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1.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 48(11): 1231-1232, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243223
2.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 49(2): 133-141, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238060

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical opinions and practice patterns of delegates to the ESCRS. SETTING: Clinical Trends Surveys were administered during annual ESCRS congresses held between 2016 and 2021, and data collected online and in-person. DESIGN: Survey questions addressed several specialty areas, including cataract surgery, presbyopia-correcting and toric intraocular lenses (IOLs), ocular surface disease, and glaucoma. METHODS: Survey results were compared and analyzed across 6 years. 4 main profile questions were used for cross-tabulation analyses of questions pertaining to refractive surgery-practice location, years in practice, primary surgery setting, and average annual volume of cataract surgery. RESULTS: The highest number of responses (3019) was collected in 2019, with the lowest (569) received in 2020. The use of presbyopia-correcting and toric IOLs has increased significantly from 2016 to 2021, with certain respondent segments using them more frequently than others. Although optical biometry remains the preferred method for obtaining preoperative measurements, the use of tomography (Scheimpflug) has significantly increased. In 2021, 61.1% and 44.9% of respondents always performed preoperative checks of the ocular surface before refractive and cataract surgery, respectively. The number of respondents who perform glaucoma surgery has significantly decreased over the years, with an increasing number of delegates reporting having only a medical glaucoma practice. On average, 5.4% of patients with cataract and glaucoma underwent combined minimally invasive glaucoma surgery and cataract procedures in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of the Clinical Trends Survey data provides valuable insights into the shifting practice patterns and clinical opinions of ESCRS delegates.


Subject(s)
Cataract Extraction , Cataract , Glaucoma , Lenses, Intraocular , Presbyopia , Humans , Presbyopia/surgery , Surveys and Questionnaires , Glaucoma/surgery
3.
Eye Contact Lens ; 49(7): 292-295, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313494

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the choice of intraocular lens (IOL) and sociodemographic characteristics between patients who underwent elective cataract surgery before the COVID-19 pandemic and during the pandemic at the Wilmer Eye Institute. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent cataract surgery before the COVID-19 pandemic (June 1 to November 30, 2019) and during the pandemic (June 1 to November 30, 2020) was conducted. Sociodemographic information, including age, sex, race, and insurance, and choice of IOL (premium or standard) were analyzed. The association between timing of surgery and choice of IOL was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The study included 2,877 patients (3,946 eyes) before COVID-19 and 2,564 patients (3,605 eyes) during COVID-19. However, 9.0% (357/3,946) of surgeries before COVID-19 used premium IOLs compared with 11.1% (399/3,605) during COVID-19 ( P =0.004). There was no difference in the racial characteristics of patients between before and during COVID-19. After adjusting for time of surgery and demographics, the odds of choosing premium IOLs for black patients was 0.32 times the odds for white patients ( P <0.001). There was an increase in private-insured patients but a decrease in Medicare-insured patients during COVID-19. After adjusting for time of surgery and demographics, private-insured patients had higher odds of choosing premium IOLs ( P <0.001), whereas Medicaid-insured patients had lower odds ( P =0.007) when compared with Medicare-insured patients. CONCLUSION: More patients chose premium IOLs during COVID-19 than before COVID-19, concurrent with change in insurance status. White patients were more likely to choose premium IOLs than black patients, as were private-insured patients compared with Medicare-insured patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cataract , Lenses, Intraocular , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Visual Acuity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Medicare
4.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 49(5): 531-537, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293457

