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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1154-1162, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862554

ABSTRACT

We tested swab specimens from pets in households in Ontario, Canada, with human COVID-19 cases by quantitative PCR for SARS-CoV-2 and surveyed pet owners for risk factors associated with infection and seropositivity. We tested serum samples for spike protein IgG and IgM in household pets and also in animals from shelters and low-cost neuter clinics. Among household pets, 2% (1/49) of swab specimens from dogs and 7.7% (5/65) from cats were PCR positive, but 41% of dog serum samples and 52% of cat serum samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG or IgM. The likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in pet samples was higher for cats but not dogs that slept on owners' beds and for dogs and cats that contracted a new illness. Seropositivity in neuter-clinic samples was 16% (35/221); in shelter samples, 9.3% (7/75). Our findings indicate a high likelihood for pets in households of humans with COVID-19 to seroconvert and become ill.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Ontario/epidemiology , Pets , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8403, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852501

ABSTRACT

In June-September 2021, we investigated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in domestic dogs and cats (n = 225) in Bangkok and the vicinities, Thailand. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in a dog and a cat from COVID-19 positive households. Whole genome sequence analysis identified SARS-CoV-2 delta variant of concern (B.1.617.2). Phylogenetic analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 isolated from dog and cat were grouped into sublineage AY.30 and AY.85, respectively. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 could be detected in both dog (day 9) and cat (day 14) after viral RNA detection. This study raises awareness on spill-over of variant of concern in domestic animals due to human-animal interface. Thus, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in domestic pets should be routinely conducted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thailand/epidemiology
3.
Vet Med Sci ; 8(2): 899-906, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), besides causing human infection, has been shown to naturally infect several susceptible animal species including large cats (tigers, lions, pumas, spotted leopards), dogs, cats, ferrets, gorillas and minks. Cats and minks are continuing to be the most reported species with SARS-CoV-2 infections among animals but it needs to be investigated further. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report the detection of SARS-CoV-2 from a domestic cat that exhibited respiratory disease after being exposed to SARS-CoV-2 virus from humans in the same household. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in two oropharyngeal swabs collected at two time points, 11 days apart; the first, when the cat was reported to be sick and the second, before euthanasia due to poor prognosis. The viral nucleic acid detected at two time points showed no genomic variation and resembled the clade GH circulating in humans in the United States. Clinical and pathological findings noted in this 16-year-old cat were consistent with respiratory and cardiac insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 viral infection was likely an incidental clinical finding, as the virus was not detected in fixed lungs, heart, or kidney tissues. Only fresh lung tissue collected at necropsy showed the presence of viral nucleic acid, albeit at a very low level. Further research is needed to clarify the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 in companion animals of advanced age and underlying cardiac disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Humans , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 163(12): 821-835, 2021 Dec.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561958

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The pandemic with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has led to infections and deaths worldwide. Apart from humans, certain animal species are susceptible to the viral infection. Spillover between humans and animals is favored by close contact; thus, surveillance of animals is an important component to fight the pandemic from a One Health perspective. The Clinical Laboratory of the Vetsuisse Faculty Zurich has been investigating SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals since the beginning of the pandemic. In November 2020, the first SARS-CoV-2 positive Swiss cat was reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE-WAHIS). The cat showed respiratory signs and lived in a COVID-19 affected household. By now, over 500 natural SARS-CoV-2 infections have been recorded in animals worldwide. A prevalence study on SARS-CoV-2 infections in dogs and cats was carried out together with clinics from Germany and Italy during the first wave of the pandemic (March-July 2020). Among the tested 1137 animals, only one cat and one dog were positive. The prevalence of infection in dogs and cats presented to veterinary clinics was low, even in pandemic hotspot regions. However, recent studies that focused on animals in COVID-19 households found a higher prevalence of infection. A study is currently underway that specifically collects samples from pets from Swiss COVID-19 affected household and collects data on human-animal interaction.


