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1.
PLoS Med ; 19(3): e1003922, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission through corneal graft is an ongoing debate and leads to strict restrictions in corneas procurement, leading to a major decrease in eye banking activity. The aims of this study are to specifically assess the capacity of human cornea to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 and promote its replication ex vivo, and to evaluate the real-life risk of corneal contamination by detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in corneas retrieved in donors diagnosed with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and nonaffected donors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To assess the capacity of human cornea to be infected by SARS-CoV-2, the expression pattern of SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) and activators TMPRSS2 and Cathepsins B and L in ocular surface tissues from nonaffected donors was explored by immunohistochemistry (n = 10 corneas, 78 ± 11 years, 40% female) and qPCR (n = 5 corneas, 80 ± 12 years, 40% female). Additionally, 5 freshly excised corneas (80 ± 12 years, 40% female) were infected ex vivo with highly concentrated SARS-CoV-2 solution (106 median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/mL). Viral RNA was extracted from tissues and culture media and quantified by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) (viral RNA copies) 30 minutes (H0) and 24 hours (H24) after infection. To assess the risk of corneal contamination by SARS-CoV-2, viral RNA was tested by RT-qPCR (Ct value) in both corneas and organ culture media from 14 donors diagnosed with COVID-19 (74 ± 10 years, 29% female) and 26 healthy donors (79 ± 13 years, 57% female), and in organ culture media only from 133 consecutive nonaffected donors from 2 eye banks (73 ± 13 years, 29% female). The expression of receptor and activators was variable among samples at both protein and mRNA level. Based on immunohistochemistry findings, ACE-2 was localized mainly in the most superficial epithelial cells of peripheral cornea, limbus, and conjunctiva, whereas TMPRSS2 was mostly expressed in all layers of bulbar conjunctiva. A significant increase in total and positive strands of IP4 RNA sequence (RdRp viral gene) was observed from 30 minutes to 24 hours postinfection in central cornea (1.1 × 108 [95% CI: 6.4 × 107 to 2.4 × 108] to 3.0 × 109 [1.4 × 109 to 5.3 × 109], p = 0.0039 and 2.2 × 107 [1.4 × 107 to 3.6 × 107] to 5.1 × 107 [2.9 × 107 to 7.5 × 107], p = 0.0117, respectively) and in corneoscleral rim (4.5 × 109 [2.7 × 109 to 9.6 × 109] to 3.9 × 1010 [2.6 × 1010 to 4.4 × 1010], p = 0.0039 and 3.1 × 108 [1.2 × 108 to 5.3 × 108] to 7.8 × 108 [3.9 × 108 to 9.9 × 108], p = 0.0391, respectively). Viral RNA copies in ex vivo corneas were highly variable from one donor to another. Finally, viral RNA was detected in 3 out of 28 corneas (11%) from donors diagnosed with COVID-19. All samples from the 159 nonaffected donors were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The main limitation of this study relates to the limited sample size, due to limited access to donors diagnosed with COVID-19 and concomitant decrease in the procurement corneas from nonaffected donors. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed the expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors and activators at the human ocular surface and a variable increase in viral RNA copies 24 hours after experimental infection of freshly excised human corneas. We also found viral RNA only in a very limited percentage of donors with positive nasopharyngeal PCR. The low rate of positivity in donors diagnosed with COVID-19 calls into question the utility of donor selection algorithms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Agence de la Biomédecine, PFS-20-011 https://www.agence-biomedecine.fr/.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cornea/virology , Corneal Diseases/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Cathepsins/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cornea/metabolism , Culture Media , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Culture Techniques , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112756, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708753

ABSTRACT

The 2019 corona virus disease (COVID-19) has caused a global chaos, where a novel Omicron variant has challenged the healthcare system, followed by which it has been referred to as a variant of concern (VOC) by the World Health Organization (WHO), owing to its alarming transmission and infectivity rate. The large number of mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein is responsible for strengthening of the spike-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) interaction, thereby explaining the elevated threat. This is supplemented by enhanced resistance of the variant towards pre-existing antibodies approved for the COVID-19 therapy. The manuscript brings into light failure of existing therapies to provide the desired effect, however simultaneously discussing the novel possibilities on the verge of establishing suitable treatment portfolio. The authors entail the risks associated with omicron resistance against antibodies and vaccine ineffectiveness on one side, and novel approaches and targets - kinase inhibitors, viral protease inhibitors, phytoconstituents, entry pathways - on the other. The manuscript aims to provide a holistic picture about the Omicron variant, by providing comprehensive discussions related to multiple aspects of the mutated spike variant, which might aid the global researchers and healthcare experts in finding an optimised solution to this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cathepsins/metabolism , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Secondary , Phytotherapy/methods , Plants, Medicinal , Protein Binding/physiology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/physiology , Protein Structural Elements/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use
3.
Nature ; 603(7902): 715-720, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661972