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether gender barriers persist specifically in the cataract and refractive surgery (CRS) literature. In addition, no literature exists investigating the long-term effect of COVID-19 on female authorship in ophthalmology past 2020. SETTING: Scopus 2015 to 2022. DESIGN: Retrospective data review. METHODS: Articles published in the Journal of Refractive Surgery and the Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery were recorded from January 2015 to February 2022 from Scopus. Articles with only 1 author or where gender could not be identified were excluded. The first author (FA) gender, senior author (SA) gender, affiliated country, type of literature, and number of citations were collected. Pearson chi-squared tests with phi coefficients and multivariate logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: 3153 articles were included in analysis. There were 910 works with female FAs and 648 with female SAs. Gender did not predict publishing in one journal over the other (P > .050). Women made up less than 30% of authorship of all types of literature, except for prospective/observational studies as FA (31.3%). Compared with before 2020, female FAs from 2020 onward were associated with increased retrospective analysis (phi = 0.072, P = .030) and letters/editorials (phi = 0.134, P < .001) but decreased case reports (phi = 0.087, P = .009) and "others" (phi = -0.164, P < .001). Similar associations were observed for female SAs. Females were more likely to publish in Asian countries. Female SAs predicted an increased likelihood of female FAs (odds ratio, 1.401, 95% CI, 1.165-1.684, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Gender disparities exist in authorship of the CRS literature. COVID-19 has altered the types of literature published by women, but men still publish most of all types of CRS research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cataract , Ophthalmology , Female , Humans , Male , Authorship , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
5.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 345, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259474

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cataract surgery is one of the most frequent surgeries in the world. It is a very safe procedure mostly performed under topical anesthesia in outpatients centers. Due to the growing lack of anesthesiologists, cataract surgeries are more frequently performed without an anesthesiologist present in the operating room. Although extremely rare, life-threatening complications may occur. CASES PRESENTATION: We report two cases of cataract surgery complicated by severe hypotension that required emergency resuscitation in the immediate postoperative period and hospitalization in intensive care unit. Anaphylactic shock was confirmed in the first case and suspected in the second. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPORTANCE: Even though cataract surgery is a very safe procedure, it is essential to ensure the presence of an anesthesiologist to manage potential, though extremely rare, life-threatening complications such as anaphylactic reactions.


Subject(s)
Cataract Extraction , Cataract , Hypotension , Humans , Anesthetics, Local , Anesthesia, Local/methods , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Cataract Extraction/methods , Postoperative Period , Hypotension/etiology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255117

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted routine hospital services globally. The cancellation of elective surgeries placed a psychological burden on patients. A questionnaire study was conducted to identify the psychological impact of canceling cataract operations on patients at Kowloon East Cataract Center, Tseung Kwan O Hospital, Hong Kong, from April to June 2020. In total, 99 participants aged 59 years old and above, who had their cataract surgeries postponed or as scheduled, were studied using the standardized patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) and generalized anxiety disorder questionnaire (GAD-7). None of the patients who had their cataract surgeries rescheduled reached the cutoff score for major depression in PHQ-9, whereas, according to GAD-7, five patients had mild symptoms of anxiety, and one had severe symptoms. There was no significant psychosocial impact of the cancellation of cataract surgeries on patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cataract , Depressive Disorder, Major , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Elective Surgical Procedures
7.
BMJ Open Qual ; 12(1)2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234596

ABSTRACT

We report on the establishment of "general anaesthesia (GA) to local anaesthesia (LA) conversion" or GALA initiative at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. Through GALA initiative, long waiters for cataract surgery under GA or LA with intravenous sedation were counselled for LA surgery. With careful surgical planning and personalised solutions to LA barriers, LA-converted patients reported good visual and surgical experience outcomes. The GALA initiative reduced cataract surgery waiting times of participants by 11 weeks and increased GA list capacity by three to four theatre lists in its four months of pilot run. This initiative did not limit training opportunities for ophthalmology trainees whose training was affected significantly during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Cataract Extraction , Cataract , Ophthalmology , Humans , Anesthesia, Local , Anesthesia, General
8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(1): 321, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235587

