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1.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 69(12): 1141-1159, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115208

ABSTRACT

Considerable efforts have been made on the development of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) for delivering of nucleic acids in LNP-based medicines, including a first-ever short interfering RNA (siRNA) medicine, Onpattro, and the mRNA vaccines against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which have been approved and are currently in use worldwide. The successful rational design of ionizable cationic lipids was a major breakthrough that dramatically increased delivery efficiency in this field. The LNPs would be expected to be useful as a platform technology for the delivery of various therapeutic modalities for genome editing and even for undiscovered therapeutic mechanisms. In this review, the current progress of my research, including the molecular design of pH-sensitive cationic lipids, their applications for various tissues and cell types, and for delivering various macromolecules, including siRNA, antisense oligonucleotide, mRNA, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) system will be described. Mechanistic studies regarding relationships between the physicochemical properties of LNPs, drug delivery, and biosafety are also summarized. Furthermore, current issues that need to be addressed for next generation drug delivery systems are discussed.


Subject(s)
Drug Carriers/chemistry , Lipids/chemistry , Liposomes/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cations/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , RNA, Guide/chemistry , RNA, Guide/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/chemistry , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , /metabolism
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18071, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087317

ABSTRACT

Lipid based nanocarriers are one of the most effective drug delivery systems that is evident from the recent COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. The main objective of this study was to evaluate toxicity of six lipid based formulations with three surface charges-anionic, neutral or cationic, to establish certified reference materials (CRMs) for liposomes and siRNA loaded lipid nanoparticles (LNP-siRNA). Cytotoxicity was assessed by a proliferation assay in adherent and non-adherent cell lines. High concentration of three LNP-siRNAs did not affect viability of suspension cells and LNP-siRNAs were non-toxic to adherent cells at conventionally used concentration. Systematic evaluation using multiple vials and repeated test runs of three liposomes and three LNP-siRNA formulations showed no toxicity in HL60 and A549 cells up to 128 and 16 µg/mL, respectively. Extended treatment and low concentration of LNPs did not affect the viability of suspension cells and adherent cells at 96 h. Interestingly, 80% of A549 and HL60 cells in 3D conditions were viable when treated with cationic LNP-siRNA for 48 h. Taken together, anionic, cationic and neutral lipid formulations were non-toxic to cells and may be explored further in order to develop them as drug carriers.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Humans , Liposomes , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Lipids/toxicity , Cations
3.
ACS Nano ; 16(11): 18936-18950, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087127

ABSTRACT

Ionizable cationic lipid-containing lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are the most clinically advanced non-viral gene delivery platforms, holding great potential for gene therapeutics. This is exemplified by the two COVID-19 vaccines employing mRNA-LNP technology from Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna. Herein, we develop a chemical library of ionizable cationic lipids through a one-step chemical-biological enzyme-catalyzed esterification method, and the synthesized ionizable lipids were further prepared to be LNPs for mRNA delivery. Through orthogonal design of experiment methodology screening, the top-performing AA3-DLin LNPs show outstanding mRNA delivery efficacy and long-term storage capability. Furthermore, the AA3-DLin LNP COVID-19 vaccines encapsulating SARS-CoV-2 spike mRNAs successfully induced strong immunogenicity in a BALB/c mouse model demonstrated by the antibody titers, virus challenge, and T cell immune response studies. The developed AA3-DLin LNPs are an excellent mRNA delivery platform, and this study provides an overall perspective of the ionizable cationic lipids, from aspects of lipid design, synthesis, screening, optimization, fabrication, characterization, and application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Mice , Animals , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines , Lipids/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Liposomes , Cations , Catalysis
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17520, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077118

