cats. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using submissions to a commercial laboratory between 2011 and 2017. Serum biochemistry and CBC abnormalities (categorized as above or below reference intervals), age, and location (high- or low-risk state for Ctenocephalides felis) in presumed healthy and sick cats were evaluated for associations with presence of Bartonella spp. DNA, detected by PCR. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified from 127 (3.2%) of 3964 cats; 126 (99.2%) of 127 were from high flea risk states and 121 (95.3%) of 127 were presumed sick. Fever of unknown origin was the most common PCR panel requested. In the multivariable analysis, neutrophilia, decreased ALP activity, clinical status (presumed sick), and young age (≤2 years) each were positively associated whereas neutropenia and hyperproteinemia both were negatively associated with Bartonella spp. bacteremia. Presence of Bartonella spp. DNA had no association with test results for other infectious disease agents. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: In both healthy and sick cats, active Bartonella infections had minimal association with clinically relevant laboratory abnormalities. However, based on these results, in areas considered high risk for C. felis, active infection with Bartonella spp. is a reasonable differential diagnosis for cats presented with unexplained fever and neutrophilia, particularly if the cat is young.


Subject(s)
Bartonella Infections , Bartonella , Cat Diseases , Animals , Bartonella/genetics , Bartonella Infections/veterinary , Blood Cell Count/veterinary , Cats , DNA , Humans , Retrospective Studies
7.
J Vet Sci ; 23(2): e27, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in a feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection is not completely understood. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the expression of TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon (IFN)-ß, and interleukin (IL)-10 upon an FIPV infection in Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells and feline monocytes. METHODS: CRFK cells and monocytes from feline coronavirus (FCoV)-seronegative cats and FCoV-seropositive cats were infected with type II FIPV-79-1146. At four, 12, and 24 hours post-infection (hpi), the expression of TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, TNF-α, IFN-ß, and IL-10, and the viral load were measured using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Viral protein production was confirmed using immunofluorescence. RESULTS: FIPV-infected CRFK showed the upregulation of TLR9, TNF-α, and IFN-ß expression between 4 and 24 hpi. Uninfected monocytes from FCoV-seropositive cats showed lower TLR3 and TLR9 expression but higher TLR7 expression compared to uninfected monocytes from FCoV-seronegative cats. FIPV-infected monocytes from FCoV-seropositive cats downregulated TLR7 and TNF-α expression between 4 and 24 hpi, and 4 and 12 hpi, respectively. IFN-ß was upregulated early in FIPV-infected monocytes from FCoV-seropositive cats, with a significant difference observed at 12 hpi compared to FCoV-seronegative cats. The viral load in the CRFK and FIPV-infected monocytes in both cohorts of cats was similar over time. CONCLUSION: TLR7 may be the key TLR involved in evading the innate response against inhibiting TNF-α production. Distinct TLR expression profiles between FCoV-seronegative and FCoV-seropositive cats were observed. The associated TLR that plays a role in the induction of IFN-ß needs to be explored further.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Coronavirus, Feline , Feline Infectious Peritonitis , Animals , Cats , Coronavirus, Feline/genetics , Coronavirus, Feline/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 3
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 268: 109395, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735038

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has exhibited varying pathogenesis in a variety of Mammalia family's including Canidae, Mustelidae, Hominidae, Cervidae, Hyaenidae, and Felidae. Novel SARS-CoV-2 variants characterized by spike protein mutations have recently resulted in clinical and epidemiological concerns, as they potentially have increased infectious rates, increased transmission, or reduced neutralization by antibodies produced via vaccination. Many variants have been identified at this time, but the variant of continuing concern has been the Delta variant (B.1.617.2), due to its increased transmissibility and infectious rate. Felines vaccinated using an experimental SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-based veterinary vaccine mounted a robust immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Using a reporter virus particle system and feline serum, we have verified that vaccinated felines produce antibodies that neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain and variant B.1.617.2 at comparable levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Felidae , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cats , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715759

