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1.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 87: 106058, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881127

ABSTRACT

Contamination of water resources by pharmaceutical residues, especially during the time of pandemics, has become a serious problem worldwide and concerns have been raised about the efficient elimination of these compounds from aquatic environments. This study has focused on the development and evaluation of the sonocatalytic activity of a flower-like MoS2/CNTs nanocomposite for the targeted degradation of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). This nanocomposite was prepared using a facile hydrothermal route and characterized with various analytical methods, including X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy, which results confirmed the successful synthesis of the nanocomposite. Moreover, the results of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy analyses showed an increase in the specific surface area and a decrease in the band gap energy of the nanocomposite when compared with those of MoS2. Nanocomposites with different component mass ratios were then synthesized, and MoS2/CNTs (10:1) was identified to have the best sonocatalytic activity. The results indicated that 70% of HCQ with the initial concentration of 20 mg/L could be degraded using 0.1 g/L of MoS2/CNTs (10:1) nanocomposite within 120 min of sonocatalysis at the pH of 8.7 (natural pH of the HCQ solution). The dominant reactive species in the sonocatalytic degradation process were identified using various scavengers and the intermediates generated during the process were detected using GC-MS analysis, enabling the development of a likely degradation scheme. In addition, the results of consecutive sonocatalytic cycles confirmed the stability and reusability of this nanocomposite for sonocatalytic applications. Thus, our data introduce MoS2/CNTs nanocomposite as a proficient sonocatalyst for the treatment of pharmaceutical contaminants.


Subject(s)
Molybdenum , Nanocomposites , Catalysis , Hydroxychloroquine , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Pharmaceutical Preparations
2.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(6): 305, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866611

ABSTRACT

Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare monogenic disease, often fatal in the first decade, causing severe intellectual disability, movement disorders and autonomic dysfunction. It is due to mutations in the gene coding for the AADC enzyme responsible for the synthesis of dopamine and serotonin. Using whole exome sequencing, we have identified a novel homozygous c.989C > T (p.Pro330Leu) variant of AADC causing AADC deficiency. Pro330 is part of an essential structural and functional element: the flexible catalytic loop suggested to cover the active site as a lid and properly position the catalytic residues. Our investigations provide evidence that Pro330 concurs in the achievement of an optimal catalytic competence. Through a combination of bioinformatic approaches, dynamic light scattering measurements, limited proteolysis experiments, spectroscopic and in solution analyses, we demonstrate that the substitution of Pro330 with Leu, although not determining gross conformational changes, results in an enzymatic species that is highly affected in catalysis with a decarboxylase catalytic efficiency decreased by 674- and 194-fold for the two aromatic substrates. This defect does not lead to active site structural disassembling, nor to the inability to bind the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) cofactor. The molecular basis for the pathogenic effect of this variant is rather due to a mispositioning of the catalytically competent external aldimine intermediate, as corroborated by spectroscopic analyses and pH dependence of the kinetic parameters. Altogether, we determined the structural basis for the severity of the manifestation of AADC deficiency in this patient and discussed the rationale for a precision therapy.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/metabolism , Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases/deficiency , Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases/genetics , Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases/metabolism , Catalysis , Dopamine/metabolism , Humans
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847337