ABSTRACT

SiRNA is a new generation of drug molecules and a new approach for treating a variety of diseases such as cancer and viral infections. SiRNA delivery to cells and translocation into cytoplasm are the main challenges in the clinical application of siRNA. Lipid carriers are one of the most successful carriers for siRNA delivery. In this study, we investigated the interaction of siRNA with a zwitterionic bilayer and how ion concentration and lipid conjugation can affect it. The divalent cation such as Mg2+ ions could promote the siRNA adsorption on the bilayer surface. The cation ions can bind to the head groups of lipids and the grooves of siRNA molecules and form bridges between the siRNA and bilayer surface. Our findings demonstrated the bridges formed by divalent ions could facilitate the attachment of siRNA to the membrane surface. We showed that the divalent cations can regulate the bridging-driven membrane attachment and it seems the result of this modulation can be used for designing biomimetic devices. In the following, we examined the effect of cations on the interaction between siRNA modified by cholesterol and the membrane surface. Our MD simulations showed that in the presence of Mg2+, the electrostatic and vdW energy between the membrane and siRNA were higher compared to those in the presence of NA+. We showed that the electrostatic interaction between membrane and siRNA cannot be facilitated only by cholesterol conjugated. Indeed, cations are essential to create coulomb repulsion and enable membrane attachment. This study provides important insight into liposome carriers for siRNA delivery and could help us in the development of siRNA-based therapeutics. Due to the coronavirus pandemic outbreak, these results may shed light on the new approach for treating these diseases and their molecular details.


Subject(s)
Lipid Bilayers , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Lipid Bilayers/metabolism , Liposomes , Cations, Divalent , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cations , Cholesterol
5.
J Control Release ; 350: 256-270, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991137

ABSTRACT

Since the recent clinical approval of siRNA-based drugs and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, the potential of RNA therapeutics for patient healthcare has become widely accepted. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are currently the most advanced nanocarriers for RNA packaging and delivery. Nevertheless, the intracellular delivery efficiency of state-of-the-art LNPs remains relatively low and safety and immunogenicity concerns with synthetic lipid components persist, altogether rationalizing the exploration of alternative LNP compositions. In addition, there is an interest in exploiting LNP technology for simultaneous encapsulation of small molecule drugs and RNA in a single nanocarrier. Here, we describe how well-known tricyclic cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) can be repurposed as both structural and functional components of lipid-based NPs for mRNA formulation, further referred to as CADosomes. We demonstrate that selected CADs, such as tricyclic antidepressants and antihistamines, self-assemble with the widely-used helper lipid DOPE to form cationic lipid vesicles for subsequent mRNA complexation and delivery, without the need for prior lipophilic derivatization. Selected CADosomes enabled efficient mRNA delivery in various in vitro cell models, including easy-to-transfect cancer cells (e.g. human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line) as well as hard-to-transfect primary cells (e.g. primary bovine corneal epithelial cells), outperforming commercially available cationic liposomes and state-of-the-art LNPs. In addition, using the antidepressant nortriptyline as a model compound, we show that CADs can maintain their pharmacological activity upon CADosome incorporation. Furthermore, in vivo proof-of-concept was obtained, demonstrating CADosome-mediated mRNA delivery in the corneal epithelial cells of rabbit eyes, which could pave the way for future applications in ophthalmology. Based on our results, the co-formulation of CADs, helper lipids and mRNA into lipid-based nanocarriers is proposed as a versatile and straightforward approach for the rational development of drug combination therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cations , Cattle , Drug Combinations , Drug Repositioning , HeLa Cells , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , Liposomes , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nortriptyline , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Rabbits
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917518

ABSTRACT

Electrostatics is an important part of virus life. Understanding the detailed distribution of charges over the surface of a virus is important to predict its interactions with host cells, antibodies, drugs, and different materials. Using a coarse-grained model of the entire viral envelope developed by D. Korkin and S.-J. Marrink's scientific groups, we created an electrostatic map of the external surface of SARS-CoV-2 and found a highly heterogeneous distribution of the electrostatic potential field of the viral envelope. Numerous negative patches originate mainly from negatively charged lipid domains in the viral membrane and negatively charged areas on the "stalks" of the spike (S) proteins. Membrane (M) and envelope (E) proteins with the total positive charge tend to colocalize with the negatively charged lipids. In the E protein pentamer exposed to the outer surface, negatively charged glutamate residues and surrounding lipids form a negative electrostatic potential ring around the channel entrance. We simulated the interaction of the antiviral octacationic photosensitizer octakis(cholinyl)zinc phthalocyanine with the surface structures of the entire model virion using the Brownian dynamics computational method implemented in ProKSim software (version r661). All mentioned negatively charged envelope components attracted the photosensitizer molecules and are thus potential targets for reactive oxygen generated in photosensitized reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Cations , Humans , Lipids , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Static Electricity , Virion
9.
Mol Pharm ; 19(7): 2175-2182, 2022 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873399

