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1.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(8): 916-921, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Poor securement potentiates Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) complications. A dressing device (KT FIX Plus) offers stronger skin attachment, which may reduce the risk of dressing disruption. We aimed to evaluate this device. METHODS: We conducted a single-center parallel-group open-label randomized controlled trial. Hospitalized and outpatient consecutive adults requiring PICCs were randomized to KT FIX Plus or standard of care (SOC). The primary endpoint was the composite of PICC-associated complications until removal, including occlusion, migration, accidental withdrawal, infection, thrombosis, and hematoma. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed in terms of complications: 67 (35%) in the KT FIX Plus group vs 36 (37%) in the SOC group (log-rank P = 0.76). In multivariate Cox analysis, independent risk factors for PICC-associated complications were obesity (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), 1.08, P < .001) and diabetes (aHR, 1.85, P = .039), adjusting for chronic renal failure, number of lumens, catheter/vein diameter ratio and duration of home-based care. Multiple lumen catheters increased the risk of accidental withdrawal and migration (HR, 2.4, P = .008). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the use of KT FIX Plus did not reduce the risk of complications adjusting for other risk factors such as obesity and diabetes. The number of catheter lumens is one of the modifiable factors to reduce complications. Further studies are required to find the best securement and dressing system.


Subject(s)
Catheter-Related Infections , Catheterization, Central Venous , Catheterization, Peripheral , Central Venous Catheters , Adult , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Catheterization, Peripheral/adverse effects , Catheters , Humans , Obesity , Outpatients , Risk Factors
2.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(8): 954-959, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections are the leading cause of nosocomial infections in the United States. The major contributing factor is the placement of indwelling urinary catheters. METHODS: Following a chart review of adult patients hospitalized at a tertiary care medical center who required the use of a short-term (≤ 2 weeks) indwelling urinary catheter, a collaborative effort was initiated by an Infectious Diseases physician to develop protocols focused on the clinical service involved for the expeditious removal of short-term indwelling urinary catheters. The protocols relied in part on the standards of practice by pertinent medical/surgical subspecialty societies. Usage of urinary catheters and duration of hospitalization following implementation of the protocols was assessed. RESULTS: Based on a multivariate analysis controlling for demographic variables, comorbidities, medical vs surgical service, and indication for the urinary catheterization, the median duration of catheterization was significantly reduced from 6.7 days to 3.6 days after the protocols were initiated (P < .001), and the median duration of hospitalization was significantly reduced from 9.5 days to 5.9 days (P < .001). No patient had to have the urinary catheter reinserted. CONCLUSIONS: Development of collaborative protocols for the removal of short-term indwelling urinary catheters significantly reduced both the duration of catheterization and the duration of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Catheter-Related Infections , Urinary Tract Infections , Adult , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Catheters, Indwelling/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Humans , Tertiary Healthcare , Urinary Catheterization/adverse effects , Urinary Catheters/adverse effects , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013554, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with kidney failure require vascular access to receive maintenance haemodialysis (HD), which can be achieved by an arteriovenous fistula or a central venous catheter (CVC). CVC use is related to frequent complications such as venous stenosis and infection. Venous stenosis occurs mainly due to trauma caused by the entrance of the catheter into the venous lumen and repeated contact with the vein wall.  A biofilm, a colony of irreversible adherent and self-sufficient micro-organisms embedded in a self-produced matrix of exopolysaccharides, is associated with the development of infections in patients with indwelling catheters. Despite its clinical relevance, the treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in patients receiving maintenance HD remains controversial, especially regarding catheter management. Antibiotic lock solutions may sterilise the catheter, treat the infection and prevent unnecessary catheter procedures. However, such treatment may also lead to antibiotic resistance or even clinical worsening in certain more virulent pathogens. Catheter removal and delayed replacement may remove the source of infection, improving infectious outcomes, but this approach may also increase vascular access stenosis, thrombosis or both, or even central vein access failure. Catheter guidewire exchange attempts to remove the source of infection while maintaining access to the same vein and, therefore, may improve clinical outcomes and preserve central veins for future access. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of different interventions for CRBSI treatment in patients receiving maintenance HD through a permanent CVC, such as systemic antibiotics alone or systemic antibiotics combined with either lock solutions or catheter guidewire exchange or catheter replacement. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 21 December 2021 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register were identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating the management of CRBSI in permanent CVCs in people receiving maintenance HD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed their risk of bias, and performed data extraction. Results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) or hazard ratios (HR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). The certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We identified two RCTs and one quasi-RCT that enrolled 760 participants addressing the treatment of CRBSIs in people (children and adults) receiving maintenance HD through CVC. No two studies compared the same interventions. The quasi-RCT compared two different lock solutions (tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and heparin) with concurrent systemic antibiotics. One RCT compared systemic antibiotics alone and in association with an ethanol lock solution, and the other compared systemic antibiotics with different catheter management strategies (guidewire exchange versus removal and replacement). The overall certainty of the evidence was downgraded due to the small number of participants, high risk of bias in many domains, especially randomisation, allocation, and other sources of bias, and missing outcome data. It is uncertain whether an ethanol lock solution used with concurrent systemic antibiotics improved CRBSI eradication compared to systemic antibiotics alone (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.23) because the certainty of this evidence is very low. There were no reported differences between the effects of TPA and heparin lock solutions on cure rates (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.15) or between catheter guidewire exchange versus catheter removal with delayed replacement, expressed as catheter infection-free survival (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.79). To date, no results are available comparing other interventions. Outcomes such as venous stenosis and/or thrombosis, antibiotic resistance, death, and adverse events were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Currently, there is no available high certainty evidence to support one treatment over another for CRBSIs. The benefit of using ethanol lock treatment in combination with systemic antibiotics compared to systemic antibiotics alone for CRBSIs in patients receiving maintenance HD remains uncertain due to the very low certainty of the evidence. Hence, further RCTs to identify the benefits and harms of CRBSI treatment options are needed. Future studies should unify CRBSI and cure definitions and improve methodological design.


