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1.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580427

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a huge number of deaths from 2020 to 2021; however, effective antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 are currently under development. Recent studies have demonstrated that green tea polyphenols, particularly EGCG, inhibit coronavirus enzymes as well as coronavirus replication in vitro. Herein, we examined the inhibitory effect of green tea polyphenols on coronavirus replication in a mouse model. We used epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and green tea polyphenols containing more than 60% catechin (GTP60) and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. Scanning electron microscopy analysis results showed that HCoV-OC43 infection resulted in virion particle production in infected cells. EGCG and GTP60 treatment reduced coronavirus protein and virus production in the cells. Finally, EGCG- and GTP60-fed mice exhibited reduced levels of coronavirus RNA in mouse lungs. These results demonstrate that green tea polyphenol treatment is effective in decreasing the level of coronavirus in vivo.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Tea/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Catechin/pharmacology , Catechin/therapeutic use , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/therapeutic use
2.
Pharmacol Res ; 172: 105820, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531713

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which enter the host cells through the interaction between its receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike glycoprotein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on the plasma membrane of host cell. Neutralizing antibodies and peptide binders of RBD can block viral infection, however, the concern of accessibility and affordability of viral infection inhibitors has been raised. Here, we report the identification of natural compounds as potential SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors using the molecular docking-based virtual screening coupled with bilayer interferometry (BLI). From a library of 1871 natural compounds, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (RRg3), 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (SRg3), isobavachalcone (Ibvc), isochlorogenic A (IscA) and bakuchiol (Bkc) effectively inhibited pseudovirus entry at concentrations up to 100 µM. Among these compounds, four compounds, EGCG, Ibvc, salvianolic acid A (SalA), and isoliensinine (Isl), were effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2-induced cytopathic effect and plaque formation in Vero E6 cells. The EGCG was further validated with no observable animal toxicity and certain antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus mutants (D614G, N501Y, N439K & Y453F). Interestingly, EGCG, Bkc and Ibvc bind to ACE2 receptor in BLI assay, suggesting a dual binding to RBD and ACE2. Current findings shed some insight into identifications and validations of SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors from natural compounds.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding, Competitive , Biological Products/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Membrane/ultrastructure , Chalcones/pharmacology , Chlorogenic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Chlorogenic Acid/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Humans , Interferometry , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phenols/pharmacology , Protein Binding
3.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512511

ABSTRACT

This work describes an untargeted analytical approach for the screening, identification, and characterization of the trans-epithelial transport of green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechin extracts with in vitro inhibitory effect against the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro) activity. After specific catechin extraction, a chromatographic separation obtained six fractions were carried out. The fractions were assessed in vitro against the PLpro target. Fraction 5 showed the highest inhibitory activity against the SARS-CoV-2 PLpro (IC50 of 0.125 µg mL-1). The untargeted characterization revealed that (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) was the most abundant compound in the fraction and the primary molecule absorbed by differentiated Caco-2 cells. Results indicated that fraction 5 was approximately 10 times more active than ECG (IC50 value equal to 11.62 ± 0.47 µg mL-1) to inhibit the PLpro target. Overall, our findings highlight the synergistic effects of the various components of the crude extract compared to isolated ECG.


Subject(s)
Catechin/pharmacology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Tea/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Caco-2 Cells , Camellia sinensis/metabolism , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/chemistry , Catechin/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/drug effects , Epithelium/drug effects , Epithelium/metabolism , Humans , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tea/chemistry , Tea/physiology
4.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 4447-4454, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502185

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently ongoing worldwide and causes a lot of deaths in many countries. Although different vaccines for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been developed and are now available, there are no effective antiviral drugs to treat the disease, except for Remdesivir authorized by the US FDA to counteract the emergency. Thus, it can be useful to find alternative therapies based on the employment of natural compounds, with antiviral features, to circumvent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pre-clinical studies highlighted the antiviral activities of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a catechin primarily found in green tea, against various viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we summarize this experimental evidence and highlight the potential use of EGCG as an alternative therapeutic choice for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/virology , Catechin/administration & dosage , Catechin/pharmacology , Humans , Tea/chemistry
5.
Food Funct ; 12(20): 9607-9619, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500759