ABSTRACT

A 67-year-old male veterinarian presented with fatigue, anorexia, and diarrhea. Although there were no tick bite marks, we suspected severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) due to bicytopenia, mild disturbance of consciousness, and a history of outdoor activities. Thus, we started immunoglobulin therapy immediately. A serum reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for SFTS virus (SFTSV) was positive. The patient had treated a cat with thrombocytopenia 10 days prior to admission. The cat's serum SFTSV RT-PCR test result was positive, and the whole genome sequences of the patient's and cat's SFTSV were identical, suggesting the possibility of transmission from the cat to the patient. Other cases of direct cat-to-human SFTV transmission have been reported recently. Mucous membranes should be protected, including eye protection, in addition to standard precautions, when in contact with any cat with suspected SFTS.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases/virology , Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome/transmission , Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome/virology , Aged , Animals , Cat Diseases/blood , Cats , DNA, Viral/blood , DNA, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Phlebovirus/classification , Phlebovirus/genetics , Phlebovirus/isolation & purification , Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome/blood , Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome/diagnosis , Veterinarians
10.
Res Vet Sci ; 143: 81-87, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586571

ABSTRACT

Since the initial emergence in December 2019, the novel Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported in over 200 countries, representing an unprecedented challenge related to disease control worldwide. In this context, cases of human to animal transmission have been reported, raising concern about the potential role of companion animals in the pandemic and stressing the need for reliable animal testing. In the study, a detailed epitope mapping of SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein, using both human and pet sera, allowed the identification of the most antigenic region in the C-terminus domain of the protein, which was used to develop an experimental double antigen-based ELISA. A panel of pre-pandemic sera and sera of animals immunized against (or naturally infected with) related coronaviruses was used to assess assay specificity at 99.5%. Positive sera belonging to animals housed with COVID-19 patients were confirmed with the experimental double-antigen ELISA using Plaque Reduction Neutralization test (PRNT) test as gold standard. The availability of a serological assay that targets a highly specific viral antigen represents a valuable tool for multispecies monitoring of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in susceptible animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Dog Diseases , Epitope Mapping , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Epitope Mapping/veterinary , Humans , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Vet Pathol ; 59(4): 696-706, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582699

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019, which ranges from fatal disease in some to mild or subclinical in most affected individuals. Many recovered human patients report persistent respiratory signs; however, lung disease in post-acute infection is poorly understood. Our objective was to describe histologic lung lesions and viral loads following experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection in 11 cats. Microscopic evaluation at 3, 6, 10, or 28 days postinoculation (DPI) identified mild to moderate patchy interstitial pneumonia, bronchiolar epithelial damage, and occlusive histiocytic bronchiolitis. Based on immunohistochemistry, alveolar septal thickening was due to CD204-positive macrophages, fewer B and T lymphocytes, type II pneumocytes, and capillary proliferation with a relative dearth of fibrosis. In blood vessel endothelium, there was reactive hypertrophy or vacuolar degeneration and increased MHC II expression at all time points. Unexpectedly, one cat from the 28 DPI group had severe subacute regionally extensive lymphohistiocytic pneumonia with multifocal consolidation, vasculitis, and alveolar fibrin. Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction identified SARS-CoV-2 RNA within the lung at 3 and 6 DPI, and viral RNA was below the limit of detection at 10 and 28 DPI, suggesting that pulmonary lesions persist beyond detection of viral RNA. These findings clarify our comparative understanding of disease induced by SARS-CoV-2 and suggest that cats can serve as an informative model to study post-acute pulmonary sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/pathology , Cats , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/pathology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Vet Med Sci ; 8(2): 899-906, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), besides causing human infection, has been shown to naturally infect several susceptible animal species including large cats (tigers, lions, pumas, spotted leopards), dogs, cats, ferrets, gorillas and minks. Cats and minks are continuing to be the most reported species with SARS-CoV-2 infections among animals but it needs to be investigated further. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report the detection of SARS-CoV-2 from a domestic cat that exhibited respiratory disease after being exposed to SARS-CoV-2 virus from humans in the same household. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in two oropharyngeal swabs collected at two time points, 11 days apart; the first, when the cat was reported to be sick and the second, before euthanasia due to poor prognosis. The viral nucleic acid detected at two time points showed no genomic variation and resembled the clade GH circulating in humans in the United States. Clinical and pathological findings noted in this 16-year-old cat were consistent with respiratory and cardiac insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 viral infection was likely an incidental clinical finding, as the virus was not detected in fixed lungs, heart, or kidney tissues. Only fresh lung tissue collected at necropsy showed the presence of viral nucleic acid, albeit at a very low level. Further research is needed to clarify the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 in companion animals of advanced age and underlying cardiac disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Humans , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 163(12): 821-835, 2021 Dec.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561958

