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1.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(8): 916-921, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Poor securement potentiates Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) complications. A dressing device (KT FIX Plus) offers stronger skin attachment, which may reduce the risk of dressing disruption. We aimed to evaluate this device. METHODS: We conducted a single-center parallel-group open-label randomized controlled trial. Hospitalized and outpatient consecutive adults requiring PICCs were randomized to KT FIX Plus or standard of care (SOC). The primary endpoint was the composite of PICC-associated complications until removal, including occlusion, migration, accidental withdrawal, infection, thrombosis, and hematoma. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed in terms of complications: 67 (35%) in the KT FIX Plus group vs 36 (37%) in the SOC group (log-rank P = 0.76). In multivariate Cox analysis, independent risk factors for PICC-associated complications were obesity (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), 1.08, P < .001) and diabetes (aHR, 1.85, P = .039), adjusting for chronic renal failure, number of lumens, catheter/vein diameter ratio and duration of home-based care. Multiple lumen catheters increased the risk of accidental withdrawal and migration (HR, 2.4, P = .008). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the use of KT FIX Plus did not reduce the risk of complications adjusting for other risk factors such as obesity and diabetes. The number of catheter lumens is one of the modifiable factors to reduce complications. Further studies are required to find the best securement and dressing system.


Subject(s)
Catheter-Related Infections , Catheterization, Central Venous , Catheterization, Peripheral , Central Venous Catheters , Adult , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Catheterization, Peripheral/adverse effects , Catheters , Humans , Obesity , Outpatients , Risk Factors
2.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957455

ABSTRACT

Background. Fixed-dose ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis (USAT) rapidly improves hemodynamic parameters and reverses right ventricular dysfunction caused by acute pulmonary embolism (PE). The effectiveness of USAT for acute PE associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. Methods and results. The study population of this cohort study consisted of 36 patients with an intermediate-high- or high-risk acute PE treated with a fixed low-dose USAT protocol (r-tPA 10-20 mg/15 h). Of these, 9 patients tested positive for COVID-19 and were age-sex-matched to 27 patients without COVID-19. The USAT protocol included, beyond the infusion of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, anti-Xa-activity-adjusted unfractionated heparin therapy (target 0.3-0.7 U/mL). The study outcomes were the invasively measured mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) before and at completion of USAT, and the National Early Warning Score (NEWS), according to which more points indicate more severe hemodynamic impairment. Twenty-four (66.7%) patients were men; the mean age was 67 ± 14 years. Mean &nbsp;± &nbsp;standard deviation mPAP decreased from 32.3 ± 8.3 to 22.4 ± 7.0 mmHg among COVID-19 patients and from 35.4 ± 9.7 to 24.6 ± 7.0 mmHg among unexposed, with no difference in the relative improvement between groups (p = 0.84). Within 12 h of USAT start, the median NEWS decreased from six (Q1-Q3: 4-8) to three (Q1-Q3: 2-4) points among COVID-19 patients and from four (Q1-Q3: 2-6) to two (Q1-Q3: 2-3) points among unexposed (p = 0.29). One COVID-19 patient died due to COVID-19-related complications 14 days after acute PE. No major bleeding events occurred. Conclusions. Among patients with COVID-19-associated acute PE, mPAP rapidly decreased during USAT with a concomitant progressive improvement of the NEWS. The magnitude of mPAP reduction was similar in patients with and without COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catheters , Cohort Studies , Female , Heparin , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
3.
Br J Nurs ; 31(9): S24-S30, 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847748