ABSTRACT

Background: Corneal melt with iris prolapse is a rare complication of autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. Purpose: To highlight a challenging case of a peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) with corneal melt and iris prolapse in a patient's only eye. Synopsis: A 56-year-old Asian Indian male presented with blurring of vision in the right eye and was diagnosed with cataract. He was a known type 2 diabetes mellitus and a rheumatoid arthritis patient and was not on treatment. He had been previously diagnosed with PUK in the left eye and was lost to follow-up due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty and lost his vision in that eye. Cataract surgery in the right eye was done under cover of immunosuppression. Subsequently, he developed PUK and was treated with a glue and bandage contact lens. Again, he was lost to follow-up and then presented a few months later with corneal melt with iris prolapse in the right eye. We describe in the video the surgical and medical challenges and successful salvage of both the eyeball and the vision. Highlights: Highlights include the following: 1. A rare case of corneal melt with iris prolapse. 2. Demonstration of surgical technique of patch graft. 3. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography before and after the procedure. Video link: https://youtu.be/HbgixlEAYKU.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Cataract , Corneal Ulcer , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Eye Injuries , Iris Diseases , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , COVID-19/complications , Corneal Ulcer/diagnosis , Corneal Ulcer/etiology , Corneal Ulcer/surgery , Iris Diseases/surgery , Cataract/complications , Eye Injuries/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Prolapse
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22382, 2022 12 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186052

ABSTRACT

We investigated the proportions of immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) and unilateral cataract surgery during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and compared visual outcomes between the two groups in a tertiary hospital in South Korea. We reviewed 441 cataract surgeries performed between March 1, 2021, and October 31, 2021, at Korea University Guro Hospital by a single surgeon (J.S.S). Medical records of demographics, preoperative visual acuity, corneal astigmatism, axial length, preoperative spherical equivalent, preoperative target (using Barrett's Universal 2 formula), postoperative visual acuity, postoperative refractive error, and postoperative complications were evaluated. Among all patients, 322 (73.0%) eyes underwent ISBCS, and 119 (27.0%) eyes underwent unilateral cataract surgery. The preoperative corrective distance visual acuity (CDVA) was lower in the unilateral cataract surgery group (0.40 ± 0.45 logMAR) than the ISBCS group (0.28 ± 0.16 logMAR, P = 0.008), whereas there was no significant difference in postoperative CDVA between the two groups (0.06 ± 0.10 logMAR vs. 0.07 ± 0.16 logMAR, P = 0.63). There was also no difference in the absolute refractive error between the two groups (0.46 ± 0.37 diopters [D] vs. 0.42 ± 0.38 D, P = 0.63). The preoperative CDVA (P = 0.000) was the significant factor influencing absolute refractive error (r = 0.191, P < 0.001). There was no difference in complications between the two groups, although two patients in the ISBCS group complained of postoperative strabismus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cataract Extraction , Cataract , Phacoemulsification , Refractive Errors , Humans , Tertiary Care Centers , COVID-19/complications , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Refractive Errors/complications , Cataract/complications , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1024124, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142031

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the macular structure of age-related cataract (ARC) patients with different antibody levels after COVID-19 vaccine injection, in order to obtain the effect of COVID-19 vaccine on the macular structure, and speculate whether the COVID-19 vaccine has adverse effects on the macular structure. Methods: This retrospective study is conducted to analysis on the status of COVID-19 vaccine and the thickness of different layers at different positions in the macular area of ARC patients. In the age, sex and eye axial length matched population, in the un-injection, no-antibody, IgM and IgG positive groups after vaccination, the choroid, ganglion cell complex, nerve fiber layer and retinal thickness at different positions of ETDRS zoning in the macular area were discussed. Results: A total of 164 patients (164 eyes) were included in the analysis. There were 63 males and 101 females. The average age was 65.99 ± 8.43 years. There was no significant difference in age and sex among the groups (p>0.05). The average axial length of 164 eyes was 23.56 ± 1.46mm, and no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). Non parametric test and ANOVA test for the thickness of choroid, retina, ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer in each division of ETDRS showed no significant difference in the four groups of un-injection, no-antibody, IgM and IgG (p>0.05). There was no correlation between the antibody concentration and the thickness of macular structure (p>0.05). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the thickness of choroid, retina, ganglion cell complex and retinal fiber layer in different macular areas after COVID-19 vaccine injection. There was no linear correlation between the thickness of choroid, retina, ganglion cell complex and retinal fiber layer and the antibody concentration produced after COVID-19 vaccine injection. It suggests that the injection of COVID-19 vaccine might have no significant effect on the macular structure of eye.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cataract , Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Tomography, Optical Coherence , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(11): 3779-3784, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100020