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern with progressively increased transmissibility between humans is a threat to global public health. The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 also evades immunity from natural infection or vaccines1, but it is unclear whether its exceptional transmissibility is due to immune evasion or intrinsic virological properties. Here we compared the replication competence and cellular tropism of the wild-type virus and the D614G, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (B.1.1.529) variants in ex vivo explant cultures of human bronchi and lungs. We also evaluated the dependence on TMPRSS2 and cathepsins for infection. We show that Omicron replicates faster than all other SARS-CoV-2 variants studied in the bronchi but less efficiently in the lung parenchyma. All variants of concern have similar cellular tropism compared to the wild type. Omicron is more dependent on cathepsins than the other variants of concern tested, suggesting that the Omicron variant enters cells through a different route compared with the other variants. The lower replication competence of Omicron in the human lungs may explain the reduced severity of Omicron that is now being reported in epidemiological studies, although determinants of severity are multifactorial. These findings provide important biological correlates to previous epidemiological observations.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/virology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Viral Tropism , Virus Replication , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsins/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endocytosis , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Tissue Culture Techniques , Vero Cells
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 483-497, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606402

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has set off a global pandemic. There is an urgent unmet need for safe, affordable, and effective therapeutics against COVID-19. In this regard, drug repurposing is considered as a promising approach. We assessed the compounds that affect the endosomal acidic environment by applying human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2)- expressing cells infected with a SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein-pseudotyped HIV reporter virus and identified that obatoclax resulted in the strongest inhibition of S protein-mediated virus entry. The potent antiviral activity of obatoclax at nanomolar concentrations was confirmed in different human lung and intestinal cells infected with the SARS-CoV-2 pseudotype system as well as clinical virus isolates. Furthermore, we uncovered that obatoclax executes a double-strike against SARS-CoV-2. It prevented SARS-CoV-2 entry by blocking endocytosis of virions through diminished endosomal acidification and the corresponding inhibition of the enzymatic activity of the endosomal cysteine protease cathepsin L. Additionally, obatoclax impaired the SARS-CoV-2 S-mediated membrane fusion by targeting the MCL-1 protein and reducing furin protease activity. In accordance with these overarching mechanisms, obatoclax blocked the virus entry mediated by different S proteins derived from several SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern such as, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Delta (B.1.617.2). Taken together, our results identified obatoclax as a novel effective antiviral compound that keeps SARS-CoV-2 at bay by blocking both endocytosis and membrane fusion. Our data suggested that obatoclax should be further explored as a clinical drug for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cathepsins/metabolism , Furin/metabolism , Indoles/pharmacology , Pyrroles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization/drug effects , COVID-19 , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7970-7983, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337804

ABSTRACT

The novel ß-coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has infected more than 177 million people and resulted in 3.84 million death worldwide. Recent epidemiological studies suggested that some environmental factors, such as air pollution, might be the important contributors to the mortality of COVID-19. However, how environmental exposure enhances the severity of COVID-19 remains to be fully understood. In the present report, we provided evidence showing that mdig, a previously reported environmentally-induced oncogene that antagonizes repressive trimethylation of histone proteins, is an important regulator for SARS-CoV-2 receptors neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and NRP2, cathepsins, glycan metabolism and inflammation, key determinants for viral infection and cytokine storm of the patients. Depletion of mdig in bronchial epithelial cells by CRISPR-Cas-9 gene editing resulted in a decreased expression of NRP1, NRP2, cathepsins, and genes involved in protein glycosylation and inflammation, largely due to a substantial enrichment of lysine 9 and/or lysine 27 trimethylation of histone H3 (H3K9me3/H3K27me3) on these genes as determined by ChIP-seq. Meanwhile, we also validated that environmental factor arsenic is able to induce mdig, NRP1 and NRP2, and genetic disruption of mdig lowered expression of NRP1 and NRP2. Furthermore, mdig may coordinate with the Neanderthal variants linked to an elevated mortality of COVID-19. These data, thus, suggest that mdig is a key mediator for the severity of COVID-19 in response to environmental exposure and targeting mdig may be the one of the effective strategies in ameliorating the symptom and reducing the mortality of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Dioxygenases/metabolism , Histone Demethylases/metabolism , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Polysaccharides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cathepsins/metabolism , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Dioxygenases/biosynthesis , Dioxygenases/genetics , Environmental Exposure , Histone Demethylases/biosynthesis , Histone Demethylases/genetics , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Nuclear Proteins/biosynthesis , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Rats , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
6.
Virol J ; 18(1): 154, 2021 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322940

