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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 295, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle caused by LSD virus (LSDV) was first reported in August 2019 in China. Since then, several LSD outbreaks have been reported in seven different provinces of China. Until now, several Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) strains from China have been reported and sequenced including LSDV/Xinjiang/2019 (MN598005.1), China/GD01/2020 (MW355944.1), and LSDV/Hongkong/2021 (MW732649.1). In October 2020, more than 1,700 cattle imported from Chile arrived in Xilingol, Inner Mongolia, and were diagnosed with LSD. Currently, limited data on the origin of the virus is available. METHODS: Nucleotide sequences of the ORF11, ORF36, ORF74, ORF117, ORF126 genes and the complete genome of LSDV strains and isolates were downloaded from NCBI database. MEGA7.0 was used to perform phylogenetic analysis with Neighbor-Joining (NJ). DNASTAR software is used to analyze homologous comparison analysis with related genes of reference strains included in Genbank. RESULTS: Compared with other strains isolated from China, the results of full genome sequence analysis showed the LSDV/NMG/2020 strain belonged to the recombinant strains. The LSDV/NMG/2020 strain is different from the current LSDV field isolates in Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and the newly emerged LSDV Russia variants. Based on the identities of P32, RPO30, EEV, GPCR and LSDV117 genes (99.8%, 99%, 99.8%, 99% and 98.7%), the sub-cluster recombinant containing LSDV/NMG/2020 strain is phylogenetically closer to the Russia strain (Saratov/2017). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we reported a new isolated LSDV strain named LSDV/NMG/2020. The results of genomic characterization and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the LSDV/NMG/2020 isolate was a vaccine-like recombinant strain.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Lumpy Skin Disease/epidemiology , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide , Phylogeny
2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): e451-e462, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973741

ABSTRACT

Lumpy skin disease (LSD), an economically important viral disease of cattle caused by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) has recently spread into South and East Asia. LSD emerged in India in August 2019, first in Odisha State and spread to other areas, but there is scanty data on source and molecular epidemiology of LSDV involved in the initial outbreaks. Here we report genetic relationships and molecular features of LSDV, causing outbreaks in cattle spanning seven districts in Odisha and West Bengal States during August-December, 2019. Twelve LSDV isolates obtained using lamb testis cells were sequenced and analysed in four complete genes, GPCR, RPO30, P32 and EEV. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the Indian LSDV isolates from 2019 outbreaks are very closely related (99.7%-100%) to the historical Kenyan NI-2490/Kenya/KSGP-like field strains. Importantly, our results demonstrated that LSDV strains involved in 2019 outbreaks in India and Bangladesh are very similar in GPCR (99.7%), RPO30 (100%) and partial EEV (100%) sequences, indicating a common exotic source of LSDV introduction. Additionally, a 12-nucleotide insertion was found in GPCR gene of LSDV strains from 2019 outbreaks in India and Bangladesh. The findings of this study highlight the importance of continuous monitoring and molecular characterization of LSDV strains. These data should be useful while developing diagnostic and control strategies against LSD in India.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Sheep Diseases , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Kenya , Lumpy Skin Disease/epidemiology , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide , Phylogeny , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): 1813-1823, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973737

ABSTRACT

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a devastating viral disease that occurs in cattle. In China, it was first detected in the Xin-Jiang autonomous region, near the border with Kazakhstan, in August 2019. As there were no new occurrences of LSD in either country following the first detection, the initial introduction of the virus remains unknown. Arthropod vectors were considered as potential vectors. Consequently, to identify the arthropod vectors involved in transmitting LSD virus (LSDV), an insect surveillance campaign was launched at four different sites scattered along the border, and samples from 22 flying insect species were collected and subjected to PCR assays. Following the Agianniotaki LSDV vaccine and Sprygin's general LSDV assays, two kinds of non-biting flies, namely, Musca domestica L and Muscina stabulans, were positive for LSDV. However, all the other insects tested negative. Viral DNA was only detected in wash fluid, implying body surface contamination of the virus. The negative test results suggest that non-biting flies are the dominant insects involved in the observed local epidemic. Three genomic regions encoding RPO30, GPCR, and LW126 were successfully sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The sequences shared high homology with LSDV/Russia/Saratov/2017, a recombinant vaccine-like strain formerly identified in Russia, and clustered with LSDV vaccine strains in phylogenetic trees of RPO30 and LW126. However, the GPCR gene was seen to be solely clustered with LSDV field strains, implying differences in host affinity between these closely related vaccine-like strains. Despite this, there is no direct evidence to support cross-border transmission of the vaccine-like LSDV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of vaccine-like LSDV DNA detection in non-biting flies in China.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Lumpy Skin Disease/epidemiology , Lumpy Skin Disease/prevention & control , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide , Phylogeny , Vaccines, Attenuated
5.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964101