ABSTRACT

Cataract is the most common cause of avoidable blindness in the world. While cataract surgery is continually evolving, manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS) still remains highly relevant, especially with the threat of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) still looming large over the world. MSICS today has a renewed significance, since it does not involve the use of any advanced machinery and relies mainly on easily sterilizable instruments, thereby making it a safe and inexpensive option. A self-sealing valvular tunnel entry forms the basis of MSICS, and proper positioning and construction of the tunnel is imperative to the success of the surgery. With more and more people demanding spectacle independence after surgery, it becomes important to have a thorough understanding of the factors that may influence surgically induced astigmatism in MSICS. These include the incision location, size and shape, configuration of the sclero-corneal tunnel, pre-existing ocular pathology, role of sutures, amongst others. With proper knowledge, many of these factors can be modulated to achieve best results.


Subject(s)
Astigmatism , COVID-19 , Cataract Extraction , Cataract , Surgical Wound , Humans , Astigmatism/diagnosis , Astigmatism/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Cataract Extraction/methods , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/methods , Cataract/complications , Surgical Wound/complications
14.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 48(2): 157-161, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2070178

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and predictability of cataract extraction with toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) or mushroom penetrating keratoplasty (PK). SETTING: Villa Igea Hospital, Forlì, Italy. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Toric IOL implantation was offered to patients with cataract, corneal astigmatism >1.5 diopters (D) and regular central corneal topography after complete suture removal. Phacoemulsification was performed through a 2.4 mm scleral tunnel and an enVista monofocal toric MX60T or Eyecryl monofocal toric IOL was inserted in the capsular bag. Main outcome measures were uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), manifest refraction, total prediction error, and IOL misalignment. RESULTS: 37 consecutive patients who had previously undergone either DALK (n = 27, 73%) or 2-piece mushroom PK (n = 10, 27%) were included. All patients completed the 6-month follow-up. The mean toric IOL power was 5.3 ± 1.1 D. Both UDVA and CDVA significantly improved (from 1.02 ± 0.27 to 0.46 ± 0.31 logMAR and from 0.65 ± 0.27 to 0.11 ± 0.12 logMAR, respectively; P < .001). 20 eyes (54%) reached UDVA ≥20/40, whereas 35 eyes (95%) reached a CDVA ≥20/40. Final refractive astigmatism was 0.93 ± 0.87 D, with 35 eyes (95%) within 2 D. Prediction error was ≤1 D in 18 eyes (49%). Absolute IOL misalignment was 3.3 ± 3.5 degrees. CONCLUSIONS: Toric IOL implantation in postkeratoplasty eyes allowed reduction of refractive astigmatism to predictably low levels with concomitant improved visual outcomes.


Subject(s)
Astigmatism , Cataract Extraction , Cataract , Lenses, Intraocular , Phacoemulsification , Astigmatism/surgery , Humans , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Refraction, Ocular
15.
Public Health Res Pract ; 32(3)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067393

ABSTRACT

Cataract surgery is a safe, effective and common elective procedure in Australia but access is inequitable. True waiting times for cataract care are undisclosed or inconsistently reported by governments. Estimates of true waiting times range from 4 to 30 months and have been extended during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Comparative analysis revealed that reducing waiting periods from 12 to 3 months would result in estimated public health system cost savings of $6.6 million by preventing 50 679 falls. Investment in public cataract services to address current unmet needs would prevent avoidable vision impairment and associated negative consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cataract Extraction , Cataract , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cataract/epidemiology , Humans , Waiting Lists
16.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 48(1): 3-7, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042649

ABSTRACT

In an online survey of >1200 global cataract surgeons, 66% were using intracameral (IC) antibiotic prophylaxis. This compared with 50% and 30% in the 2014 and 2007 surveys, respectively. Irrigation bottle infusion and intravitreal injection was each used by only 5% of respondents. For IC antibiotics, vancomycin was used by 6% in the United States (52% in 2014), compared with 83% for moxifloxacin (31% in 2014). Equal numbers used compounded moxifloxacin or the Vigamox bottle as the source. There was a decrease in respondents using preoperative (73% from 85%) and postoperative (86% from 97%) topical antibiotic prophylaxis; the latter was not used by 24% of surgeons injecting IC antibiotics. Reasons cited by those not using IC antibiotics include mixing/compounding risk (66%) and being unconvinced of the need (48%). However, 80% believe having a commercially approved IC antibiotic is important; if reasonably priced, this would increase adoption of IC prophylaxis to 93%.