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has put healthcare infrastructures and our social and economic lives under unprecedented strain. Effective solutions are needed to end the pandemic while significantly lessening its further impact on mortality and social and economic life. Effective and widely-available vaccines have appropriately long been seen as the best way to end the pandemic. Indeed, the current availability of several effective vaccines are already making a significant progress towards achieving that goal. Nevertheless, concerns have risen due to new SARS-CoV-2 variants that harbor mutations against which current vaccines are less effective. Furthermore, some individuals are unwilling or unable to take the vaccine. As health officials across the globe scramble to vaccinate their populations to reach herd immunity, the challenges noted above indicate that COVID-19 therapeutics are still needed to work alongside the vaccines. Here we describe the impact that neutralizing antibodies have had on those with early or mild COVID-19, and what their approval for early management of COVID-19 means for other viral entry inhibitors that have a similar mechanism of action. Importantly, we also highlight studies that show that therapeutic strategies involving various viral entry inhibitors such as multivalent antibodies, recombinant ACE2 and miniproteins can be effective not only for pre-exposure prophylaxis, but also in protecting against SARS-CoV-2 antigenic drift and future zoonotic sarbecoviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Cathepsins/metabolism , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(7): 899-909, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205445

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 entry requires sequential cleavage of the spike glycoprotein at the S1/S2 and the S2' cleavage sites to mediate membrane fusion. SARS-CoV-2 has a polybasic insertion (PRRAR) at the S1/S2 cleavage site that can be cleaved by furin. Using lentiviral pseudotypes and a cell-culture-adapted SARS-CoV-2 virus with an S1/S2 deletion, we show that the polybasic insertion endows SARS-CoV-2 with a selective advantage in lung cells and primary human airway epithelial cells, but impairs replication in Vero E6, a cell line used for passaging SARS-CoV-2. Using engineered spike variants and live virus competition assays and by measuring growth kinetics, we find that the selective advantage in lung and primary human airway epithelial cells depends on the expression of the cell surface protease TMPRSS2, which enables endosome-independent virus entry by a route that avoids antiviral IFITM proteins. SARS-CoV-2 virus lacking the S1/S2 furin cleavage site was shed to lower titres from infected ferrets and was not transmitted to cohoused sentinel animals, unlike wild-type virus. Analysis of 100,000 SARS-CoV-2 sequences derived from patients and 24 human postmortem tissues showed low frequencies of naturally occurring mutants that harbour deletions at the polybasic site. Taken together, our findings reveal that the furin cleavage site is an important determinant of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Furin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsins/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endosomes/metabolism , Epithelial Cells , Ferrets , Humans , Immune Evasion , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Respiratory System/cytology , Respiratory System/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Genome Packaging , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication , Virus Shedding
8.
Protein Sci ; 30(6): 1131-1143, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159117

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Proteases are central to the infection process of SARS-CoV-2. Cleavage of the spike protein on the virus's capsid causes the conformational change that leads to membrane fusion and viral entry into the target cell. Since inhibition of one protease, even the dominant protease like TMPRSS2, may not be sufficient to block SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells, other proteases that may play an activating role and hydrolyze the spike protein must be identified. We identified amino acid sequences in all regions of spike protein, including the S1/S2 region critical for activation and viral entry, that are susceptible to cleavage by furin and cathepsins B, K, L, S, and V using PACMANS, a computational platform that identifies and ranks preferred sites of proteolytic cleavage on substrates, and verified with molecular docking analysis and immunoblotting to determine if binding of these proteases can occur on the spike protein that were identified as possible cleavage sites. Together, this study highlights cathepsins B, K, L, S, and V for consideration in SARS-CoV-2 infection and presents methodologies by which other proteases can be screened to determine a role in viral entry. This highlights additional proteases to be considered in COVID-19 studies, particularly regarding exacerbated damage in inflammatory preconditions where these proteases are generally upregulated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cathepsins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Proteolysis , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization
9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 546: 97-102, 2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062239

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes elevated production of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) markers by macrophages. SARS-CoV-2 enters macrophages through its Spike-protein aided by cathepsin (Cat) B and L, which also mediate SASP production. Since M-CSF and IL-34 control macrophage differentiation, we investigated the age-dependent effects of the Spike-protein on SASP-related pro-inflammatory-cytokines and nuclear-senescence-regulatory-factors, and CatB, L and K, in mouse M-CSF- and IL-34-differentiated macrophages. The Spike-protein upregulated SASP expression in young and aged male M-CSF-macrophages. In contrast, only young and aged male IL-34-macrophages demonstrated significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in response to the Spike-protein in vitro. Furthermore, the S-protein elevated CatB expression in young male M-CSF-macrophages and young female IL-34-macrophages, whereas CatL was overexpressed in young male IL-34- and old male M-CSF-macrophages. Surprisingly, the S-protein increased CatK activity in young and aged male M-CSF-macrophages, indicating that CatK may be also involved in the COVID-19 pathology. Altogether, we demonstrated the age- and sex-dependent effects of the Spike-protein on M-CSF and IL-34-macrophages using a novel in vitro mouse model of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Macrophages/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology , Animals , Cathepsins/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cellular Senescence , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Interleukins , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophages/cytology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
10.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(14): 2207-2215, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048209