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the prevalence of transurethral catheter self-removal in critically-ill COVID-19 non-sedated adult patients compared with non-COVID-19 controls. METHODS: COVID-19 patients who self-extracted transurethral or suprapubic catheters needing a urological intervention were prospectively included (group A). Demographic data, medical and nursing records, comorbidities and nervous system symptoms were evaluated. Agitation, anxiety and delirium were assessed by the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS). The control group B were non-COVID-19 patients who self-extracted transurethral/suprapubic catheter in a urology unit (subgroup B1) and geriatric unit (subgroup B2), requiring a urological intervention in the same period. RESULTS: 37 men and 11 women were enrolled in group A. Mean RASS score was 3.1 ± 1.8. There were 5 patients in subgroup B1 and 11 in subgroup B2. Chronic comorbidities were more frequent in group B than the COVID-19 group (P<0.01). COVID-19 patients had a significant difference in RASS score (P<0.006) and catheter self-extraction events (P<0.001). Complications caused by traumatic catheter extractions (severe urethrorrhagia, longer hospital stay) were greater in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: This is the first study focusing on the prevalence and complications of catheter self-removal in COVID-19 patients. An increased prevalence of urological complications due to agitation and delirium related to COVID-19 has been demonstrated-the neurological sequelae of COVID-19 must be considered during hospitalisation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Catheters , Critical Illness , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/etiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male
4.
Int J Drug Policy ; 96: 103438, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People who use drugs (PWUD), and especially those who inject drugs, are at increased risk of acquiring bloodborne infections (e.g., HIV and HCV), experiencing drug-related harms (e.g., abscesses and overdose), and being hospitalized and requiring inpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy delivered through a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). The use of PICC lines with PWUD is understood to be a source of tension in hospital settings but has not been well researched. Drawing on theoretical and analytic insights from "new materialism," we consider the assemblage of sociomaterial elements that inform the use of PICCs. METHODS: This paper draws on n = 50 interviews conducted across two related qualitative research projects within a program of research about the impact of substance use on hospital admissions from the perspective of healthcare providers (HCPs) and people living with HIV/HCV who use drugs. This paper focuses on data about PICC lines collected in both studies. RESULTS: The decision to provide, maintain, or remove a PICC is based on a complex assemblage of factors (e.g., infections, bodies, drugs, memories, relations, spaces, temporalities, and contingencies) beyond whether parenteral intravenous antibiotic therapy is clinically indicated. HCPs expressed concerns about the risk posed by past, current, and future drug use, and contact with non-clinical spaces (e.g., patient's homes and the surrounding community), with some opting for second-line treatments and removing PICCs. The majority of PWUD described being subjected to threats of discharge and increased monitoring despite being too ill to use their PICC lines during past hospital admissions. A subset of PWUD reported using their PICC lines to inject drugs as a harm reduction strategy, and a subset of HCPs reported providing harm reduction-centred care. CONCLUSION: Our analysis has implications for theorizing the role of PICC lines in the care of PWUD and identifies practical guidance for engaging them in productive and non-judgemental discussions about the risks of injecting into a PICC line, how to do it safely, and about medically supported alternatives.


Subject(s)
Catheterization, Central Venous , HIV Infections , Hepatitis C , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Catheters , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
5.
Artif Organs ; 46(8): 1659-1668, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701591

ABSTRACT

In a multicenter, retrospective analysis of 435 patients with refractory COVID-19 placed on V-V ECMO, cannulation by a single, dual-lumen catheter with directed outflow to the pulmonary artery was associated with lower inpatient mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , COVID-19/therapy , Catheterization/methods , Catheters , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Retrospective Studies
6.
J Emerg Nurs ; 48(2): 159-166, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670722

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Establishing intravenous access is essential but may be difficult to achieve for patients requiring isolation for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of an infrared vein visualizer on peripheral intravenous catheter therapy in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: A nonrandomized clinical trial was performed. In total, 122 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who required peripheral intravenous cannulation were divided into 2 groups with 60 in the control group and 62 in the intervention group. A conventional venipuncture method was applied to the control group, whereas an infrared vein imaging device was applied in the intervention group. The first attempt success rate, total procedure time, and patients' satisfaction score were compared between the 2 groups using chi-square, t test, and z test (also known as Mann-Whitney U test) statistics. RESULTS: The first attempt success rate in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of control group (91.94% vs 76.67%, ꭓ2 = 5.41, P = .02). The procedure time was shorter in the intervention group (mean [SD], 211.44 [68.58] seconds vs 388.27 [88.97] seconds, t = 12.27, P < .001). Patients from the intervention group experienced a higher degree of satisfaction (7.5 vs 6, z = -3.31, P < .001). DISCUSSION: Peripheral intravenous catheter insertion assisted by an infrared vein visualizer could improve the first attempt success rate of venipuncture, shorten the procedure time, and increase patients' satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheterization, Peripheral , Catheterization, Peripheral/methods , Catheters , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Veins
8.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 56(3): 258-262, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582580

ABSTRACT

IntroductionPublished evidence of venous thrombotic complications of COVID-19 is lacking from India. This case series consists of twenty-nine adult patients who were COVID -19 positive and treated for Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, in India. The study was aimed at analyzing patient demographics of patients with DVT and the outcome of Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis (CDT) in COVID positive patients. Material and Methods: Patients who developed DVT while or after being COVID positive were managed between February and April 2021 at the institution of the first two authors and were included in this retrospective study. Demographic, clinical data, laboratory data, and treatment given were analyzed. All patients were followed up for 3 months with a Villalta score. Results: There were a total of 29 patients (12 male and 17 female) included in the study with a mean age of 47 ± 17 years. The average time of presentation from being COVID positive was 17.8 ± 3.6 days and one patient developed DVT after becoming Covid negative. All but one patient had lower limb involvement, with 42.8% having proximal and 57.2% distal DVT. All patients with Iliofemoral and two with Femoropopliteal DVT were treated with catheter-di thrombolysis and the other 15 patients were managed with anticoagulation alone. No re-thrombosis was observed in the thrombolysis group. Overall average Villalta score at 3 months was 10.7 ± 2.1 with a score of 10.58 ± 2.1 in the anticoagulation-only group and 10.85 ± 2.3 in the CDT group. Conclusion: COVID-19 seems to be an additional risk factor in the development of DVT. The outcome of such patients, treated by thrombolysis appears to be similar to non-COVID patients. In this, observational experience of the authors suggests that CDT could be offered to COVID positive patients with symptomatic Iliofemoral DVT with good outcomes and an acceptable post-intervention Villalta score.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Catheters , Female , Humans , Iliac Vein , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
9.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 4965-4968, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566214