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a causative agent of enteric and respiratory disease in cattle. BCoV has also been reported to cause a variety of animal diseases and is closely related to human coronaviruses, which has attracted extensive attention from both cattle farmers and researchers. However, there are few comprehensive epidemiological reviews, and key information regarding the effect of S-gene differences on tissue tendency and potential cross-species transmission remain unclear. In this review, we summarize BCoV epidemiology, including the transmission, infection-associated factors, co-infection, pathogenicity, genetic evolution, and potential cross-species transmission. Furthermore, the potential two-receptor binding motif system for BCoV entry and the association between BCoV and SARS-CoV-2 are also discussed in this review. Our aim is to provide valuable information for the prevention and treatment of BCoV infection throughout the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus, Bovine , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(7): 929-937, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957092

ABSTRACT

After improvement of hygiene protocols on boots in a bovine operation (farm A) in Ibaraki, Japan in September 2017, mortality of calves and the detection of 4 viral pathogen indicators, including bovine rotavirus A (RVA), became significantly low for one year. Subsequently, in the present study, these indicators and mortality were monitored and confirmed all were still low, except for the detection rate of bovine RVA in calves less than 3 weeks old. The present study aimed to investigate G and P genotypic profiles of RVAs in farm A from 2018 to 2020. Molecular analysis using semi-nested multiplex RT-PCR of positive RVAs (n=122) and sequencing of selected samples revealed the presence of G6, G8, G10, P[1], P[5] and P[11] genotypes and the prevalence of G and/or P combination and mixed infections. The most common combination of G and P types was G10P[11] (41.8%), followed by mixed infection with G6+G10P[5] (11.5%). Phylogenetic analysis of RVAs showed clustering with bovine and other animal-derived RVA strains, suggesting the possibility of multiple reassortant events with strains of bovine and others animal origins. Noteworthy as well is that vaccinated cattle might fail to provide their offspring with maternal immunity against RVA infections, due to insufficient colostrum feeding. Our findings further highlight the importance of RVA surveillance in bovine populations, which may be useful to improving effective routine vaccination and hygiene practices on bovine farms.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Animals , Biosecurity , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Farms , Feces , Genetic Profile , Genotype , Phylogeny , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 140, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ticks and tick-borne diseases constitute a real threat for the livestock industry, which is increasing in Angola. In addition, ticks are vectors of zoonoses of public health concern, and scarce information is available from this country. In an effort to contribute to the prevention of zoonotic infectious diseases affecting humans and animals, the molecular screening of certain tick-related microorganisms collected on cattle in Angola was performed under a 'One Health' scope. METHODS: Ticks collected from cattle in Cubal (Benguela Province, Angola) in July 2017 were analysed in pools using specific PCR assays for bacteria (Rickettsia, Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia, Coxiella and Spiroplasma) and protozoa (Theileria and Babesia) detection. RESULTS: A total of 124 tick specimens were grouped in 25 pools (two Amblyomma variegatum, three Hyalomma truncatum, 16 Rhipicephalus decoloratus, two Rhipicephalus duttoni, one Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus and one Rhipicephalus sp.). The amplified microorganisms were (pools): Rickettsia africae (two A. variegatum and one R. decoloratus), Rickettsia aeschlimannii (three H. truncatum), Ehrlichia spp. (six R. decoloratus), Coxiella spp. (all but H. truncatum), Francisella sp. (one H. truncatum), Spiroplasma sp. closely related to Spiroplasma ixodetis (three R. decoloratus), Babesia bigemina (two R. decoloratus) and Babesia spp. (two A. variegatum). The obtained nucleotide sequences from Ehrlichia spp., two Coxiella genotypes (from R. duttoni and Rhipicephalus sp.), Francisella sp. and Babesia spp. (from A. variegatum) reached low identities with known genetically characterized species. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the circulation in Angola of the pathogen R. aeschlimannii and potential novel tick-related microorganisms belonging to Ehrlichia, Coxiella, Francisella, Spiroplasma and Babesia spp. and corroborates the presence of R. africae and B. bigemina. Our results should be considered in developing protocols for the management of fever of unknown origin and for veterinary practices. Further studies are required to evaluate the risk of tick-borne diseases in Angola.