Subject(s)
Catheter-Related Infections , Central Venous Catheters , Sepsis , Adult , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Child , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Sepsis/drug therapy
4.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 35(4): 841-856, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506789

ABSTRACT

Despite a large volume of research in prevention, central line-associated bloodstream infections and catheter-related bloodstream infections continue to cause significant morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. Strategies in prevention, including decision about catheter placement, insertion bundles, adherence to standard of care guidelines, and technologic innovations, shown to decrease rates of catheter-related bloodstream infections and central line-associated bloodstream infections are described in this update. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has resulted in increased health care-acquired infections, including central line-associated bloodstream infections.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/prevention & control , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheterization, Central Venous/standards , Clinical Decision-Making , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Humans , Patient Care Bundles/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 534, 2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning (PP) is a standard of care for patients with moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). While adverse events associated with PP are well-documented in the literature, research examining the effect of PP on the risk of infectious complications of intravascular catheters is lacking. METHOD: All consecutive ARDS patients treated with PP were recruited retrospectively over a two-year period and formed the exposed group. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients during the same period without ARDS for whom PP was not conducted but who had an equivalent disease severity were matched 1:1 to the exposed group based on age, sex, centre, length of ICU stay and SAPS II (unexposed group). Infection-related catheter complications were defined by a composite criterion, including catheter tip colonization or intravascular catheter-related infection. RESULTS: A total of 101 exposed patients were included in the study. Most had direct ARDS (pneumonia). The median [Q1-Q3] PP session number was 2 [1-4]. These patients were matched with 101 unexposed patients. The mortality rates of the exposed and unexposed groups were 31 and 30%, respectively. The incidence of the composite criterion was 14.2/1000 in the exposed group compared with 8.2/1000 days in the control group (p = 0.09). Multivariate analysis identified PP as a factor related to catheter colonization or infection (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that PP is associated with a higher risk of CVC infectious complications.


Subject(s)
Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Aged , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 54(1): 193-199, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270535

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of death. We aimed to describe the characteristics of a cohort of Brazilian hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 and assess their mortality rate and risk factors for death. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 741 Brazilian hemodialysis patients with confirmed COVID-19 from Feb-Dec/2020, of 52 dialysis centers of the country. We analyzed comorbid conditions, sociodemographic factors, and dialysis-related parameters. To detect risk factors for mortality in hemodialysis patients, we performed multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier. RESULTS: From 9877 hemodialysis patients, 741 were diagnosed with COVID-19. Mean age was 57 ± 16 years, 61% were male, and 51% white. The most frequent symptoms were fever (54.1%), cough (50.9%), and dyspnea (37.2%); 14.2% were asymptomatic. There were 139 deaths (18.8%), with 66% within the disease's first 15 days. 333 patients (44.9%) required hospitalization, and 211 (28.5%) were admitted to an intensive care unit. The cumulative probability of survival at 90 days of diagnosis was 79% (95% CI 76-82%). In the fully adjusted multivariate model, the risk factors significantly associated with death were diabetes mellitus (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.05-2.19, P = 0.026), use of a central venous catheter (CVC) (HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.22-2.64, P = 0.003), age (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.04, P < 0.001), and origin from the North vs. Southeast region (HR 2.60, 95% CI 1.01-6.68, P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Hemodialysis patients using a CVC as the vascular access, aside from diabetic and elderly ones, should be closely monitored due to their high risk of death in the course of the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends , Time Factors
7.
J Mycol Med ; 31(2): 101125, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164245

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection (IFI) due to several species of saprophytic fungi, occurring in patients with underlying co-morbidities (including organ transplantation). During the ongoing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there have been increasing reports of bacterial and fungal co-infections occurring in COVID-19 patients, including COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We describe a case of mucormycosis occurring after COVID-19, in an individual who received a recent heart transplant for severe heart failure. Two months after heart transplant, our patient developed upper respiratory and systemic symptoms and was diagnosed with COVID-19. He was managed with convalescent plasma therapy and supportive care. Approximately three months after COVID-19 diagnosis, he developed cutaneous mucormycosis at an old intravascular device site. He underwent extensive surgical interventions, combined with broad-spectrum antifungal therapy. Despite the aggressive therapeutic measures, he died after a prolonged hospital stay. In this case report, we also review the prior well-reported cases of mucormycosis occurring in COVID-19 patients and discuss potential mechanisms by which COVID-19 may predispose to IFIs. Similar to CAPA, mucormycosis with COVID-19 may need to be evaluated as an emerging disease association. Clinicians should be vigilant to evaluate for invasive fungal infections such as mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Transplantation , Invasive Fungal Infections/complications , Mucormycosis/complications , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Rhizopus/isolation & purification , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/complications , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , COVID-19/therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/microbiology , Combined Modality Therapy , Contraindications, Drug , Debridement , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Dermatomycoses/etiology , Disease Susceptibility , Fatal Outcome , Heart Failure/surgery , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping/instrumentation , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Male , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Postoperative Complications/microbiology , Postoperative Complications/virology , Surgical Wound Infection/complications , Surgical Wound Infection/drug therapy , Surgical Wound Infection/microbiology , Surgical Wound Infection/surgery
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