ABSTRACT

If patients are at risk of self-removal of a catheter, it is necessary to check the condition of the catheter frequently. If this is the only way to prevent self-removal, physical restraint of the patient is required. Furthermore, it is currently necessary to reduce human-to-human contact to prevent COVID-19 infection. Therefore, the development of a sensor system to prevent self-removal of a catheter and reduce human-to-human contact is urgent. The purpose of this study is to examine a sensor system that detects the contact of a patient's hand to a peripheral intravenous catheter in order to prevent self-removal in patients with dementia. This study analyzes the use of a capacitance sensor and an energization sensor to detect the contact of a patient's hand to a catheter. Additionally, the time required from the start of peeling the sensor sheet to the removal of the needle was measured. As the results, the capacitance sensor was difficult to use in a clinical setting because the connection between the seat and cable could be unstable depending on the condition of the connections. The energization sensor was able to recognize the contact of a hand to the catheter by detecting its contact with the sensor. It took at least 28 seconds from detection of the hand contact to the beginning of needle removal. Therefore, it is possible for the caregiver to visit the patient's bedside and stop the self-removal when the sensor sheet detects hand contact. This study is the first step in developing the system that prevents self-removal by detecting hand contact and requires several more steps for clinical use. In the future, we will conduct surveys on more subjects and clinical trials on elderly with dementia to examine accuracy, precision, and repeatability. Using the energization sensor, a self-removal prevention system for dementia patients will be further developed.Clinical Relevance- Developing this self-removal prevention system in the future will allow many dementia patients to no longer be physically restrained, and it will make it possible to remotely detect their actions to prevent self-removal while also minimizing the risk of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Catheters , Hand , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Upper Extremity
10.
J Hosp Infect ; 119: 149-154, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of nosocomial infections including ventilator-associated pneumonia and bacteraemia has been described during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, information regarding the impact of COVID-19 on the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) is very limited. AIM: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the evolution of CR-BSIs in a large hospital. METHODS: This was a retrospective study comparing the incidence, aetiology and outcome of CR-BSIs during the months of March to May 2019 (pre-pandemic) and 2020 (during the pandemic). FINDINGS: The number of patients with one or more CR-BSIs in 2019 and 2020 were 23 and 58, respectively (1.89 vs 5.53/1000 admissions); P<0.001. Median time from catheter implantation to demonstration of CR-BSI was 27.5 days (range 11.75-126.00 days) in the 2019 cases and 16.0 days (range 11.00-23.50 days) in the 2020 population (P=0.032). CONCLUSIONS: A dramatic increase of CR-BSIs was found during the COVID-19 pandemic. Reinforcement of classic and new preventive measures is necessary.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheters , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(12): 2071-2076, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371354

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: An antegrade approach is frequently used in catheter-directed thrombolysis to remove deep-vein thrombosis. However, the antegrade approach is difficult when accessing veins with small diameters; therefore, understanding the variation of deep calf vein is important. METHODS: This study measured the diameters and surface areas of the proximal and distal posterior tibial vein, peroneal vein, and anterior tibial vein to determine which are preferable for venous access. This study dissected 132 legs from Korean and Thai cadavers. The proximal and distal posterior tibial vein, peroneal vein, and anterior tibial vein were scanned and measured. RESULTS: The mean diameter and surface area were largest for the proximal tibial vein, at 6.34 mm and 0.312 cm2, respectively, followed by the anterior tibial vein (5.22 mm and 0.213 cm2), distal posterior tibial vein (3.29 mm and 0.091 cm2), and peroneal vein (3.43 mm and 0.081 cm2). The proximal posterior tibial vein and anterior tibial vein have large diameters and surface areas, which make them ideal for applying an antegrade approach in catheter-directed thrombolysis. CONCLUSIONS: The distal posterior tibial vein and peroneal vein are not recommended due to their smaller surface areas and also the anatomical variations therein.


