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1.
Chem Biol Interact ; 353: 109796, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611644

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a serious global public health emergency. Hospitalization and mortality rates of lung cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19 are higher than those of patients presenting with other cancers. However, the reasons for the outcomes being disproportionately severe in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients with COVID-19 remain elusive. The present study aimed to identify the possible causes for disproportionately severe COVID-19 outcomes in LUAD patients and determine a therapeutic target for COVID-19 patients with LUAD. We used publicly available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases and various bioinformatics tools to identify and analyze the genes implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection in LUAD patients. Upregulation of the SARS-CoV-2 infection-related molecules dipeptidyl peptidase 4, basigin, cathepsin B (CTSB), methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, and peptidylprolyl isomerase B rather than angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 may explain the relatively high susceptibility of LUAD patients to SARS-CoV-2 infection. CTSB was highly expressed in the LUAD tissues after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and its expression was positively correlated with immune cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine expression. These findings suggest that CTSB plays a vital role in the hyperinflammatory response in COVID-19 patients with LUAD and is a promising target for the development of a novel drug therapy for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung/virology , COVID-19/genetics , Cathepsin B/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/immunology , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/mortality , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Basigin/genetics , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Cricetinae , Cyclophilins/genetics , Cytokines/blood , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NADP)/genetics , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Prognosis , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , Up-Regulation
2.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256141, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362089

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 requires serine protease, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), and cysteine proteases, cathepsins B, L (CTSB/L) for entry into host cells. These host proteases activate the spike protein and enable SARS-CoV-2 entry. We herein performed genomic-guided gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to identify upstream regulatory elements altering the expression of TMPRSS2 and CTSB/L. Further, medicinal compounds were identified based on their effects on gene expression signatures of the modulators of TMPRSS2 and CTSB/L genes. Using this strategy, estradiol and retinoic acid have been identified as putative SARS-CoV-2 alleviation agents. Next, we analyzed drug-gene and gene-gene interaction networks using 809 human targets of SARS-CoV-2 proteins. The network results indicate that estradiol interacts with 370 (45%) and retinoic acid interacts with 251 (31%) human proteins. Interestingly, a combination of estradiol and retinoic acid interacts with 461 (56%) of human proteins, indicating the therapeutic benefits of drug combination therapy. Finally, molecular docking analysis suggests that both the drugs bind to TMPRSS2 and CTSL with the nanomolar to low micromolar affinity. The results suggest that these drugs can simultaneously target both the entry pathways of SARS-CoV-2 and thus can be considered as a potential treatment option for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cathepsin B/genetics , Cathepsin L/genetics , Estradiol/pharmacology , Genomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Tretinoin/pharmacology , Cathepsin B/chemistry , Cathepsin L/chemistry , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Gene Regulatory Networks/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
3.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(12): e13626, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fever-7 is a test evaluating host mRNA expression levels of IFI27, JUP, LAX, HK3, TNIP1, GPAA1 and CTSB in blood able to detect viral infections. This test has been validated mostly in hospital settings. Here we have evaluated Fever-7 to identify the presence of respiratory viral infections in a Community Health Center. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in the "Servicio de Urgencias de Atención Primaria" in Salamanca, Spain. Patients with clinical signs of respiratory infection and at least one point in the National Early Warning Score were recruited. Fever-7 mRNAs were profiled on a Nanostring nCounter® SPRINT instrument from blood collected upon patient enrolment. Viral diagnosis was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) using the Biofire-RP2 panel. RESULTS: A respiratory virus was detected in the NPAs of 66 of the 100 patients enrolled. Median National Early Warning Score was 7 in the group with no virus detected and 6.5 in the group with a respiratory viral infection (P > .05). The Fever-7 score yielded an overall AUC of 0.81 to predict a positive viral syndromic test. The optimal operating point for the Fever-7 score yielded a sensitivity of 82% with a specificity of 71%. Multivariate analysis showed that Fever-7 was a robust marker of viral infection independently of age, sex, major comorbidities and disease severity at presentation (OR [CI95%], 3.73 [2.14-6.51], P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Fever-7 is a promising host immune mRNA signature for the early identification of a respiratory viral infection in the community.