Subject(s)
Babesia , Cattle Diseases , Rhipicephalus , Rickettsia , Tick Infestations , Tick-Borne Diseases , Angola , Animals , Babesia/genetics , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Coxiella , Ehrlichia/genetics , Rickettsia/genetics , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Tick-Borne Diseases/epidemiology , Tick-Borne Diseases/microbiology , Tick-Borne Diseases/veterinary , Zoonoses
8.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(4): 2625-2632, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788869

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Viral pathogens are the primary agents in bovine respiratory disease cases, and there is no direct effective antiviral drug application. Thymbra is a genus of oregano commonly found in Turkey. The primary component (34.9%) of the extract obtained from Thymbra spicata L. is the carvacrol which is used in traditional medicine. This study evaluates the potential antiviral activity and inactivation efficiency of T. spicata L. extract against bovine respiratory viruses, including BCoV, BPIV-3, BRSV, BVDV and BoHV-1. METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate its effect on viral replication, viral titres were taken from infected cells treated with non-cytotoxic T. spicata L. extract concentrations (0.75% and 1.5%, 1.32 and 2.64 µg/ml of carvacrol as active ingredient, respectively) and compared to non-treated infected cells. The viruses were treated directly with 1.5% T. spicata L. extract, and the viral titres were evaluated at certain time points to determine the efficiency of direct inactivation. The number of infectious virions for BCoV, BPIV-3, BRSV, BVDV and BoHV-1 treated with 1.5% T. spicata L. extract were decreased by 99.44%, 100.0%, 94.38%, 99.97% and 99.87%, respectively.T. spicata L. extract strongly inhibits the replication of mentioned viruses in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. In addition, T. spicata L. extract shared direct inactivation efficiency on the mentioned viruses in a time-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: This study shows the antiviral efficiency of T. spicata L. on BRD-related viral agents for the first time. The oregano species T. spicata and its main component, carvacrol, may have a potential for antiviral activity in the alternative treatment of respiratory viral diseases in cattle. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Given the similarity of replication strategies, obtained data suggest the possible efficiency of T. spicata L. on human respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lamiaceae , Viruses , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cattle , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
9.
J Vet Sci ; 22(5): e69, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bovine group A rotavirus (BoRVA) is a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in newborn dairy calves. Only one study has investigated the G and P genotypes among dairy calves in a few regions of China, which were G6 and P[5]. Therefore, data on the prevalence and molecular characteristics of BoRVA in dairy calves in China remains limited. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of BoRVA in dairy calves in China. METHODS: 269 dairy calves diarrheic samples from 23 farms in six provinces in China were collected to detect BoRVA using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: 71% of samples were determined to be BoRVA-positive. Two G genotypes (G6, G10) and two P genotypes (P[1], P[5]) were identified, and G6P[1] BoRVA was the predominant strain. Moreover, the VP7 and VP4 gene sequences of these dairy calf BoRVA strains revealed abundant genetic diversity. Interestingly, eight out of 17 complete G6 VP7 sequences were clustered into G6 lineage VI and analysis showed the strains were closely related to Chinese yak BoRVA strains. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that BoRVA circulates widely among dairy calves in China, and the dominant genotype in circulation is G6P[1], first report on molecular characteristics of complete P[5] VP4 genes in chinese dairy calves. These results will help us to further understand the prevalence and genetic evolution of BoRVA among dairy calves in China and, thus, prevent the disease more effectively.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , China/epidemiology , Dairying , Female , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Rotavirus/classification , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/microbiology
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 124, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses have the potential to cross species barriers. To learn the molecular intersections among the most common coronaviruses of domestic and close-contact animals, we analyzed representative coronavirus genera infecting mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, cat, cattle, white-tailed deer, swine, ferret, mink, alpaca, Rhinolophus bat, dolphin, whale, chicken, duck and turkey hosts; reference or complete genome sequences were available for most of these coronavirus genera. Protein sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees were built for the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. The host receptors and enzymes aminopeptidase N (APN), angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), sialic acid synthase (SAS), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), cathepsin L (and its analogs) and furin were also compared. RESULTS: Overall, the S, E, M, and N proteins segregated according to their viral genera (α, ß, or γ), but the S proteins of alphacoronaviruses lacked conservation of phylogeny. Interestingly, the unique polybasic furin cleavage motif found in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) but not in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) or Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) exists in several ß-coronaviruses and a few α- or γ-coronaviruses. Receptors and enzymes retained host species-dependent relationships with one another. Among the hosts, critical ACE2 residues essential for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding were most conserved in white-tailed deer and cattle. CONCLUSION: The polybasic furin cleavage motif found in several ß- and other coronaviruses of animals points to the existence of an intermediate host for SARS-CoV-2, and it also offers a counternarrative to the theory of a laboratory-engineered virus. Generally, the S proteins of coronaviruses show crossovers of phylogenies indicative of recombination events. Additionally, the consistency in the segregation of viral proteins of the MERS-like coronavirus (NC_034440.1) from pipistrelle bat supports its classification as a ß-coronavirus. Finally, similarities in host enzymes and receptors did not always explain natural cross-infections. More studies are therefore needed to identify factors that determine the cross-species infectivity of coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle Diseases , Deer , Dog Diseases , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Rodent Diseases , Swine Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cattle , Dogs , Ferrets , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Rabbits , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Swine
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(2): 127, 2022 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1728637