ABSTRACT

Ionizable cationic lipids are essential for efficient in vivo delivery of RNA by lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). DLin-MC3-DMA (MC3), ALC-0315, and SM-102 are the only ionizable cationic lipids currently clinically approved for RNA therapies. ALC-0315 and SM-102 are structurally similar lipids used in SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, while MC3 is used in siRNA therapy to knock down transthyretin in hepatocytes. Hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are particularly attractive targets for RNA therapy because they synthesize many plasma proteins, including those that influence blood coagulation. While LNPs preferentially accumulate in the liver, evaluating the ability of different ionizable cationic lipids to deliver RNA cargo into distinct cell populations is important for designing RNA-LNP therapies with minimal hepatotoxicity. Here, we directly compared LNPs containing either ALC-0315 or MC3 to knock-down coagulation factor VII (FVII) in hepatocytes and ADAMTS13 in HSCs. At a dose of 1 mg/kg siRNA in mice, LNPs with ALC-0315 achieved a 2- and 10-fold greater knockdown of FVII and ADAMTS13, respectively, compared to LNPs with MC3. At a high dose (5 mg/kg), ALC-0315 LNPs increased markers of liver toxicity (ALT and bile acids), while the same dose of MC3 LNPs did not. These results demonstrate that ALC-0315 LNPs achieves potent siRNA-mediated knockdown of target proteins in hepatocytes and HSCs, in mice, though markers of liver toxicity can be observed after a high dose. This study provides an initial comparison that may inform the development of ionizable cationic LNP therapeutics with maximal efficacy and limited toxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Amino Alcohols , Animals , Caprylates , Cations/metabolism , Decanoates , Hepatic Stellate Cells/metabolism , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Lipids , Liposomes , Mice , RNA, Small Interfering , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855824

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronaviruses (BCoVs), which cause gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in cattle, and are genetically related to the human coronavirus HCoV-OC43, which is responsible for up to 10% of common colds, attract increased attention. We applied the method of photodynamic inactivation with cationic photosensitizers (PSs) to reduce the titers of BCoV and studied the morphological structure of viral particles under various modes of photodynamic exposure. The samples of virus containing liquid with an initial virus titer of 5 Log10 TCID50/mL were incubated with methylene blue (MB) or octakis(cholinyl)zinc phthalocyanine (Zn-PcChol8+) at concentrations of 1-5 µM for 10 min in the dark at room temperature. After incubation, samples were irradiated with LED (emission with maximum at 663 nm for MB or at 686 nm for Zn-PcChol8+) with light doses of 1.5 or 4 J/cm2. Next, the irradiation titrated virus containing liquid was studied using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. MB and Zn-PcChol8+ at concentrations of 1-5 µM, in combination with red light from LED sources in the low doses of 1.5-4.0 J/cm2, led to a decrease in BCoV titers by at least four orders of magnitude from the initial titer 5 Log10 TCID50/mL. Morphological changes in photodamaged BCoVs with increasing PS concentrations were loss of spikes, change in shape, decreased size of virus particles, destruction of the envelope, and complete disintegration of viruses. BCoV has been found to be sensitive to MB, which is the well-known approved drug, even in the absence of light.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus OC43, Human , Coronavirus, Bovine , Animals , Cations , Cattle , Methylene Blue , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Virion
11.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(5): 135, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833435