Subject(s)
RNA, Messenger/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cathepsin B/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Early Warning Score , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Male , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Nasopharynx/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/genetics , Transcriptome , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/genetics , gamma Catenin/genetics
4.
Hereditas ; 158(1): 4, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world. In addition to common respiratory symptoms such as cough and fever, some patients also have cardiac injury, however, the mechanism of cardiac injury is not clear. In this study, we analyzed the RNA expression atlases of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2), cathepsin B (CTSB) and cathepsin L (CTSL) in the human embryonic heart at single-cell resolution. RESULTS: The results showed that ACE2 was preferentially enriched in cardiomyocytes. Interestingly, serine protease transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) had less expression in cardiomyocytes, but CTSB and CTSL, which belonged to cell protease, could be found to be enriched in cardiomyocytes. The results of enrichment analysis showed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ACE2-positive cardiomyocytes were mainly enriched in the processes of cardiac muscle contraction, regulation of cardiac conduction, mitochondrial respiratory chain, ion channel binding, adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes and viral transcription. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that both atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes are potentially susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2(SARS-CoV-2), and SARS-CoV-2 may enter ventricular cardiomyocytes using CTSB/CTSL for S protein priming. This may be the partial cellular mechanism of cardiac injury in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Heart/embryology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsin B/genetics , Cathepsin L/genetics , Gene Ontology , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243959, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067398

ABSTRACT

There has been significant concern regarding fertility and reproductive outcomes during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. Recent data suggests a high concentration of SARS-Cov2 receptors, ACE2 or TMPRSS2, in nasal epithelium and cornea, which explains person-to-person transmission. We investigated the prevalence of SARS-CoV2 receptors among reproductive tissues by exploring the single-cell sequencing datasets from uterus, myometrium, ovary, fallopian tube, and breast epithelium. We did not detect significant expression of either ACE2 or TMPRSS2 in the normal human myometrium, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tube, or breast. Furthermore, none of the cell types in the female reproductive organs we investigated, showed the co-expression of ACE2 with proteases, TMPRSS2, Cathepsin B (CTSB), and Cathepsin L (CTSL) known to facilitate the entry of SARS2-CoV2 into the host cell. These results suggest that myometrium, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tube, and breast are unlikely to be susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Cathepsin B/genetics , Cathepsin L/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Breast/metabolism , Breast/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Epithelium/metabolism , Epithelium/virology , Fallopian Tubes/metabolism , Fallopian Tubes/virology , Female , Fertility/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Myometrium/metabolism , Myometrium/virology , Ovary/metabolism , Ovary/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reproductive Tract Infections/genetics , Reproductive Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Uterus/metabolism , Uterus/virology
6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(22): 22370-22389, 2020 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967740

ABSTRACT

SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading widely and posing an international challenge for both healthcare and society. At present, cancer has been identified as an individual risk factor for COVID-19. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Cathepsin L/Cathepsin B (CTSL/B), which act as the receptor and entry-associated proteases of SARS-CoV-2 respectively, are pivotal for SARS-CoV-2 infection. To investigate the possible SARS-CoV-2 infection risk of pan-cancer, we analyzed the genetic alterations, RNA expression, DNA methylation, and the association with immune subtypes of ACE2 and CTSL/B with the prognosis in pan-cancer. Results showed the upregulation of CTSL/B and ACE2 in Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) and Stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) and demonstrated a positive correlation between copy number alteration (CNA) and gene expression for CTSB in PAAD and STAD. Hypomethylation and a negative correlation of gene expression and methylation for CTSB were detected in PAAD. In addition, ACE2 and CTSL/B are overexpressed in the IFN-gamma immune subtype of ovarian serous Cystadenocarcinoma (OV), Cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma (CESC), and Bladder urothelial carcinoma (BLCA). Our study presents a bioinformatics assessment for the potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pan-cancer.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cathepsin B/genetics , Cathepsin L/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsin B/immunology , Cathepsin L/immunology , Computational Biology , DNA Methylation , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epigenomics , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/immunology , Genetic Variation , Humans , Mutation , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Transcriptome , Virus Internalization
7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 121, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640304
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