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the COVID-19 virus spread worldwide, infecting millions of people. Infectious diseases induced by pathogenic microorganisms such as the influenza virus, hepatitis virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also a major threat to public health. The high mortality caused by infectious pathogenic microorganisms is due to their strong virulence, which leads to the excessive counterattack by the host immune system and severe inflammatory damage of the immune system. This paper reviews the efficacy, mechanism and related immune regulation of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as an anti-pathogenic microorganism drug. EGCG mainly shows both direct and indirect anti-infection effects. EGCG directly inhibits early infection by interfering with the adsorption on host cells, inhibiting virus replication and reducing bacterial biofilm formation and toxin release; EGCG indirectly inhibits infection by regulating immune inflammation and antioxidation. At the same time, we reviewed the bioavailability and safety of EGCG in vivo. At present, the bioavailability of EGCG can be improved to some extent using nanostructured drug delivery systems and molecular modification technology in combination with other drugs. This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of EGCG as an adjuvant drug for anti-pathogenic microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Hepatitis Viruses/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
Food Funct ; 12(20): 9607-9619, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434159

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the COVID-19 virus spread worldwide, infecting millions of people. Infectious diseases induced by pathogenic microorganisms such as the influenza virus, hepatitis virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also a major threat to public health. The high mortality caused by infectious pathogenic microorganisms is due to their strong virulence, which leads to the excessive counterattack by the host immune system and severe inflammatory damage of the immune system. This paper reviews the efficacy, mechanism and related immune regulation of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as an anti-pathogenic microorganism drug. EGCG mainly shows both direct and indirect anti-infection effects. EGCG directly inhibits early infection by interfering with the adsorption on host cells, inhibiting virus replication and reducing bacterial biofilm formation and toxin release; EGCG indirectly inhibits infection by regulating immune inflammation and antioxidation. At the same time, we reviewed the bioavailability and safety of EGCG in vivo. At present, the bioavailability of EGCG can be improved to some extent using nanostructured drug delivery systems and molecular modification technology in combination with other drugs. This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of EGCG as an adjuvant drug for anti-pathogenic microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Hepatitis Viruses/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253489, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388925

ABSTRACT

In the pursuit of suitable and effective solutions to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we investigated the efficacy of several phenolic compounds in controlling key cellular mechanisms involved in its infectivity. The way the SARS-CoV-2 virus infects the cell is a complex process and comprises four main stages: attachment to the cognate receptor, cellular entry, replication and cellular egress. Since, this is a multi-part process, it creates many opportunities to develop effective interventions. Targeting binding of the virus to the host receptor in order to prevent its entry has been of particular interest. Here, we provide experimental evidence that, among 56 tested polyphenols, including plant extracts, brazilin, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, and curcumin displayed the highest binding with the receptor-binding domain of spike protein, inhibiting viral attachment to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, and thus cellular entry of pseudo-typed SARS-CoV-2 virions. Both, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate at 25 µg/ml and curcumin above 10 µg/ml concentration, showed binding with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor reducing at the same time its activity in both cell-free and cell-based assays. Our study also demonstrates that brazilin and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, and to a still greater extent, curcumin, decrease the activity of transmembrane serine protease 2 both in cell-free and cell-based assays. Similar pattern was observed with cathepsin L, although only theaflavin-3,3'-digallate showed a modest diminution of cathepsin L expression at protein level. Finally, each of these three compounds moderately increased endosomal/lysosomal pH. In conclusion, this study demonstrates pleiotropic anti-SARS-CoV-2 efficacy of specific polyphenols and their prospects for further scientific and clinical investigations.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , A549 Cells , Benzopyrans/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Curcumin/pharmacology , Humans , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virion/drug effects , Virion/metabolism , Virion/physiology , Virus Attachment/drug effects
8.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288963

ABSTRACT

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant component of catechins in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze), plays a role against viruses through inhibiting virus invasiveness, restraining gene expression and replication. In this paper, the antiviral effects of EGCG on various viruses, including DNA virus, RNA virus, coronavirus, enterovirus and arbovirus, were reviewed. Meanwhile, the antiviral effects of the EGCG epi-isomer counterpart (+)-gallocatechin-3-O-gallate (GCG) were also discussed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Tea/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Catechin/pharmacology , Catechin/therapeutic use , Humans , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects
9.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270089