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The pandemic with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has led to infections and deaths worldwide. Apart from humans, certain animal species are susceptible to the viral infection. Spillover between humans and animals is favored by close contact; thus, surveillance of animals is an important component to fight the pandemic from a One Health perspective. The Clinical Laboratory of the Vetsuisse Faculty Zurich has been investigating SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals since the beginning of the pandemic. In November 2020, the first SARS-CoV-2 positive Swiss cat was reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE-WAHIS). The cat showed respiratory signs and lived in a COVID-19 affected household. By now, over 500 natural SARS-CoV-2 infections have been recorded in animals worldwide. A prevalence study on SARS-CoV-2 infections in dogs and cats was carried out together with clinics from Germany and Italy during the first wave of the pandemic (March-July 2020). Among the tested 1137 animals, only one cat and one dog were positive. The prevalence of infection in dogs and cats presented to veterinary clinics was low, even in pandemic hotspot regions. However, recent studies that focused on animals in COVID-19 households found a higher prevalence of infection. A study is currently underway that specifically collects samples from pets from Swiss COVID-19 affected household and collects data on human-animal interaction.


INTRODUCTION: La pandémie à nouveau coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) a entraîné des infections et des décès dans le monde entier. En dehors de l'homme, certaines espèces animales sont sensibles à cette infection virale. Le passage entre les humains et les animaux est favorisé par un contact étroit, la surveillance des animaux est donc un élément important pour lutter contre la pandémie dans une perspective One Health. Depuis le début de la pandémie, le laboratoire clinique de la faculté Vetsuisse de Zurich étudie les infections par le SRAS-CoV-2 chez les animaux. En novembre 2020, le premier chat suisse positif au SARS-CoV-2 a été signalé à l'Organisation mondiale de la santé animale (OIE-WAHIS). Le chat a montré des signes respiratoires et vivait dans un ménage touché par le COVID-19. À l'heure actuelle, plus de 500 infections naturelles au SRAS-CoV-2 ont été enregistrées chez des animaux dans le monde. Une étude de prévalence sur les infections par le SRAS-CoV-2 chez les chiens et les chats a été réalisée avec des cliniques d'Allemagne et d'Italie pendant la première vague de la pandémie (mars-juillet 2020). Parmi les 1137 animaux testés, seuls un chat et un chien étaient positifs. La prévalence de l'infection chez les chiens et les chats présentés aux cliniques vétérinaires était faible, même dans les régions fortement touchées par la pandémie. Cependant des études récentes, qui se sont concentrées sur les animaux dans les ménages COVID-19, ont révélé une prévalence d'infection plus élevée. Une étude est actuellement en cours qui collecte spécifiquement des échantillons d'animaux de compagnie des ménages suisses touchés par le COVID-19 et enregistre des données sur l'interaction homme-animal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3070-3074, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526428

ABSTRACT

An 11-year-old male mixed-breed cat, with exclusively indoor life, presented 3 cough episodes after the owners tested positive by RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. The house is inhabited by 5 people (3 adults and 2 children), and 2 of the adults have shown mild symptoms associated with throat discomfort. The cat was vaccinated, had no history of any previous disease, and tested negative for feline coronavirus (FCoV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV). Rectal sample collected from the cat was positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Viral genome sequences recovered from human and cat samples showed an average 99.4% sequence identity. This is the first report of genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 recovered from a cat and its owner in Latin America.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Cats/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Humans , Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline , Latin America , Leukemia Virus, Feline , Male
15.
Res Vet Sci ; 144: 190-195, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521511