ABSTRACT

Nanozymes are synthetic nanoparticulate materials that mimic the biological activities of enzymes by virtue of their surface chemistry. Enzymes catalyze biological reactions with a very high degree of specificity. Examples include the horseradish peroxidase, lactate, glucose, and cholesterol oxidases. For this reason, many industrial uses of enzymes outside their natural environments have been developed. Similar to enzymes, many industrial applications of nanozymes have been developed and used. Unlike the enzymes, however, nanozymes are cost-effectively prepared, purified, stored, and reproducibly and repeatedly used for long periods of time. The detection and identification of pathogens is among some of the reported applications of nanozymes. Three of the methodologic milestones in the evolution of pathogen detection and identification include the incubation and growth, immunoassays and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategies. Although advances in the history of pathogen detection and identification have given rise to novel methods and devices, these are still short of the response speed, accuracy and cost required for point-of-care use. Debuting recently, nanozymology offers significant improvements in the six methodological indicators that are proposed as being key in this review, including simplicity, sensitivity, speed of response, cost, reliability, and durability of the immunoassays and PCR strategies. This review will focus on the applications of nanozymes in the detection and identification of pathogens in samples obtained from foods, natural, and clinical sources. It will highlight the impact of nanozymes in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent and PCR strategies by discussing the mechanistic improvements and the role of the design and architecture of the nanozyme nanoconjugates. Because of their contribution to world health burden, the three most important pathogens that will be considered include viruses, bacteria and fungi. Although not quite seen as pathogens, the review will also consider the detection of cancer cells and helminth parasites. The review leaves very little doubt that nanozymology has introduced remarkable advances in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and PCR strategies for detecting these five classes of pathogens. However, a gap still exists in the application of nanozymes to detect and identify fungal pathogens directly, although indirect strategies in which nanozymes are used have been reported. From a mechanistic point of view, the nanozyme technology transfer to laboratory research methods in PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay studies, and the point-of-care devices such as electronic biosensors and lateral flow detection strips, that is currently taking place, is most likely to give rise to no small revolution in each of the six methodological indicators for pathogen detection and identification. While the evidence of widespread research reports, clinical trials and point-of-care device patents support this view, the gaps that still exist point to a need for more basic research studies to be conducted on the applications of nanozymology in pathogen detection and identification. The multidisciplinary nature of the research on the application of nanozymes in the detection and identification of pathogens requires chemists and physicists for the design, fabrication, and characterization of nanozymes; microbiologists for the design, testing and analysis of the methodologies, and clinicians or clinical researchers for the evaluation of the methodologies and devices in the clinic. Many reports have also implicated required skills in mathematical modelling, and electronic engineering. While the review will conclude with a synopsis of the impact of nanozymology on the detection and identification of viruses, bacteria, fungi, cancer cells, and helminths, it will also point out opportunities that exist in basic research as well as opportunities for innovation aimed at novel laboratory methodologies and devices. In this regard there is no doubt that there are numerous unexplored research areas in the application of nanozymes for the detection of pathogens. For example, most research on the applications of nanozymes for the detection and identification of fungi is so far limited only to the detection of mycotoxins and other chemical compounds associated with fungal infection. Therefore, there is scope for exploration of the application of nanozymes in the direct detection of fungi in foods, especially in the agricultural production thereof. Many fungal species found in seeds severely compromise their use by inactivating the germination thereof. Fungi also produce mycotoxins that can severely compromise the health of humans if consumed.


Subject(s)
Mycotoxins , Nanostructures , Bacteria , Catalysis , Humans , Immunoassay , Nanostructures/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results
4.
Chemosphere ; 302: 134837, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819450

ABSTRACT

The number of antibiotic compounds in wastewaters has been growing globally due to the covid-19 problem. Using antibiotics to treat the patients would produce larger amounts of these compounds into the environment with negative impacts. Hence, finding out the method for the elimination of toxic organic pollutants as well as antibiotics in water is urgent (In this study, the treatment of antibiotic pollutants including cefalexin (CF) and tetracycline (TC) was investigated by applying the advanced oxidation process based on Ni-doped TiO2 (Ni-TiO2). The characterizations technologies such as XRD, XPS, UV-vis, PL, and PC indicated that Ni doping would improve the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In the photodegradation experiments, the Ni-TiO2 possessed high photocatalytic degradation efficiencies with 93.6% for CF and 82.5% for TC. Besides, the removal rates of antibiotics after five cycles are higher than 75%, implying excellent stability of Ni-TiO2 photocatalyst. The result from the treatment of wastewater samples revealed that the Ni-TiO2 photocatalytic had good performance for removal of CF and TC at a high level of 88.6 and 80.2%, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Catalysis , Humans , Photolysis , Tetracycline , Titanium , Waste Water
5.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(4): 467-468, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795752
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785726