Subject(s)
Cataract Extraction , Cataract , Endophthalmitis , Eye Infections, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/prevention & control , Humans , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 20: eAO6687, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955454

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the standards of practice of Brazilian cataract surgeons in relation to the protective measures adopted to mitigate the risks of transmission of COVID-19 during cataract surgery, in asymptomatic patients. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative paradigm study, developed from a self-administered electronic questionnaire sent to ophthalmologists and residents/specialists in ophthalmology in Brazil, who performed cataract surgeries in 2019 and 2020, connected through social media and mail listing from local societies. RESULTS: Of the 303 participating surgeons, 159 (n=52.2%) performed elective cataract surgeries between March 20th, 2020 to June 1st, 2020. Among the measures adopted by ophthalmologists with the purpose of preventing viral transmission, the patient's temperature was measured by 84.3% (n=134), and the verification of respiratory symptoms and contact/exposure to cases of COVID-19 by 87.4% (n=139). Most did not submit their patients to laboratory tests to detect COVID-19 (145; 91.2%). In surgery, 44.7% (n=71) used an N95 mask, and 69.2% (n=110) kept their patients with a mask. No stage of phacoemulsification was modified in 144 (90.6%) participants, 13 (8.2%) added methylcellulose under the main incision, and two (1.3%), modified another surgical stage. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly interrupted part of cataract surgeries in Brazil from March to June 2020 and measures to prevent viral spread are being heterogeneously adopted by surgeons. Understanding these measures could be the first step to improve strategies to return to pre-pandemic levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cataract , Cataract/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
N Z Med J ; 135(1553): 91-98, 2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1897649

ABSTRACT

Cataract surgery is a highly cost-effective treatment, but the surgical intervention rate in New Zealand ranks poorly compared with other high-income countries. The combination of a growing and ageing population, lost operating time due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and geographical disparities, is driving up an unmet demand for cataract surgery. We present several evidence-based strategies with overlapping benefits in access, equity, efficiency and sustainability. Key strategies include that Health New Zealand mandate a national prioritisation threshold for surgical access, and that PHARMAC leverage cheaper access to surgical supplies using nationally agreed equipment standards, establishing high-throughput cataract units, offering same day bilateral cataract surgery when appropriate, and rationalising post-operative care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cataract Extraction , Cataract , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cataract/epidemiology , Humans , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
20.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(6): 2153-2157, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875909

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To analyze the reasons for delay in cataract surgery in patients with advanced cataracts during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter questionnaire study which included patients with mature cataract, nuclear sclerotic cataract grade IV, and cataracts with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) <5/60, during the COVID-19 pandemic from December 2020 to April 2021. Reasons for delay in presentation to the hospital were analyzed. Results: One thousand four hundred seventy two patients were recruited with advanced cataracts. Absence of ophthalmic care nearby (44.2%), lack of awareness regarding elective surgeries (42.6%), lack of public transportation (37%), fear of contracting COVID-19 (23.4%), and waiting for outreach camps (20.4%) were found to be the reasons behind the delay in cataract surgery. 53.7% of the patients had worsening of defective vision and 55.3% of them had difficulty in carrying out activities of family living. 30.8% of the patients faced difficulty in commuting and 8.4% of the patients suffered a fall during this pandemic due to worsening of the visual acuity. Conclusion: The lockdown imposed during the pandemic has created a significant backlog of patients who are progressing to advanced cataracts due to lack of ophthalmic care nearby, lack of awareness regarding elective surgeries, lack of public transportation, and no outreach camps. Proactive measures to deal with this backlog are of utmost need to prevent blindness due to cataract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cataract , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cataract/complications , Cataract/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
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