ABSTRACT

Calf diarrhoea is one of the major problems in cattle farming with high morbidity and mortality in herds. Two enteric viruses, bovine rotavirus (BRV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV), are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in young calves, whereas picobirnaviruses (PBVs) are often associated with diarrhoea. In the present study, the faecal specimens of 127 diarrhoeic bovines (less than 1-month-old) were employed to investigate the infection frequencies of these three pathogens. Results indicated that frequencies of BRV and BCoV in diarrhoeic calves were 38.58% and 29.92%, respectively. The 7.08% of bovine calf samples (9 out of 127) were found to be positive for PBV genogroup I. Sequence analysis further revealed the high genetic heterogeneity within representative PBV sequences. Additionally, both PBV-BCoV (n = 2) and BCoV-BRV-PBV (n = 1) co-infections were detected in bovine calves for the first time. Consequently, our findings pointed out the highly divergent nature of PBVs without regard to exact host or territory and the occasional co-existence with other enteric agents.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Picobirnavirus , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Feces , Genetic Variation , Picobirnavirus/genetics , Turkey/epidemiology
12.
Prev Vet Med ; 198: 105532, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616704

ABSTRACT

In the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, the yak is an animal of particular economic interest, which provides protein and income for herders in daily life. Brucellosis is a bacterial disease that can infect humans and animals, including yaks. It can damage the yak reproductive system, causing miscarriage and orchitis. At the same time, brucellosis threatens the health of herders. We performed this meta-analysis using R software to explore the combined prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in yak in China. Variability was assessed by the I2 statistic and Cochran Q statistic. We identified 52 publications of related research from four databases (Wanfang Data, VIP Chinese Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and of PubMed). The pooled prevalence of yak brucellosis was 8.39 %. Prevalence was highest in Southwestern China (11.1 %). The point estimate of brucellosis in yak from 2012 to 2016 was the highest (11.47 %). The point estimate of age ≤ 12 months (1.44 %) was lower than that of age > 12 months (15.6 %). This study shows that yak brucellosis is serious, and its incidence is higher than before 2012. We recommend carrying out large-scale yak brucellosis investigations in Western China and conducting comprehensive testing planning. The detection of brucellosis in adult animals should be strengthened to reduce the economic loss caused by brucellosis to herders and to improve public health.