INTRODUCTION: La pandémie à nouveau coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) a entraîné des infections et des décès dans le monde entier. En dehors de l'homme, certaines espèces animales sont sensibles à cette infection virale. Le passage entre les humains et les animaux est favorisé par un contact étroit, la surveillance des animaux est donc un élément important pour lutter contre la pandémie dans une perspective One Health. Depuis le début de la pandémie, le laboratoire clinique de la faculté Vetsuisse de Zurich étudie les infections par le SRAS-CoV-2 chez les animaux. En novembre 2020, le premier chat suisse positif au SARS-CoV-2 a été signalé à l'Organisation mondiale de la santé animale (OIE-WAHIS). Le chat a montré des signes respiratoires et vivait dans un ménage touché par le COVID-19. À l'heure actuelle, plus de 500 infections naturelles au SRAS-CoV-2 ont été enregistrées chez des animaux dans le monde. Une étude de prévalence sur les infections par le SRAS-CoV-2 chez les chiens et les chats a été réalisée avec des cliniques d'Allemagne et d'Italie pendant la première vague de la pandémie (mars-juillet 2020). Parmi les 1137 animaux testés, seuls un chat et un chien étaient positifs. La prévalence de l'infection chez les chiens et les chats présentés aux cliniques vétérinaires était faible, même dans les régions fortement touchées par la pandémie. Cependant des études récentes, qui se sont concentrées sur les animaux dans les ménages COVID-19, ont révélé une prévalence d'infection plus élevée. Une étude est actuellement en cours qui collecte spécifiquement des échantillons d'animaux de compagnie des ménages suisses touchés par le COVID-19 et enregistre des données sur l'interaction homme-animal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
5.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(10): 1140-1147, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496888

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To gather and evaluate veterinarians' perspectives about the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of veterinary telehealth and on cat owners' versus dog owners' attitudes toward transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from their pets. SAMPLE: 93 respondent veterinarians (47 in primary care practice and 46 in specialty practice). PROCEDURES: An online survey was conducted between June 15 and July 15, 2020, and included 21 questions concerning demographics, use of telehealth before and after the onset of the pandemic (before March 15, 2020, and between March 15 and June 15, 2020, respectively), changes in caseloads, and perception of clients' concerns about potential for transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from pets. Reported zip codes informed the collection of census data. RESULTS: The level of poverty was significantly lower in zip code areas for respondents who reported telehealth services were (vs were not) offered before the pandemic. The percentage of respondents who reported their practice offered telehealth services increased from 12% (11/93) before the pandemic to 38% (35/93) between March 15 and June 15, 2020. Although most respondents reported owner-expressed concerns over SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from their pets, most also reported increased caseloads, seeing newly adopted pets, and few discussions of surrender of pets for reasons related to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings indicated that caseloads increased and telehealth services expanded during the pandemic but that there was no evidence of differences in respondent-reported owner concern for SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from cats versus dogs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Telemedicine , Veterinarians , Animals , Attitude , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Humans , Ownership , Pandemics , Perception , Pets , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Vet Med Sci ; 8(1): 14-20, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487524

ABSTRACT

Although there are several reports in the literature of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats, few SARS-CoV-2 sequences from infected cats have been published. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 infection was evaluated in two cats by clinical observation, molecular biology (qPCR and NGS), and serology (microsphere immunoassay and seroneutralization). Following the observation of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in two cats, infection status was confirmed by RT-qPCR and, in one cat, serological analysis for antibodies against N-protein and S-protein, as well as neutralizing antibodies. Comparative analysis of five SARS-CoV-2 sequence fragments obtained from one of the cats showed that this infection was not with one of the three recently emerged variants of SARS-CoV-2. This study provides additional information on the clinical, molecular, and serological aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , France/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(9): 1032-1039, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US. ANIMALS: 10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021. PROCEDURES: A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals' course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Pets , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390790

ABSTRACT

Despite the probable zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2, only limited research efforts have been made to understand the role of companion animals in SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology. According to recent serological prevalence studies, human-to-companion animal transmission is quite frequent, which led us to consider that the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from animal to human, albeit negligible in the present context, may have been underestimated. In this study, we provide the results of a prospective survey that was conducted to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 isolation rate by qRT-PCR in dogs and cats with different exposure risks and clinical statuses. From April 2020 to April 2021, we analyzed 367 samples and investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using qRT-PCR. Only four animals tested positive, all of them being cats. Three cats were asymptomatic and one presented a coryza-like syndrome. We describe in detail the infection in two cats and the associated clinical characteristics. Importantly, we obtained SARS-CoV-2 genomes from one infected animal and characterized them as Alpha variants. This represents the first identification of the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant in an infected animal in France.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Dog Diseases/virology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pets/virology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Virus Shedding
9.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360823