ABSTRACT

Fluorine represents a privileged building block in pharmaceutical chemistry. Diethylaminosulfur-trifluoride (DAST) is a reagent commonly used for replacement of alcoholic hydroxyl groups with fluorine and is also known to catalyze water elimination and cyclic Beckmann-rearrangement type reactions. In this work we aimed to use DAST for diversity-oriented semisynthetic transformation of natural products bearing multiple hydroxyl groups to prepare new bioactive compounds. Four ecdysteroids, including a new constituent of Cyanotis arachnoidea, were selected as starting materials for DAST-catalyzed transformations. The newly prepared compounds represented combinations of various structural changes DAST was known to catalyze, and a unique cyclopropane ring closure that was found for the first time. Several compounds demonstrated in vitro antitumor properties. A new 17-N-acetylecdysteroid (13) exerted potent antiproliferative activity and no cytotoxicity on drug susceptible and multi-drug resistant mouse T-cell lymphoma cells. Further, compound 13 acted in significant synergism with doxorubicin without detectable direct ABCB1 inhibition. Our results demonstrate that DAST is a versatile tool for diversity-oriented synthesis to expand chemical space towards new bioactive compounds.


Subject(s)
Ecdysteroids , Fluorine , Animals , Catalysis , Diethylamines/chemistry , Ecdysteroids/chemistry , Fluorine/chemistry , Mice
8.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 160, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721596

ABSTRACT

The role of dimer formation for the onset of catalytic activity of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MProWT) was assessed using a predominantly monomeric mutant (MProM). Rates of MProWT and MProM catalyzed hydrolyses display substrate saturation kinetics and second-order dependency on the protein concentration. The addition of the prodrug GC376, an inhibitor of MProWT, to MProM leads to an increase in the dimer population and catalytic activity with increasing inhibitor concentration. The activity reaches a maximum corresponding to a dimer population in which one active site is occupied by the inhibitor and the other is available for catalytic activity. This phase is followed by a decrease in catalytic activity due to the inhibitor competing with the substrate. Detailed kinetics and equilibrium analyses are presented and a modified Michaelis-Menten equation accounts for the results. These observations provide conclusive evidence that dimer formation is coupled to catalytic activity represented by two equivalent active sites.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Catalysis , Catalytic Domain , Circular Dichroism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Pyrrolidines/chemistry , Sulfonic Acids/chemistry , Thermodynamics
9.
Chembiochem ; 23(2): e202100514, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653182

ABSTRACT

In addition to a membrane anchor, the transmembrane domain (TMD) of single-pass transmembrane proteins (SPTMPs) recently has shown essential roles in the cross-membrane activity or receptor assembly/clustering. However, these small TMD peptides are generally hydrophobic and dynamic, difficult to be expressed and purified. Here, we have integrated the power of TrpLE fusion protein and a sequence-specific nickel-assisted cleavage (SNAC)-tag to produce small TMD peptides in a highly efficient way under mild conditions, which uses Ni2+ as the cleavage reagent, avoiding the usage of toxic cyanogen bromide (CNBr). Furthermore, this method simplifies the downstream protein purification and reconstitution. Two representative TMDs, including the Spike-TMD from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS2), were successfully produced with high-quality nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. Therefore, our study provides a more efficient and practical approach for general structural characterization of the small TM proteins.


Subject(s)
Nickel/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalysis , Humans , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/isolation & purification , Proteolysis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
Org Lett ; 24(4): 995-999, 2022 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655437

ABSTRACT

Thapsigargin (Tg) is a potent SERCA pump inhibitor with the potential to treat cancer and COVID-19. We have extended the scope of the asymmetric allenic Pauson-Khand reaction to furan-tethered allene-ynes, a stereoconvergent transformation affording the 5,7,5-ring system of Tg in good yields and high enantioselectivity. Computational studies of the oxidative cyclization step show that the furan and chloroacetate groups contribute to this high selectivity.