Subject(s)
Brucellosis , Cattle Diseases , Animals , Brucellosis/epidemiology , Brucellosis/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Incidence , Male , Prevalence , Tibet
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(2): 1788-1796, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598898

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to document California, Idaho, South Dakota, and Washington dairy producers' perspectives on the health and business implications of COVID-19 during the pandemic second wave. Dairy producers were reached by a 14-question anonymous mail survey during June and July of 2020. We obtained 226 responses (response rate: 9.3% CA, 8.6% ID, 31.4%, and 10.0% WA). Responses were grouped by state (CA: 48.7%, ID: 15.9%, SD: 21.7%, or WA: 13.7%) and dairy size [based on number of cows; small (<100): 14.1%, medium (100-499): 27.7%, medium-large (500-1,999): 33.2%, or large (≥2,000): 25.0%]. Survey responses were summarized, and multiple correspondence analysis was used to map responses and identify data clusters. At the time of the survey, some respondents suspected (3%) or had confirmed (9%) COVID-19 cases on their premises. Respondents were somewhat or very concerned about the health (75%) and business (92%) implications associated with COVID-19. Producers were concerned about the health of their families, employees, and employees' families; having to reduce production; workforce shortage; limited goods availability; and lack of services. Producers perceived that their employees were somewhat or very concerned (74%) with the pandemic. There was COVID-19 safety information or training provided (78%) or intended (4%) in English (22%), Spanish (23%), or both (55%). The focus of training was as follows: how to remain healthy at work (91%) and at home (60%), what to do if a worker gets sick (77%), and sick leave information (54%). Nevertheless, 18% of the respondents answered that training was not going to be provided. The following control measures implemented: providing hand sanitizer or disinfectant wipes (78%), instruction on frequent hand-washing (76%), social distancing (59%), prevention of employee gatherings (54%), providing and requiring the use of face masks (49%), and limiting on-farm visitors (44%). Multiple correspondence analysis showed that concern with health risk and business impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as mitigation and response strategies implemented, varied based on respondent's dairy size and state. The greatest concerns were reported by producers from California and large and medium-large dairies, whereas the fewest concerns were reported by producers from small dairies. Results from this survey highlighted the health and business concerns of dairy producers from California, Idaho, South Dakota, and Washington during the COVID-19 pandemic and the mitigation efforts adopted. In conclusion, mitigation measures were adopted by most dairy producers but in various degrees. Dairy industry service providers and educators were secondary educational resources during the pandemic; thus, future efforts toward centralized access to dairy specific bilingual educational materials are suggested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , California , Cattle , Dairying , Female , Idaho , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , South Dakota , Washington
14.
Vet Rec ; 189(12): 456-457, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588869
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 12, 2021 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565445

ABSTRACT

The world population exceeded 7.8 billion people in 2020 and is predicted to reach 9.9 billion by 2050 as per the current increasing rate of 25%. In view of this, ensuring human health and food security has become an issue of key importance to countries with different degrees of economic development. At the same time, the livestock sector plays a strategic role in improving the economic, environmental, and sociocultural stewardship of any nation. The cow (Bos indicus) has held a distinctive role in human history ever since its domestication because of its valued harvests like dairy products (milk, clarified butter, yogurt, curd, and buttermilk) excreta like dung and urine. These products, except dung, provide all the necessary energy and nutrients to ensure the proper growth and development of the human. They are the source of many bioactive substances, which possess immense pharmacotherapeutic action against various physiological, metabolic and infectious disorders, including COVID-19. The use of urine and dung can be considered a low-cost agricultural practice for farmers and has been extensively used in modern agriculture practices to ensure food security via soil fertility, plant pathogens, and pests. Cow urine mediated synthesized nanomaterial also display distinctive characteristics and novel applications in various fields of science and technology. Thus, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of cow products, describing their biochemical constituents, bioactivities, and their utilization in the area ranging from human welfare to agriculture sustainability. An attempt is also made to present possible applications in bioenergy production and pollution reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle Diseases , Agriculture , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cattle , Female , Food Security , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Soil
16.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0156121, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1529876