ABSTRACT

Severe clinical diseases associated to αCoronavirus (αCoV) infections were recently demonstrated for the first time in humans and a closely related but distinct canine CoV (CCoV) variant was identified in the nasopharyngeal swabs of children with pneumonia hospitalized in Malaysia, in 2017-2018. The complete genome sequence analysis demonstrated that the isolated strain, CCoV-HuPn-2018, was a novel canine-feline-like recombinant virus with a unique nucleoprotein. The occurrence of three human epidemics/pandemic caused by CoVs in the recent years and the detection of CCoV-HuPn-2018, raises questions about the ability of these viruses to overcome species barriers from their reservoirs jumping to humans. Interestingly, in this perspective, it is interesting to consider the report concerning new CCoV strains with a potential dual recombinant origin through partial S-gene exchange with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) identified in pups died with acute gastroenteritis in 2009. The significance of the ability of CCoVs to evolve is still unclear, but several questions arisen on the biology of these viruses, focusing important epidemiological outcomes in the field, in terms of both virus evolution and prophylaxis. The new CCoV-Hupn-2018 should lead researchers to pay more attention to the mechanisms of recombination among CoVs, rather than to the onset of variants as a result of mutations, suggesting a continuous monitoring of these viruses and in particular of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Animals , Biology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Vet Rec ; 189(9): e944, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Domestic pets can contract severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; however, it is unknown whether the UK B.1.1.7 variant can more easily infect certain animal species or increase the possibility of human-to-animal transmission. METHODS: This is a descriptive case series reporting SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant infections in a group of dogs and cats with suspected myocarditis. RESULTS: The study describes the infection of domestic cats and dogs by the B.1.1.7 variant. Two cats and one dog were positive to SARS-CoV-2 PCR on rectal swab, and two cats and one dog were found to have SARS-CoV-2 antibodies 2-6 weeks after they developed signs of cardiac disease. Many owners of these pets had developed respiratory symptoms 3-6 weeks before their pets became ill and had also tested positive for COVID-19. Interestingly, all these pets were referred for acute onset of cardiac disease, including severe myocardial disorders of suspected inflammatory origin but without primary respiratory signs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the ability for pets to be infected by the B.1.1.7 variant and question its possible pathogenicity in these animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Myocarditis , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Dogs , Humans , Myocarditis/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(10): 1140-1147, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496888

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To gather and evaluate veterinarians' perspectives about the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of veterinary telehealth and on cat owners' versus dog owners' attitudes toward transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from their pets. SAMPLE: 93 respondent veterinarians (47 in primary care practice and 46 in specialty practice). PROCEDURES: An online survey was conducted between June 15 and July 15, 2020, and included 21 questions concerning demographics, use of telehealth before and after the onset of the pandemic (before March 15, 2020, and between March 15 and June 15, 2020, respectively), changes in caseloads, and perception of clients' concerns about potential for transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from pets. Reported zip codes informed the collection of census data. RESULTS: The level of poverty was significantly lower in zip code areas for respondents who reported telehealth services were (vs were not) offered before the pandemic. The percentage of respondents who reported their practice offered telehealth services increased from 12% (11/93) before the pandemic to 38% (35/93) between March 15 and June 15, 2020. Although most respondents reported owner-expressed concerns over SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from their pets, most also reported increased caseloads, seeing newly adopted pets, and few discussions of surrender of pets for reasons related to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings indicated that caseloads increased and telehealth services expanded during the pandemic but that there was no evidence of differences in respondent-reported owner concern for SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from cats versus dogs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Telemedicine , Veterinarians , Animals , Attitude , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Humans , Ownership , Pandemics , Perception , Pets , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Vet Med Sci ; 8(1): 14-20, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487524

ABSTRACT

Although there are several reports in the literature of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats, few SARS-CoV-2 sequences from infected cats have been published. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 infection was evaluated in two cats by clinical observation, molecular biology (qPCR and NGS), and serology (microsphere immunoassay and seroneutralization). Following the observation of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in two cats, infection status was confirmed by RT-qPCR and, in one cat, serological analysis for antibodies against N-protein and S-protein, as well as neutralizing antibodies. Comparative analysis of five SARS-CoV-2 sequence fragments obtained from one of the cats showed that this infection was not with one of the three recently emerged variants of SARS-CoV-2. This study provides additional information on the clinical, molecular, and serological aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , France/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(9): 1032-1039, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US. ANIMALS: 10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021. PROCEDURES: A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals' course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Pets , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444232

ABSTRACT

Natural or experimental infection of domestic cats and virus transmission from humans to captive predatory cats suggest that felids are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it is unclear which cells and compartments of the respiratory tract are infected. To address this question, primary cell cultures derived from the nose, trachea, and lungs of cat and lion were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Strong viral replication was observed for nasal mucosa explants and tracheal air-liquid interface cultures, whereas replication in lung slices was less efficient. Infection was mainly restricted to epithelial cells and did not cause major pathological changes. Detection of high ACE2 levels in the nose and trachea but not lung further suggests that susceptibility of feline tissues to SARS-CoV-2 correlates with ACE2 expression. Collectively, this study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 can efficiently replicate in the feline upper respiratory tract ex vivo and thus highlights the risk of SARS-CoV-2 spillover from humans to felids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cats/virology , Lions/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cat Diseases/transmission , Cat Diseases/virology , Cells, Cultured , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Lung/cytology , Lung/virology , Nose/cytology , Nose/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Trachea/cytology , Trachea/virology
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