Subject(s)
Rhodium/chemistry , Thapsigargin/analogs & derivatives , Thapsigargin/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catalysis , Chloroacetates/chemistry , Cyclization , Furans/chemistry , Models, Molecular , Molecular Structure , Stereoisomerism , Thapsia/chemistry
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 429: 128300, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633288

ABSTRACT

The use of antiviral drugs has surged as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in higher concentrations of these pharmaceuticals in wastewater. The degradation efficiency of antiviral drugs in wastewater treatment plants has been reported to be too low due to their hydrophilic nature, and an additional procedure is usually necessary to degrade them completely. Photocatalysis is regarded as one of the most effective processes to degrade antiviral drugs. The present study aims at synthesizing multiphase photocatalysts by a simple calcination of industrial waste from ammonium molybdate production (WU photocatalysts) and its combination with WO3 (WW photocatalysts). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm that the presence of multiple crystalline phases in the synthesized photocatalysts. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra reveal that the synthesized multiphase photocatalysts absorb visible light up to 620 nm. Effects of calcination temperature of industrial waste (550-950 °C) and WO3 content (0-100%) on photocatalytic activity of multiphase photocatalysts (WU and WW) for efficient removal of SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drugs (lopinavir and ritonavir) in model and real wastewaters are studied. The highest k1 value is observed for the photocatalytic removal of ritonavir from model wastewater using WW4 (35.64 ×10-2 min-1). The multiphase photocatalysts exhibit 95% efficiency in the photocatalytic removal of ritonavir within 15 of visible light irradiation. In contrast, 60 min of visible light irradiation is necessary to achieve 95% efficiency in the photocatalytic removal of lopinavir. The ecotoxicity test using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos shows no toxicity for photocatalytically treated ritonavir-containing wastewater, and the contrary trend is observed for photocatalytically treated lopinavir-containing wastewater. The synthesized multiphase photocatalysts can be tested and applied for efficient degradation of other SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drugs in wastewater in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Waste Water , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Catalysis , Humans , Industrial Waste , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Zebrafish
12.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(33): 7186-7189, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559295

ABSTRACT

Tetracyclic triterpenes and steroids are pharmacologically important molecules, and acetylation could improve their bioactivities. In this study, a highly regio- and stereo-specific acetyltransferase, AmAT19, was discovered from Astragalus membranaceus. AmAT19 could selectively catalyze the 6α-OH acetylation of four tetracyclic triterpenes and steroids. The strict selectivity is associated with different orientations of the 6α/ß-OH as indicated by molecular docking. Acetylated products 1a, 3a and 4a remarkably increased the inhibitory activity against the 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) of SARS-CoV-2, compared to 1, 3, and 4. AmAT19 could be a promising catalyst for specific 6α-OH acetylation to expand the molecular diversity of triterpenes and steroids.


Subject(s)
Acetyltransferases/metabolism , Astragalus Plant/enzymology , Steroids/metabolism , Triterpenes/metabolism , Acetylation , Catalysis
13.
Chembiochem ; 23(2): e202100514, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549172

ABSTRACT

In addition to a membrane anchor, the transmembrane domain (TMD) of single-pass transmembrane proteins (SPTMPs) recently has shown essential roles in the cross-membrane activity or receptor assembly/clustering. However, these small TMD peptides are generally hydrophobic and dynamic, difficult to be expressed and purified. Here, we have integrated the power of TrpLE fusion protein and a sequence-specific nickel-assisted cleavage (SNAC)-tag to produce small TMD peptides in a highly efficient way under mild conditions, which uses Ni2+ as the cleavage reagent, avoiding the usage of toxic cyanogen bromide (CNBr). Furthermore, this method simplifies the downstream protein purification and reconstitution. Two representative TMDs, including the Spike-TMD from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS2), were successfully produced with high-quality nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. Therefore, our study provides a more efficient and practical approach for general structural characterization of the small TM proteins.