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic raised concerns that companion animals might be infected with, and could become a reservoir of, SARS-CoV-2. As cats are popular pets and susceptible to Coronavirus, we investigated the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in shelter cats housed in Dutch animal shelters during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this large-scale cross-sectional study, serum samples of shelter cats were collected during the second wave of human COVID-19 infections in The Netherlands. Seroprevalence was determined by using an indirect protein-based ELISA validated for cats, and a Virus Neutralization Test (VNT) as confirmation. To screen for feline SARS-CoV-2 shedding, oropharyngeal and rectal swabs of cats positive for ELISA and/or VNT were analyzed using PCR tests. In 28 Dutch animal shelters, 240 shelter cats were convenience sampled. Two of these cats (0.8%; CI 95%: 0.1-3.0%) were seropositive, as evidenced by the presence of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. The seropositive animals tested PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. Based on the results of this study, it is unlikely that shelter cats could be a reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 or pose a (significant) risk to public health.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/veterinary , COVID-19 Serological Testing/veterinary , Cat Diseases/immunology , Cats , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Housing, Animal , Humans , Male , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Virus Shedding
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1669-1674, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348039

ABSTRACT

To provide more complete data on SARS-CoV-2 infections in dogs and cats in the U.S., we conducted a serosurvey on convenience serum samples from dogs (n=1336) and cats (n=956) collected from 48 states of the USA in 2020. An ELISA targeting the antibody against nucleocapsid identified eleven positive and two doubtful samples in cats, and five positive and five doubtful samples in dogs. A surrogate neutralization assay detecting antibodies blocking the attachment of the spike protein to ACE2 was positive with three of the ELISA positive and doubtful samples, and one of 463 randomly selected ELISA negative samples. These four positive samples were confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization testing. All were from cats, in New York, Florida, and New Jersey (n=2). The serosurvey results, one of the largest yet completed on dogs and cats globally, support the OIE and CDC positions that currently there is no evidence that pets play a role in the spread of SARS CoV-2 in humans.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/immunology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Public Health Surveillance , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology
11.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325792

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected millions of people globally since its first detection in late 2019. Besides humans, cats and, to some extent, dogs were shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the need for surveillance in a One Health context. Seven veterinary clinics from regions with high incidences of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were recruited during the early pandemic (March to July 2020) for the screening of patients. A total of 2257 oropharyngeal and nasal swab specimen from 877 dogs and 260 cats (including 18 animals from COVID-19-affected households and 92 animals with signs of respiratory disease) were analyzed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) targeting the viral envelope (E) and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes. One oropharyngeal swab from an Italian cat, living in a COVID-19-affected household in Piedmont, tested positive in RT-qPCR (1/260; 0.38%, 95% CI: 0.01-2.1%), and SARS-CoV-2 infection of the animal was serologically confirmed six months later. One oropharyngeal swab from a dog was potentially positive (1/877; 0.1%, 95% CI: 0.002-0.63%), but the result was not confirmed in a reference laboratory. Analyses of convenience sera from 118 animals identified one dog (1/94; 1.1%; 95% CI: 0.02-5.7%) from Lombardy, but no cats (0/24), as positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies and neutralizing activity. These findings support the hypothesis that the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pet cat and dog populations, and hence, the risk of zoonotic transmission to veterinary staff, was low during the first wave of the pandemic, even in hotspot areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Dog Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Oropharynx/virology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286939

ABSTRACT

Feline panleukopenia is a severe disease of cats caused by feline parvovirus (FPV), and marginally canine parvovirus (CPV). Despite being less rapid than CPV, FPV evolution deserves attention, especially since outbreaks of particular severity are currently reported. This apparently different virulence needs monitoring from genetic and clinical points of view. This manuscript explored FPV molecular epidemiology at both Italian and international levels and the possible association between viral phylogeny and disease severity. Sequences from clinical cases of feline panleukopenia in Italy were obtained from 2011 to 2019, and the etiological agent was characterized, distinguishing FPV from CPV. Phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses were conducted on Italian and international sequences. Moreover, the association between the viral sequence and clinical variables was evaluated on a group of highly characterized patients. After its origin in the 1920s, FPV showed a constant population size until a more recent expansion since 2000. Few long-distance introduction events characterized FPV spreading, however, most of its evolution occurred locally. Although without a strong statistical association, several clinical variables appeared influenced by viral phylogeny, suggesting a differential virulence potentially characterizing FPV strains. These results stress the importance of the continuous study of viral evolution and its repercussions on the disease clinical aspects.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Feline Panleukopenia Virus/classification , Feline Panleukopenia Virus/genetics , Feline Panleukopenia/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Animals , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , DNA, Viral/genetics , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Feline Panleukopenia/virology , Italy/epidemiology , Parvovirus, Canine/genetics
13.
Res Vet Sci ; 139: 1-3, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275696