ABSTRACT

Potential effects of tea and its constituents on SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed in vitro. Infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 was decreased to 1/100 to undetectable levels after a treatment with black tea, green tea, roasted green tea, or oolong tea for 1 min. An addition of (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) significantly inactivated SARS-CoV-2, while the same concentration of theasinensin A (TSA) and galloylated theaflavins including theaflavin 3,3'-di-O-gallate (TFDG) had more remarkable anti-viral activities. EGCG, TSA, and TFDG at 1 mM, 40 µM, and 60 µM, respectively, which are comparable to the concentrations of these compounds in tea beverages, significantly reduced infectivity of the virus, viral RNA replication in cells, and secondary virus production from the cells. EGCG, TSA, and TFDG significantly inhibited interaction between recombinant ACE2 and RBD of S protein. These results suggest potential usefulness of tea in prevention of person-to-person transmission of the novel coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/chemistry , Catechin/chemistry , Gallic Acid/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tea/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gallic Acid/chemistry , Gallic Acid/pharmacology , Humans , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tea/metabolism , Vero Cells
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(21): 5948-5954, 2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237967

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus strain that initiated the COVID-19 pandemic, and its subsequent variants present challenges to vaccine development and treatment. As the coronavirus evades the host innate immune response at the initial stage of infection, the disease can have a long nonsymptomatic period. The uridylate-specific endoribonuclease Nsp15 processes the viral genome for replication and cleaves the polyU sequence in the viral RNA to interfere with the host immune system. This study screened natural compounds in vitro to identify inhibitors against Nsp15 from SARS-CoV-2. Three natural compounds, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), baicalin, and quercetin, were identified as potential inhibitors. Potent antiviral activity of EGCG was confirmed in plaque reduction neutralization tests with a SARS-CoV-2 strain (PRNT50 = 0.20 µM). Because the compound has been used as a functional food ingredient due to its beneficial health effects, we theorize that this natural compound may help inhibit viral replication while minimizing safety issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Endoribonucleases , Humans , Pandemics , Uridylate-Specific Endoribonucleases , Viral Nonstructural Proteins
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2114, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174670

ABSTRACT

Lack of detailed knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been hampering the development of treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we report that RNA triggers the liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein, N. By analyzing all 29 proteins of SARS-CoV-2, we find that only N is predicted as an LLPS protein. We further confirm the LLPS of N during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among the 100,849 genome variants of SARS-CoV-2 in the GISAID database, we identify that ~37% (36,941) of the genomes contain a specific trio-nucleotide polymorphism (GGG-to-AAC) in the coding sequence of N, which leads to the amino acid substitutions, R203K/G204R. Interestingly, NR203K/G204R exhibits a higher propensity to undergo LLPS and a greater effect on IFN inhibition. By screening the chemicals known to interfere with N-RNA binding in other viruses, we find that (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), a polyphenol from green tea, disrupts the LLPS of N and inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication. Thus, our study reveals that targeting N-RNA condensation with GCG could be a potential treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Substitution/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Catechin/pharmacology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Liquid-Liquid Extraction , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics
14.
J Gen Virol ; 102(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172672

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has caused a pandemic with tens of millions of cases and more than a million deaths. The infection causes COVID-19, a disease of the respiratory system of divergent severity. No treatment exists. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major component of green tea, has several beneficial properties, including antiviral activities. Therefore, we examined whether EGCG has antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. EGCG blocked not only the entry of SARS-CoV-2, but also MERS- and SARS-CoV pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited virus infections in vitro. Mechanistically, inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 spike-receptor interaction was observed. Thus, EGCG might be suitable for use as a lead structure to develop more effective anti-COVID-19 drugs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tea/chemistry , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Catechin/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lentivirus/drug effects , Lentivirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100140

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has emerged to be the greatest threat to humanity in the modern world and has claimed nearly 2.2 million lives worldwide. The United States alone accounts for more than one fourth of 100 million COVID-19 cases across the globe. Although vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has begun, its efficacy in preventing a new or repeat COVID-19 infection in immunized individuals is yet to be determined. Calls for repurposing of existing, approved, drugs that target the inflammatory condition in COVID-19 are growing. Our initial gene ontology analysis predicts a similarity between SARS-CoV-2 induced inflammatory and immune dysregulation and the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, many of the drugs related to rheumatoid arthritis have been found to be lifesaving and contribute to lower COVID-19 morbidity. We also performed in silico investigation of binding of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a well-known catechin, and other catechins on viral proteins and identified papain-like protease protein (PLPro) as a binding partner. Catechins bind to the S1 ubiquitin-binding site of PLPro, which might inhibit its protease function and abrogate SARS-CoV-2 inhibitory function on ubiquitin proteasome system and interferon stimulated gene system. In the realms of addressing inflammation and how to effectively target SARS-CoV-2 mediated respiratory distress syndrome, we review in this article the available knowledge on the strategic placement of EGCG in curbing inflammatory signals and how it may serve as a broad spectrum therapeutic in asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Tea/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Catechin/chemistry , Catechin/therapeutic use , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 176: 1-12, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062378