Subject(s)
Nickel/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalysis , Humans , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/isolation & purification , Proteolysis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(11): e202114619, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544209

ABSTRACT

Since early 2020, scientists have strived to find an effective solution to fight SARS-CoV-2, in particular by developing reliable vaccines that inhibit the spread of the disease and repurposing drugs for combatting its effects on the human body. The antiviral prodrug Remdesivir is still the most widely used therapeutic during the early stages of the infection. However, the current synthetic routes rely on the use of protecting groups, air-sensitive reagents, and cryogenic conditions, thus impeding a cost-efficient supply to patients. We have, therefore, focused on the development of a straightforward, direct addition of (hetero)arenes to unprotected sugars. Here we report a silylium-catalyzed and completely stereoselective C-glycosylation that initially yields the open-chain polyols, which can be selectively cyclized to provide either the kinetic α-furanose or the thermodynamically favored ß-anomer. The method significantly expedites the synthesis of Remdesivir precursor GS-441524 after a subsequent Mn-catalyzed C-H oxidation and deoxycyanation.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Nucleosides/chemical synthesis , Adenosine/chemical synthesis , Adenosine/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemical synthesis , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Alanine/chemical synthesis , Alanine/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catalysis , Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic/economics , Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic/methods , Cyclization , Glycosylation , Humans , Models, Molecular , Nucleosides/chemistry , Stereoisomerism , Time Factors
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e047367, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528550

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify determinants of intended versus actual care-seeking behaviours in a pluralistic healthcare system that is reliant on both conventional and non-conventional providers and discover opportunities to catalyse improved healthcare access. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: In Haiti 568 households (incorporating 2900 members) with children less than 5 years of age were randomly sampled geographically with stratifications for population density. These households identified the healthcare providers they frequented. Among 140 providers, 65 were located and enrolled. OUTCOME MEASURES: Household questionnaires with standardised cases (intentions) were compared with self-recall of health events (behaviours). The connectedness of households and their providers was determined by network analysis. RESULTS: Households reported 636 health events in the prior month. Households sought care for 35% (n=220) and treated with home remedies for 44% (n=277). The odds of seeking care increased 217% for severe events (adjusted OR (aOR)=3.17; 95% CI 1.99 to 5.05; p<0.001). The odds of seeking care from a conventional provider increased by 37% with increasing distance (aOR=1.37; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.79; p=0.016). Despite stating an intention to seek care from conventional providers, there was a lack of congruence in practice that favoured non-conventional providers (McNemar's χ2 test p<0.001). Care was sought from primary providers for 68% (n=150) of cases within a three-tiered network; 25% (n=38/150) were non-conventional. CONCLUSION: Addressing geographic barriers, possibly with technology solutions, should be prioritised to meet healthcare seeking intentions while developing approaches to connect non-conventional providers into healthcare networks when geographic barriers cannot be overcome.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Catalysis , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Haiti , Humans
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(83): 10911-10914, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488037

ABSTRACT

We present Zn2+-dependent dimethyl-dipyridophenazine PNA conjugates as efficient RNA cleaving artificial enzymes. These PNAzymes display site-specific RNA cleavage with 10 minute half-lives and cleave clinically relevant RNA models.