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has emerged as a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to elevated markers of cardiac injury associated with higher risk of mortality. It is unclear whether cardiac injury is caused by direct infection of cardiomyocytes or is mainly secondary to lung injury and inflammation. Here, we investigate whether cardiomyocytes are permissive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two strains of SARS-CoV-2 infected human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes as demonstrated by detection of intracellular double-stranded viral RNA and viral spike glycoprotein expression. Increasing concentrations of viral RNA are detected in supernatants of infected cardiomyocytes, which induced infections in Caco-2 cell lines, documenting productive infections. SARS-CoV-2 infection and induced cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects associated with it abolished cardiomyocyte beating. RNA sequencing confirmed a transcriptional response to viral infection as demonstrated by the up-regulation of genes associated with pathways related to viral response and interferon signalling, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen stress. SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiotoxicity was confirmed in a 3D cardiosphere tissue model. Importantly, viral spike protein and viral particles were detected in living human heart slices after infection with SARS-CoV-2. Coronavirus particles were further observed in cardiomyocytes of a patient with coronavirus disease 2019. Infection of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes was dependent on cathepsins and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, and was blocked by remdesivir. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 infects cardiomyocytes in vitro in an angiotensin-converting enzyme 2- and cathepsin-dependent manner. SARS-CoV-2 infection of cardiomyocytes is inhibited by the antiviral drug remdesivir.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/virology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Caco-2 Cells , Cathepsins/metabolism , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/metabolism , Heart Diseases/pathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction
11.
Redox Biol ; 36: 101615, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610976

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. While the majority of people with COVID-19 won't require hospitalization, those who do may experience severe life-threatening complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 infects human cells by binding to the cellular surface protein angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2); in addition, the cellular transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) is needed for priming of the spike (S) protein of the virus. Virus entry may also depend on the activity of the endosomal/lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsin B, L (CTSB, CTSL) although their activity is likely dispensable. Given that the uncertainty of how COVID-19 kills, hampers doctors' ability to choose treatments the need for a deep understanding of COVID-19 biology is urgent. Herein, we performed an expression profiling meta-analysis of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSB/L genes (and proteins) in public repository databases and found that all are widely expressed in human tissues; also, the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes tend to be co-regulated. The ACE2 and TMPRSS genes expression is (among others) suppressed by TNF, and is induced by pro-inflammatory conditions including obesity, Barrett's esophagus, stomach infection by helicobacter pylori, diabetes, autoimmune diseases and oxidized LDL; by exercise, as well as by growth factors, viruses' infections, cigarette smoke, interferons and androgens. Regarding currently investigated therapies interferon-beta induced ACE2 gene expression in bronchial epithelial cells, while chloroquine tends to upregulate CTSB/L genes. Finally, we analyzed KEGG pathways modulated by ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSB/L and probed DrugBank for drugs that target modules of the affected pathways. Our data indicate possible novel high-risk groups for COVID-19; provide a rich resource for future investigations of its pathogenesis and highlight the therapeutic challenges we face.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cathepsins/genetics , Cathepsins/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175942

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs), including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and the novel coronavirus disease-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a group of enveloped RNA viruses that cause a severe respiratory infection which is associated with a high mortality [...].


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/metabolism , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Cathepsins/metabolism , Cell Death/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Creatinine/blood , Critical Illness/mortality , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/enzymology , Endosomes/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Incidence , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/physiopathology , Lysosomes/drug effects , Lysosomes/enzymology , Lysosomes/metabolism , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1620, 2020 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17830

ABSTRACT

Since 2002, beta coronaviruses (CoV) have caused three zoonotic outbreaks, SARS-CoV in 2002-2003, MERS-CoV in 2012, and the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019. However, little is currently known about the biology of SARS-CoV-2. Here, using SARS-CoV-2 S protein pseudovirus system, we confirm that human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, find that SARS-CoV-2 enters 293/hACE2 cells mainly through endocytosis, that PIKfyve, TPC2, and cathepsin L are critical for entry, and that SARS-CoV-2 S protein is less stable than SARS-CoV S. Polyclonal anti-SARS S1 antibodies T62 inhibit entry of SARS-CoV S but not SARS-CoV-2 S pseudovirions. Further studies using recovered SARS and COVID-19 patients' sera show limited cross-neutralization, suggesting that recovery from one infection might not protect against the other. Our results present potential targets for development of drugs and vaccines for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Cathepsins/antagonists & inhibitors , Cathepsins/metabolism , Cell Fusion , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross Reactions , Endocytosis , Giant Cells/physiology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Protein Domains , Protein Multimerization , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Trypsin/metabolism
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