ABSTRACT

Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) can be used as delivery vehicles for nucleic acid biotherapeutics. In fact, LNPs are currently being used in the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines. Cationic LNPs composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP)/cholesterol (chol) LNPs have been classified as one of the most efficient gene delivery systems and are being tested in numerous clinical trials. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the molar ratio of DOTAP/chol, PEGylation, and lipid to mRNA ratio on mRNA transfection, and explore the applications of DOTAP/chol LNPs in pDNA and oligonucleotide transfection. Here we showed that PEGylation significantly decreased mRNA transfection efficiency of DOTAP/chol LNPs. Among non-PEGylated LNP formulations, 1:3 molar ratio of DOTAP/chol in DOTAP/chol LNPs showed the highest mRNA transfection efficiency. Furthermore, the optimal ratio of DOTAP/chol LNPs to mRNA was tested to be 62.5 µM lipid to 1 µg mRNA. More importantly, these mRNA-loaded nanoparticles were stable for 60 days at 4 °C storage without showing reduction in transfection efficacy. We further found that DOTAP/chol LNPs were able to transfect pDNA and oligonucleotides, demonstrating the ability of these LNPs to transport the cargo into the cell nucleus. The influence of various factors in the formulation of DOTAP/chol cationic LNPs is thus described and will help improve drug delivery of nucleic acid-based vaccines and therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cations , Cholesterol , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Humans , Liposomes , Oligonucleotides , Propane , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , RNA, Messenger/genetics
12.
Biomater Sci ; 10(11): 2940-2952, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815640

ABSTRACT

Ionizable cationic lipids play a critical role in developing new gene therapies for various biomedical applications, including COVID-19 vaccines. However, it remains unclear whether the formulation of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) using DLin-MC3-DMA, an optimized ionizable lipid clinically used for small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapy, also facilitates high liver-selective transfection of other gene therapies such as plasmid DNA (pDNA). Here we report the first investigation into pDNA transfection efficiency in different mouse organs after intramuscular and intravenous administration of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) where DLin-MC3-DMA, DLin-KC2-DMA or DODAP are used as the ionizable cationic lipid component of the LNP. We discovered that these three benchmark lipids previously developed for siRNA delivery followed an unexpected characteristic rank order in gene expression efficiency when utilized for pDNA. In particular, DLin-KC2-DMA facilitated higher in vivo pDNA transfection than DLin-MC3-DMA and DODAP, possibly due to its head group pKa and lipid tail structure. Interestingly, LNPs formulated with either DLin-KC2-DMA or DLin-MC3-DMA exhibited significantly higher in vivo protein production in the spleen than in the liver. This work sheds light on the importance of the choice of ionizable cationic lipid and nucleic acid cargo for organ-selective gene expression. The study also provides a new design principle towards the formulation of more effective LNPs for biomedical applications of pDNA, such as gene editing, vaccines and immunotherapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cations/chemistry , DNA/genetics , Gene Expression , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , Liposomes , Mice , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Plasmids/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/chemistry
13.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810327