Subject(s)
Peptide Nucleic Acids/chemistry , Phenazines/chemistry , Pyridines/chemistry , RNA/chemistry , Catalysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Ribonucleases/chemistry , Zinc/chemistry
17.
Mol Cell ; 81(21): 4467-4480.e7, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473419

ABSTRACT

Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) are a target for broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutic agents. Recently, we demonstrated that incorporation of the T-1106 triphosphate, a pyrazine-carboxamide ribonucleotide, into nascent RNA increases pausing and backtracking by the poliovirus RdRp. Here, by monitoring enterovirus A-71 RdRp dynamics during RNA synthesis using magnetic tweezers, we identify the "backtracked" state as an intermediate used by the RdRp for copy-back RNA synthesis and homologous recombination. Cell-based assays and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) experiments further demonstrate that the pyrazine-carboxamide ribonucleotide stimulates these processes during infection. These results suggest that pyrazine-carboxamide ribonucleotides do not induce lethal mutagenesis or chain termination but function by promoting template switching and formation of defective viral genomes. We conclude that RdRp-catalyzed intra- and intermolecular template switching can be induced by pyrazine-carboxamide ribonucleotides, defining an additional mechanistic class of antiviral ribonucleotides with potential for broad-spectrum activity.


Subject(s)
Pyrazines/chemistry , RNA Viruses/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Ribonucleotides/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Catalysis , Cells, Cultured , Genetic Techniques , Genome , Genome, Viral , Homologous Recombination , Humans , Kinetics , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutagenesis , Nucleotides/genetics , Protein Conformation , RNA/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Transgenes , Virulence
18.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112036, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415387

ABSTRACT

A practical scale photocatalytic air purifier equipped with a TiO2/H-ZSM-5 composite bead filter was demonstrated to be able to effectively remove indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and viruses with sustainable performances under UVA-LED illumination. TiO2 hybridized with 5 wt% H-ZSM-5 zeolite significantly enhanced its photocatalytic activity for degrading VOCs including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and toluene, than bare TiO2. H-ZSM-5 provided strong adsorption sites for these compounds, thus accelerating their photocatalytic conversion into CO2 by adjacent TiO2 photocatalyst. Moreover, owing to its superior adsorption capacity, the composite bead filter completely prevented the emission of formaldehyde produced by photocatalytic oxidation of toluene. The sustainability of this composite bead filter for VOC removal was confirmed by regeneration and accelerated durability tests. In addition, the photocatalytic air purifier was effective in removing aerosolized viral particles of bacteriophage Phi-X 174. It was confirmed that the viruses on filter surfaces were completely inactivated by photocatalytic oxidation. TiO2/H-ZSM-5 composite beads also exhibited excellent efficacies for inactivation of pathogenic coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2. The photocatalytic process degraded viral RNAs of SARS-CoV-2 by more than 99.999% in 1 h, eliminating the viral infectivity. Results of this study suggest that the air purifier equipped with the composite bead filter is ready for practical applications for home and hospital uses.


Subject(s)
Air Filters , COVID-19 , Volatile Organic Compounds , Zeolites , Catalysis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Titanium , Virus Inactivation
19.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(10): 335, 2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411927

ABSTRACT

A practical colorimetric assay was developed for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For this purpose, magnetic γ Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized and used as a peroxidase-like mimic activity molecule. In the presence of γ Fe2O3 nanoparticles, the color change of H2O2 included 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine was monitored at the wavelength of 654 nm when spike protein interacted with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. This oxidation-reduction reaction was examined both spectroscopically and by using electrochemical techniques. The experimental parameters were optimized and the analytical characteristics investigated. The developed assay was applied to real SARS-CoV-2 samples, and very good results that were in accordance with the real time polymerase chain reaction were obtained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Benzidines/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Catalysis , Chromogenic Compounds/chemistry , Cysteine/chemistry , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Oxidation-Reduction , Peroxidase/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
20.
Biol Aujourdhui ; 215(1-2): 25-43, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358361