ABSTRACT

This article deals with the reality of the COVID situation as well as a series of hygienic measures that owners can adopt in relation to the handling and care of their pets (dogs, cats) including objects that can act as fomite.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Pets , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Habits , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256663

ABSTRACT

Registered cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in the German human population increased rapidly during the second wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in winter 2020/21. Since domestic cats are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, the occurrence of trans-species transmission needs to be monitored. A previous serosurvey during the first wave of the pandemic detected antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in 0.65% of feline serum samples that were randomly sampled across Germany. In the here-presented follow-up study that was conducted from September 2020 to February 2021, the seroprevalence rose to 1.36% (16/1173). This doubling of the seroprevalence in cats is in line with the rise of reported cases in the human population and indicates a continuous occurrence of trans-species transmission from infected owners to their cats.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Animals, Domestic , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/transmission , Cats , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Zoonoses/diagnosis , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission
15.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234836

ABSTRACT

Understanding the ecological and epidemiological roles of pets in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for animal and human health, identifying household reservoirs, and predicting the potential enzootic maintenance of the virus. We conducted a longitudinal household transmission study of 76 dogs and cats living with at least one SARS-CoV-2-infected human in Texas and found that 17 pets from 25.6% of 39 households met the national case definition for SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals. This includes three out of seventeen (17.6%) cats and one out of fifty-nine (1.7%) dogs that were positive by RT-PCR and sequencing, with the virus successfully isolated from the respiratory swabs of one cat and one dog. Whole-genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 obtained from all four PCR-positive animals were unique variants grouping with genomes circulating among people with COVID-19 in Texas. Re-sampling showed persistence of viral RNA for at least 25 d-post initial test. Additionally, seven out of sixteen (43.8%) cats and seven out of fifty-nine (11.9%) dogs harbored SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies upon initial sampling, with relatively stable or increasing titers over the 2-3 months of follow-up and no evidence of seroreversion. The majority (82.4%) of infected pets were asymptomatic. 'Reverse zoonotic' transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from infected people to animals may occur more frequently than recognized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/immunology , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats/virology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/immunology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs/virology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pets/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Texas/epidemiology
16.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187062

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 and spread rapidly following its emergence in Wuhan in 2019. Although cats are, among other domestic animals, susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, little is known about their epidemiological role in the dynamics of a household infection. In this study, we monitored five cats for viral shedding daily. Each cat was confined with its COVID-19 positive owners in separate households. Low loads of viral nucleic acid were found in two cats, but only one developed anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, which suggests that cats have a limited role in COVID-19 epidemiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/transmission , Cat Diseases/virology , Animals , Animals, Domestic , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Male , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Virus Shedding , Whole Genome Sequencing
17.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167765