ABSTRACT

Background: Nanosilver possesses antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenesis, antiplatelet, and anticancer properties. The development of disinfectants, inactivated vaccines, and combined etiotropic and immunomodulation therapy against respiratory viral infections, including COVID-19, remains urgent. Aim: Our goal was to determine the SARS-CoV-2 molecular targets (genomic RNA and the structural virion proteins S and N) for silver-containing nanomaterials. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 gene cloning, purification of S2 and N recombinant proteins, viral RNA isolation from patients' blood samples, reverse transcription with quantitative real-time PCR ((RT)2-PCR), ELISA, and multiplex immunofluorescent analysis with magnetic beads (xMAP) for detection of 17 inflammation markers. Results: Fluorescent Ag nanoclusters (NCs) less than 2 nm with a few recovered silver atoms, citrate coated Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters of 20-120 nm, and nanoconjugates of 50-150 nm consisting of Ag NPs with different protein envelopes were constructed from AgNO3 and analyzed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet-visible light absorption, and fluorescent spectroscopy. SARS-CoV-2 RNA isolated from COVID-19 patients' blood samples was completely cleaved with the artificial RNase complex compound Li+[Ag+2Cys2-(OH-)2(NH3)2] (Ag-2S), whereas other Ag-containing materials provided partial RNA degradation only. Treatment of the SARS-CoV-2 S2 and N recombinant antigens with AgNO3 and Ag NPs inhibited their binding with specific polyclonal antibodies, as shown by ELISA. Fluorescent Ag NCs with albumin or immunoglobulins, Ag-2S complex, and nanoconjugates of Ag NPs with protein shells had no effect on the interaction between coronavirus recombinant antigens and antibodies. Reduced production of a majority of the 17 inflammation biomarkers after treatment of three human cell lines with nanosilver was demonstrated by xMAP. Conclusion: The antiviral properties of the silver nanomaterials against SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus differed. The small-molecular-weight artificial RNase Ag-2S provided exhaustive RNA destruction but could not bind with the SARS-CoV-2 recombinant antigens. On the contrary, Ag+ ions and Ag NPs interacted with the SARS-CoV-2 recombinant antigens N and S but were less efficient at performing viral RNA cleavage. One should note that SARS-CoV-2 RNA was more stable than MS2 phage RNA. The isolated RNA of both the MS2 phage and SARS-CoV-2 were more degradable than the MS2 phage and coronavirus particles in patients' blood, due to the protection with structural proteins. To reduce the risk of the virus resistance, a combined treatment with Ag-2S and Ag NPs could be used. To prevent cytokine storm during the early stages of respiratory infections with RNA-containing viruses, nanoconjugates of Ag NPs with surface proteins could be recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cations , Cystine , Humans , Inflammation , Nanoconjugates , RNA, Viral/genetics , Recombinant Proteins , Ribonucleases , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Silver/pharmacology , Virion/chemistry
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(4): 4892-4898, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633913

ABSTRACT

This paper presents results of a study of a new cationic oligomer that contains end groups and a chromophore affording inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by visible light irradiation in solution or as a solid coating on paper wipes and glass fiber filtration substrates. A key finding of this study is that the cationic oligomer with a central thiophene ring and imidazolium charged groups gives outstanding performance in both the killing of E. coli bacterial cells and inactivation of the virus at very short times. Our introduction of cationic N-methyl imidazolium groups enhances the light activation process for both E. coli and SARS-CoV-2 but dampens the killing of the bacteria and eliminates the inactivation of the virus in the dark. For the studies with this oligomer in solution at a concentration of 1 µg/mL and E. coli, we obtain 3 log killing of the bacteria with 10 min of irradiation with LuzChem cool white lights (mimicking indoor illumination). With the oligomer in solution at a concentration of 10 µg/mL, we observe 4 log inactivation (99.99%) in 5 min of irradiation and total inactivation after 10 min. The oligomer is quite active against E. coli on oligomer-coated paper wipes and glass fiber filter supports. The SARS-CoV-2 is also inactivated by oligomer-coated glass fiber filter papers. This study indicates that these oligomer-coated materials may be very useful as wipes and filtration materials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cations/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/radiation effects , Humans , Light , Phototherapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects
15.
Bioorg Chem ; 119: 105550, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561636

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases caused by new or unknown bacteria and viruses, such as anthrax, cholera, tuberculosis and even COVID-19, are a major threat to humanity. Thus, the development of new synthetic compounds with efficient antimicrobial activity is a necessity. Herein, rationally designed novel multifunctional cationic alternating copolymers were directly synthesized through a step-growth polymerization reaction using a bivalent electrophilic cross-linker containing disulfide bonds and a diamine heterocyclic ring. To optimize the activity of these alternating copolymers, several different diamines and cross-linkers were explored to find the highest antibacterial effects. The synthesized nanopolymers not only displayed good to excellent antibacterial activity as judged by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, but also reduced the number of biofilm cells even at low concentrations, without killing mammalian cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments using infected burn wounds in mice demonstrated good antibacterial activity and stimulated wound healing, without causing systemic inflammation. These findings suggest that the multifunctional cationic nanopolymers have potential as a novel antibacterial agent for eradication of multidrug resistant bacterial infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Cations/pharmacology , Polymers/pharmacology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Amines/chemistry , Animals , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Burns/complications , COVID-19 , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cross-Linking Reagents , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , HEK293 Cells/drug effects , Humans , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymers/chemistry
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108280, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487771