ABSTRACT

Targeted protein degradation (TPD), discovered twenty years ago through the PROTAC technology, is rapidly developing thanks to the implication of many scientists from industry and academia. PROTAC chimeras are heterobifunctional molecules able to link simultaneously a protein to be degraded and an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This allows the protein ubiquitination and its degradation by 26S proteasome. PROTACs have evolved from small peptide molecules to small non-peptide and orally available molecules. It was shown that PROTACs are capable to degrade proteins considered as "undruggable" i.e. devoid of well-defined pockets and deep grooves possibly occupied by small molecules. Among these "hard to drug" proteins, several can be degraded by PROTACs: scaffold proteins, BAF complex, transcription factors, Ras family proteins. Two PROTACs are clinically tested for breast (ARV471) and prostate (ARV110) cancers. The protein degradation by proteasome is also induced by other types of molecules: molecular glues, hydrophobic tagging (HyT), HaloPROTACs and homo-PROTACs. Other cellular constituents are eligible to induced degradation: RNA-PROTACs for RNA binding proteins and RIBOTACs for degradation of RNA itself (SARS-CoV-2 RNA). TPD has recently moved beyond the proteasome with LYTACs (lysosome targeting chimeras) and MADTACs (macroautophagy degradation targeting chimeras). Several techniques such as screening platforms together with mathematical modeling and computational design are now used to improve the discovery of new efficient PROTACs.


TITLE: Dégradation induite des protéines par des molécules PROTAC et stratégies apparentées : développements à visée thérapeutique. ABSTRACT: Alors que, pour la plupart, les médicaments actuels sont de petites molécules inhibant l'action d'une protéine en bloquant un site d'interaction, la dégradation ciblée des protéines, découverte il y a une vingtaine d'années via les petites molécules PROTAC, connaît aujourd'hui un très grand développement, aussi bien au niveau universitaire qu'industriel. Cette dégradation ciblée permet de contrôler la concentration intracellulaire d'une protéine spécifique comme peuvent le faire les techniques basées sur les acides nucléiques (oligonucléotides antisens, ARNsi, CRISPR-Cas9). Les molécules PROTAC sont des chimères hétéro-bifonctionnelles capables de lier simultanément une protéine spécifique devant être dégradée et une E3 ubiquitine ligase. Les PROTAC sont donc capables de provoquer l'ubiquitinylation de la protéine ciblée et sa dégradation par le protéasome 26S. De nature peptidique, puis non peptidique, les PROTAC sont maintenant administrables par voie orale. Ce détournement du système ubiquitine protéasome permet aux molécules PROTAC d'élargir considérablement le champ des applications thérapeutiques puisque l'élimination de protéines dépourvues de poches ou de crevasses bien définies, dites difficiles à cibler, devient possible. Cette technologie versatile a conduit à la dégradation d'une grande variété de protéines comme des facteurs de transcription, des sérine/thréonine/tyrosine kinases, des protéines de structure, des protéines cytosoliques, des lecteurs épigénétiques. Certaines ligases telles que VHL, MDM2, cereblon et IAP sont couramment utilisées pour être recrutées par les PROTAC. Actuellement, le nombre de ligases pouvant être utilisées ainsi que la nature des protéines dégradées sont en constante augmentation. Deux PROTAC sont en étude clinique pour les cancers du sein (ARV471) et de la prostate (ARV110). La dégradation spécifique d'une protéine par le protéasome peut aussi être induite par d'autres types de molécules synthétiques : colles moléculaires, marqueurs hydrophobes, HaloPROTAC, homo-PROTAC. D'autres constituants cellulaires sont aussi éligibles à une dégradation induite : ARN-PROTAC pour les protéines se liant à l'ARN et RIBOTAC pour la dégradation de l'ARN lui-même comme celui du SARS-CoV-2. Des dégradations induites en dehors du protéasome sont aussi connues : LYTAC, pour des chimères détournant la dégradation de protéines extracellulaires vers les lysosomes, et MADTAC, pour des chimères détournant la dégradation par macroautophagie. Plusieurs techniques, en particulier des plates-formes de criblage, la modélisation mathématique et la conception computationnelle sont utilisées pour le développement de nouveaux PROTAC efficaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Design , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Proteolysis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy , Catalysis , Humans , Lysosomes/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects , Protein Stability , Proteolysis/drug effects , RNA/drug effects , RNA-Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Structure-Activity Relationship , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
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