ABSTRACT

Historically part of the coronavirus (CoV) family, torovirus (ToV) was recently classified in the new family Tobaniviridae. While reverse genetics systems have been established for various CoVs, none exist for ToVs. Here, we developed a reverse genetics system using an infectious full-length cDNA clone of bovine ToV (BToV) in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Recombinant BToV harboring genetic markers had the same phenotype as wild-type (wt) BToV. To generate two types of recombinant virus, the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) gene was edited, as cell-adapted wtBToV generally loses full-length HE (HEf), resulting in soluble HE (HEs). First, recombinant viruses with HEf and hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged HEf or HEs genes were rescued. These exhibited no significant differences in their effect on virus growth in HRT18 cells, suggesting that HE is not essential for viral replication in these cells. Thereafter, we generated a recombinant virus (rEGFP) wherein HE was replaced by the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. rEGFP expressed EGFP in infected cells but showed significantly lower levels of viral growth than wtBToV. Moreover, rEGFP readily deleted the EGFP gene after one passage. Interestingly, rEGFP variants with two mutations (C1442F and I3562T) in nonstructural proteins (NSPs) that emerged during passage exhibited improved EGFP expression, EGFP gene retention, and viral replication. An rEGFP into which both mutations were introduced displayed a phenotype similar to that of these variants, suggesting that the mutations contributed to EGFP gene acceptance. The current findings provide new insights into BToV, and reverse genetics will help advance the current understanding of this neglected pathogen. IMPORTANCE ToVs are diarrhea-causing pathogens detected in various species, including humans. Through the development of a BAC-based BToV, we introduced the first reverse genetics system for Tobaniviridae. Utilizing this system, recombinant BToVs with a full-length HE gene were generated. Remarkably, although clinical BToVs generally lose the HE gene after a few passages, some recombinant viruses generated in the current study retained the HE gene for up to 20 passages while accumulating mutations in NSPs, which suggested that these mutations may be involved in HE gene retention. The EGFP gene of recombinant viruses was unstable, but rEGFP into which two NSP mutations were introduced exhibited improved EGFP expression, gene retention, and viral replication. These data suggested the existence of an NSP-based acceptance or retention mechanism for exogenous RNA or HE genes. Recombinant BToVs and reverse genetics are powerful tools for understanding fundamental viral processes, pathogenesis, and BToV vaccine development.


Subject(s)
DNA, Complementary , Genome, Viral , Reverse Genetics , Torovirus/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/virology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial , Cloning, Molecular , Genes, Reporter , Hemagglutinins, Viral/genetics , Hemagglutinins, Viral/metabolism , Mutation , Plasmids/genetics , Torovirus/isolation & purification , Torovirus Infections , Transfection
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): 2275-2286, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304137

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a host cell membrane protein (receptor) that mediates the binding of coronavirus, most notably SARS coronaviruses in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Although SARS-CoV-2 infection is mainly confined to humans, there have been numerous incidents of spillback (reverse zoonoses) to domestic and captive animals. An absence of information on the spatial distribution of ACE2 in animal tissues limits our understanding of host species susceptibility. Here, we describe the distribution of ACE2 using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on histological sections derived from carnivores, ungulates, primates and chiroptera. Comparison of mink (Neovison vison) and ferret (Mustela putorius furo) respiratory tracts showed substantial differences, demonstrating that ACE2 is present in the lower respiratory tract of mink but not ferrets. The presence of ACE2 in the respiratory tract in some species was much more restricted as indicated by limited immunolabelling in the nasal turbinate, trachea and lungs of cats (Felis catus) and only the nasal turbinate in the golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). In the lungs of other species, ACE2 could be detected on the bronchiolar epithelium of the sheep (Ovis aries), cattle (Bos taurus), European badger (Meles meles), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), tiger and lion (Panthera spp.). In addition, ACE2 was present in the nasal mucosa epithelium of the serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) but not in pig (Sus scrofa domestica), cattle or sheep. In the intestine, ACE2 immunolabelling was seen on the microvillus of enterocytes (surface of intestine) across various taxa. These results provide anatomical evidence of ACE2 expression in a number of species which will enable further understanding of host susceptibility and tissue tropism of ACE2 receptor-mediated viral infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Receptors, Virus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases , Cats , Cattle , Cattle Diseases , Chiroptera , Ferrets , Livestock , Mink , Pets , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep , Sheep Diseases , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Sus scrofa
18.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2461-2468, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292555