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a highly virulent and transmissible pathogen, has proven to be devastating to society. Mucosal vaccines that can induce antigen-specific immune responses in both the systemic and mucosal compartments are considered an effective measure to overcome infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microbes. We have recently developed a nasal vaccine system using cationic liposomes composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane and cholesteryl 3ß-N-(dimethylaminoethyl)carbamate in mice. However, the comprehensive molecular mechanism(s), especially the host soluble mediator involved in this process, by which cationic liposomes promote antigen-specific mucosal immune responses, remain to be elucidated. Herein, we show that intranasal administration of cationic liposomes elicited interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression at the site of administration. Additionally, both nasal passages and splenocytes from mice nasally immunized with cationic liposomes plus ovalbumin (OVA) were polarized to produce IL-6 when re-stimulated with OVA in vitro. Furthermore, pretreatment with anti-IL-6R antibody, which blocks the biological activities of IL-6, attenuated the production of OVA-specific nasal immunoglobulin A (IgA) but not OVA-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-6, exerted by nasally administered cationic liposomes, plays a crucial role in antigen-specific IgA induction.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Interleukin-6/immunology , Vaccines/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Antigens/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cations/immunology , Cations/therapeutic use , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/immunology , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/therapeutic use , Female , Immunity, Mucosal/drug effects , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Liposomes/immunology , Liposomes/therapeutic use , Mice , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Ovalbumin/immunology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/immunology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/therapeutic use , Spleen/metabolism , Vaccines/administration & dosage
17.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 17(10): 6483-6490, 2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404872

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 that caused COVID-19 has spread since the end of 2019. Its major effects resulted in over four million deaths around the whole world by August 2021. Therefore, understanding virulence mechanisms is important to prevent future outbreaks and for COVID-19 drug development. The envelope (E) protein is an important structural protein, affecting virus assembly and budding. The E protein pentamer is a viroporin, serving as an ion transferring channel in cells. In this work, we applied molecular dynamic simulations and topological and electrostatic analyses to study the effects of palmitoylation on the E protein pentamer. The results indicate that the cation transferring direction is more from the lumen to the cytosol. The structure of the palmitoylated E protein pentamer is more stable while the loss of palmitoylation caused the pore radius to reduce and even collapse. The electrostatic forces on the two sides of the palmitoylated E protein pentamer are more beneficial to attract cations in the lumen and to release cations into the cytosol. The results indicate the importance of palmitoylation, which can help the drug design for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Lipoylation , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cations/chemistry , Computational Biology , Cytosol/chemistry , Drug Design , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Structure , Principal Component Analysis , Protons , Static Electricity
18.
J Physiol ; 599(11): 2785-2786, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388428
20.
Science ; 373(6554): 541-547, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334531

ABSTRACT

Repurposing drugs as treatments for COVID-19, the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has drawn much attention. Beginning with sigma receptor ligands and expanding to other drugs from screening in the field, we became concerned that phospholipidosis was a shared mechanism underlying the antiviral activity of many repurposed drugs. For all of the 23 cationic amphiphilic drugs we tested, including hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, amiodarone, and four others already in clinical trials, phospholipidosis was monotonically correlated with antiviral efficacy. Conversely, drugs active against the same targets that did not induce phospholipidosis were not antiviral. Phospholipidosis depends on the physicochemical properties of drugs and does not reflect specific target-based activities-rather, it may be considered a toxic confound in early drug discovery. Early detection of phospholipidosis could eliminate these artifacts, enabling a focus on molecules with therapeutic potential.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Lipidoses/chemically induced , Phospholipids/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/virology , Cations , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/toxicity , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
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