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent responsible for the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The main protease of SARS-CoV-2, 3CLpro, is an attractive target for antiviral inhibitors due to its indispensable role in viral replication and gene expression of viral proteins. The search of compounds that can effectively inhibit the crucial activity of 3CLpro, which results to interference of the virus life cycle, is now widely pursued. Here, we report that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an active ingredient of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), is a potent inhibitor of 3CLpro with half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.874 ± 0.005 µM. In the study, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 123 cases of COVID-19 patients, and found three effective Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) prescriptions. Multiple strategies were performed to screen potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro from the active ingredients of TCMs, including network pharmacology, molecular docking, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based inhibition assay. The SPR assay showed good interaction between EGCG and 3CLpro with KD ~6.17 µM, suggesting a relatively high affinity of EGCG with SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Our results provide critical insights into the mechanism of action of EGCG as a potential therapeutic agent against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Catechin/administration & dosage , Catechin/pharmacology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Female , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/methods , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Middle Aged , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , Virus Replication/drug effects , Young Adult
18.
Comput Biol Med ; 129: 104137, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a novel positive-sense single-stranded RNA coronavirus called as SARS-CoV-2. This viral disease is known to infect the respiratory system, eventually leading to pneumonia. Crystallographic studies of the viral structure reveal its mechanism of infection as well as active binding sites and the druggable targets as scope for treatment of COVID-19. HYPOTHESIS: The role of tea polyphenols in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 was established in this study. STUDY DESIGN: Molecular docking interactions of tea polyphenols with some of the possible binding sites of SARS-CoV-2 were performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From various studies on the SARS-CoV-2 reported in the literature, we chose possible drug targets (Chymotrypsin-like protease, RNA dependant RNA polymerase, Papain like protease, Spike RBD and ACE2 receptor with spike RBD) which are vital proteins. These receptors were docked against two tea polyphenols, Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) from green tea and Theaflavin digallate (TF3) from black tea. These polyphenols have been previously reviewed for their antiviral activities, especially against single-stranded RNA viruses. Two antiviral drugs, Remdesivir and Favipiravir were studied for comparative docking results. RESULTS: A comparative study of docking scores and the type of interactions of EGCG, TF3 with the possible targets of COVID-19 showed that the tea polyphenols had good docking scores with significant in-silico activity. CONCLUSION: These results can provide a lead in exploring both the tea polyphenols in prophylaxis as well as treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biflavonoids/chemistry , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Gallic Acid/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Catechin/chemistry , Catechin/pharmacology , Gallic Acid/chemistry , Gallic Acid/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation
19.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 85(7): 833-837, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772260

ABSTRACT

Nrf2 is a key transcription factor responsible for antioxidant defense in many tissues and cells, including alveolar epithelium, endothelium, and macrophages. Furthermore, Nrf2 functions as a transcriptional repressor that inhibits expression of the inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection often present signs of high oxidative stress and systemic inflammation - the leading causes of mortality. This article suggests rationale for the use of Nrf2 inducers to prevent development of an excessive inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Catechin/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dimethyl Fumarate/pharmacology , Dimethyl Fumarate/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation/metabolism , Isothiocyanates/pharmacology , Isothiocyanates/therapeutic use , Male , Mice , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sulfoxides , Thiosulfates/pharmacology , Thiosulfates/therapeutic use
20.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153286, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-701846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 or nCoV has caused countries all over the world to impose lockdowns and undertake stringent preventive measures. This new positive-sense single-stranded RNA strain of coronavirus spreads through droplets of saliva and nasal discharge. PURPOSE: US FDA has authorized the emergency use of Remdesivir looking at the increasing number of cases of COVID-19, however there is still no drug approved to treat COVID-19. An alternative way of treatment could be the use of naturally derived molecules with known antiviral properties. METHOD: We reviewed the antiviral activities of two polyphenols derived from tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea and theaflavins from black tea. Both green tea and black tea polyphenols have been reported to exhibit antiviral activities against various viruses, especially positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. RESULTS: Recent studies have revealed the possible binding sites present on SARS-CoV-2 and studied their interactions with tea polyphenols. EGCG and theaflavins, especially theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3) have shown a significant interaction with the receptors under consideration in this review. Some docking studies further emphasize on the activity of these polyphenols against COVID-19. CONCLUSION: This review summarizes the available reports and evidences which support the use of tea polyphenols as potential candidates in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tea/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Camellia sinensis/chemistry , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Humans
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