ABSTRACT

Cats are susceptible to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Whilst a number of studies have been performed worldwide on owned cats, limited data are available on stray, colony or shelter cats. We investigated SARS-CoV-2 infection in a stray cat population before and during human outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 in cities in the Lombardy region in northern Italy, a high endemic region for SARS-CoV-2, using serological and molecular methods. A cohort of different samples were collected from 241 cats, including frozen archived serum samples from 136 cats collected before the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and serum, pharyngeal and rectal swab samples from 105 cats collected during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. All pre-pandemic samples tested seronegative for antibodies against the nucleocapsid of SARS-CoV-2 using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, while one serum sample collected during the pandemic was seropositive. No serological cross-reactivity was detected between SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and antibodies against feline enteric (FECV) and infectious peritonitis coronavirus (FIPC), Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), Feline Calicivirus (FCV), Feline Herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), Feline Parvovirus (FPV), Leishmania infantum, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Toxoplasma gondii or Chlamydophila felis. No pharyngeal or rectal swab tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA on real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Our data show that SARS-CoV-2 did infect stray cats in Lombardy during the COVID-19 pandemic, but with lower prevalence than found in owned cats. This should alleviate public concerns about stray cats acting as SARS-CoV-2 carriers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Calicivirus, Feline/immunology , Cats , Chlamydia , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Feline Panleukopenia/epidemiology , Feline Panleukopenia Virus/immunology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Leishmania infantum , Male , Prevalence , Rickettsia , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Small Anim Pract ; 62(5): 336-342, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The emergence of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has necessitated evaluation of the potential for SARS-CoV-2 infection in dogs and cats. Using a large data set, we evaluated the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory pathogens in samples submitted for respiratory testing from mid-February to mid-April 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR was developed and validated. A subset of canine and feline samples submitted for respiratory pathogen panel testing to reference laboratories in Asia, Europe, and North America were also tested for SARS-CoV-2. The frequency of respiratory pathogens was compared for the February-April period of 2020 and 2019. RESULTS: Samples from 4616 patients were included in the study and 44% of canine and 69% of feline samples were PCR positive with Mycoplasma cynos and Bordetella bronchiseptica and Mycoplasma felis and feline calicivirus, respectively. No SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified. Positive results for respiratory samples were similar between years. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The data in this study suggest that during the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in early 2020, respiratory diseases in tested pet cats and dogs were caused by common veterinary pathogens and that SARS-CoV-2 infections in dogs and cats are rare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Asia , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Europe , Mycoplasma , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 1767-1773, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944801

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and has since caused a global pandemic. Experimental studies and sporadic reports have confirmed susceptibility of dogs and cats to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the importance of pet animals in the epidemiology of this infection is unclear. This study reports on a first large-scale serosurvey of SARS-CoV-2 infections in dogs and cats in Europe. From 26 February 2020, just one day after the first confirmed human case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Croatia, to 15 June 2020, dog and cat serum samples were collected from animals admitted to three veterinary facilities in Croatia. Additionally, on 25 May 2020, a total of 122 serum samples from employees of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Zagreb were collected. Total of 656 dogs and 131 cat serum samples were tested using an in-house microneutralisation test (MNT). Human serum samples, as well as 172 randomly selected, dog sera were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA-positive human sera were subsequently tested using MNT. Neutralising antibodies were confirmed in 0.76% cats and 0.31% dogs. ELISA reactivity was recorded in 7.56% tested dog sera. On the other hand, 5.19% of administrative, basic and pre-clinical sciences department personnel and 5.13% of animal health service providers and laboratory personnel tested ELISA positive. Neutralising antibodies were not confirmed in any of the human samples. In conclusion, seropositivity among pet animals in Croatia is low, especially when compared to results from China. A small number of seropositive animals with a low titre of neutralising antibodies suggest infections are rare and are following infections in the human population. Additionally, contact with animals does not seem to be an occupational risk for veterinary practitioners.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Croatia/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
20.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(2): 626-636, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639204

ABSTRACT

Infection with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces the coronavirus infectious disease 19 (COVID-19). Its pandemic form in human population and its probable animal origin, along with recent case reports in pets, make drivers of emergence crucial in domestic carnivore pets, especially cats, dogs and ferrets. Few data are available in these species; we first listed forty-six possible drivers of emergence of COVID-19 in pets, regrouped in eight domains (i.e. pathogen/disease characteristics, spatial-temporal distance of outbreaks, ability to monitor, disease treatment and control, characteristics of pets, changes in climate conditions, wildlife interface, human activity, and economic and trade activities). Secondly, we developed a scoring system per driver, then elicited scientific experts (N = 33) to: (a) allocate a score to each driver, (b) weight the drivers scores within each domain and (c) weight the different domains between them. Thirdly, an overall weighted score per driver was calculated; drivers were ranked in decreasing order. Fourthly, a regression tree analysis was used to group drivers with comparable likelihood to play a role in the emergence of COVID-19 in pets. Finally, the robustness of the expert elicitation was verified. Five drivers were ranked with the highest probability to play a key role in the emergence of COVID-19 in pets: availability and quality of diagnostic tools, human density close to pets, ability of preventive/control measures to avoid the disease introduction or spread in a country (except treatment, vaccination and reservoir(s) control), current species specificity of the disease-causing agent and current knowledge on the pathogen. As scientific knowledge on the topic is scarce and still uncertain, expert elicitation of knowledge, in addition with clustering and sensitivity analyses, is of prime importance to prioritize future studies, starting from the top five drivers. The present methodology is applicable to other emerging pet diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/etiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/etiology , Dogs , Ferrets , Global Health
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