Subject(s)
Leg/anatomy & histology , Leg/blood supply , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cadaver , Catheters , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombolytic Therapy/instrumentation , Veins/anatomy & histology
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172744

ABSTRACT

Serratia marcescens, time and again, has demonstrated its ability to easily adhere and infect vascular access catheters, making them a bona fide source of hospital outbreaks and contributing to adverse patient outcomes. We present a unique case of a severe recurrent Serratia infection, leading to persistent bacteria in the blood, haematogenous dissemination and subsequent development of abscesses, to a degree not reported in the literature before. These infections are exceedingly challenging to eradicate, owing to multiple virulence mechanisms and the deep seeding ability of this microorganism. Serratia infections require a multifaceted approach with intricacies in identification, therapeutics and surveillance, all of which are sparsely reported in the literature and reviewed in this report.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Serratia Infections , Catheters , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Serratia Infections/diagnosis , Serratia Infections/drug therapy , Serratia marcescens
17.
J Vasc Access ; 23(3): 443-449, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To study the safety and outcome profiles of tunnelled dialysis catheter (TDC) insertions and exchanges with fluoroscopy versus without fluoroscopy. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all TDC insertions or exchanges performed at our centre, between January 2017 and December 2017. Patient demographics, laboratory results and catheter placement information were obtained from electronic records. Immediate technical success, early and late catheter associated complications were collected. Outcomes for TDC inserted with or without fluoroscopy were statistically analysed. RESULTS: A total of 351 TDC insertions and 253 TDC exchanges were performed. Out of 351 TDC insertions, 261 were done with fluoroscopy while 90 were done without. Out of 253 TDC exchanges, 219 were done with fluoroscopy while 34 were done without. For both TDC insertions and exchanges, there were no significant differences in complication rates when done with or without fluoroscopy. Mean duration of catheter patency was longer for TDC inserted without fluoroscopy, after adjusting for site of insertion and presence of previous TDC. CONCLUSIONS: The technique of inserting TDC in the right internal jugular vein (IJV) without fluoroscopy is a safe and effective method in selected patients. This supports the practice of performing the procedure without fluoroscopy, especially in institutions where fluoroscopy facilities are not readily available. This potentially translates into reduced healthcare resources and hospitalisation days, which is particularly valuable in times of limited resources such as the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheterization, Central Venous , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Catheterization, Central Venous/methods , Catheters , Catheters, Indwelling , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
18.
J Vasc Access ; 23(4): 532-537, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous Access Devices (VADs) are the most used devices in COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVE: Identify VADs implanted, catheter related thrombosis (CRT), catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI), and accidental remove of VADs in both COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 free patients. Successive analysis was conducted comparing COVID-19 positive patients with COVID-19 free with inverse probability propensity score weights using simple regression to account for these two confounders (peripheral tip as central/peripheral and hospitalization as no/yes). METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study collected data from seven hospitals in Lombardy during the pandemic period from February 21st to May 31st 2020. RESULTS: A total of 2206 VADs were evaluated, 1107 (50.2%) of which were inserted in COVID-19 patients. In COVID-19 cohort the first choice was Long Peripheral Cannula in 388 patients (35.1%) followed by Midline Catheter in 385 (34.8%). The number of "central tip" VADs inserted in COVID-free inpatients and COVID-19 positive were similar (307 vs 334). We recorded 42 (1.9%) CRT; 32 (79.2%) were observed in COVID-19 patients. A total of 19 CRBSI were diagnosed; 15 (78.95%) were observed in COVID-19. Accidental removals were the more represented complication with 123 cases, 85 (69.1%) of them were in COVID-19. COVID-19 significantly predicted occurrence of CRT (OR = 2.00(1.85-5.03); p < 0.001), CRSB (OR = 3.82(1.82-8.97); p < 0.001), and Accidental Removal (OR = 2.39(1.80-3.20); p < 0.001) in our propensity score weighted models. CONCLUSIONS: CRT, CRBSI, and accidental removal are significantly more frequent in COVID-19 patients. Accidental removals are the principal complication, for this reason, the use of subcutaneously anchored securement is recommended for a shorter period than usual.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheter-Related Infections , Catheterization, Central Venous , Central Venous Catheters , COVID-19/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Catheters , Humans , Retrospective Studies
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(8)2020 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714031

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of a patient who presented to the emergency department with severe shortness of breath and was diagnosed with mild COVID-19 pneumonia and concomitant intermediate-high risk saddle pulmonary thromboembolism. Additionally, the patient had sustained a significant head injury 2 days prior due to a syncopal episode. The patient was treated successfully with catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT). The case highlights the importance of considering thromboembolic complications in COVID-19 infection, independent of the severity of the associated pneumonia. The case also demonstrates the potential benefit of CDT in treating COVID-19-related thromboembolism.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , COVID-19 , Catheters , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
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