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) can be spread by animal activity. Although cattle farming is widespread in Turkey, there are few studies of BCoV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current situation regarding BCoV in Turkey. This is the first study reporting the full-length nucleotide sequences of BCoV spike (S) genes in Turkey. Samples were collected from 119 cattle with clinical signs of respiratory (n = 78) or digestive tract (n = 41) infection on different farms located across widely separated provinces in Turkey. The samples were screened for BCoV using RT-nested PCR targeting the N gene, which identified BCoV in 35 samples (9 faeces and 26 nasal discharge). RT-PCR analysis of the S gene produced partial/full-length S gene sequences from 11 samples (8 faeces and 3 nasal discharge samples). A phylogenetic tree of the S gene sequences was made to analyze the genetic relationships among BCoVs from Turkey and other countries. The results showed that the local strains present in faeces and nasal discharge samples had many different amino acid changes. Some of these changes were shown in previous studies to be critical for tropism. This study provides new data on BCoV in Turkey that will be valuable in designing effective vaccine approaches and control strategies.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary , RNA, Viral/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Agriculture , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/classification , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular , Feces/virology , Humans , Mutation , Nasal Cavity/virology , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Turkey/epidemiology
19.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 237: 110254, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239778

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to elucidate whether the route of booster vaccination affects the immune response against respiratory vaccine viruses in pre-weaning beef calves that receive primary intranasal (IN) vaccination during the first month of life. The objective was to compare the serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) titers to BHV1, BRSV, and BPI3V, cytokine mRNA expression and mucosal BHV1- and BRSV-specific IgA in nasal secretions following administration of IN or subcutaneous (SC) modified-live virus (MLV) booster vaccines 60 days after primary IN vaccination in young beef calves. Twenty-one beef calves were administered 2 mL of an IN MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BRSV, and BPI3V (Inforce3®) between one and five weeks of age. Sixty days after primary vaccination, calves were randomly assigned to one of two groups: IN-MLV (n = 11): Calves received 2 mL of the same IN MLV vaccine used for primary vaccination and 2 mL of a SC MLV vaccine containing BVDV1 & 2 (Bovi- Shield GOLD® BVD). SC-MLV (n = 10): Calves were administered 2 mL of a MLV vaccine containing, BHV1, BRSV, BPI3V, and BVDV1 & 2 (Bovi-Shield GOLD® 5). Blood and nasal secretion samples were collected on days -61 (primary vaccination), -28, -14, 0 (booster vaccination), 14, 21, 28, 42 and 60 for determination of SNA titers, cytokine gene expression analysis and nasal virus-specific IgA concentrations. Statistical analysis was performed using a repeated measures analysis through PROC GLIMMIX of SAS®. Booster vaccination by neither IN nor SC routes induced a significant increase in SNA titers against BHV1, BRSV, and BPI3V. Subcutaneous booster vaccination induced significantly greater BRSV-specific SNA titers (on day 42) and IgA concentration in nasal secretions (on days 21 and 42) compared to calves receiving IN booster vaccination. Both IN and SC booster vaccination were able to stimulate the production of BHV1-specific IgA in nasal secretions. In summary, booster vaccination of young beef calves using either SC or IN route two months after IN MLV primary vaccination resulted in comparable SNA titers, cytokine gene expression profile and virus-specific IgA concentration in nasal secretions. Only a few differences in the systemic and mucosal immune response against BHV1 and BRSV were observed. Subcutaneous booster vaccination induced significantly greater BRSV-specific SNA and secretory IgA titers compared to IN booster vaccination.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/immunology , Administration, Intranasal/veterinary , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Immunization, Secondary/veterinary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/administration & dosage
20.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184510

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoV) are widely distributed pathogens of human and animals and can cause mild or severe respiratory and gastrointestinal disease. Antigenic and genetic similarity of some CoVs within the Betacoronavirus genus is evident. Therefore, for the first time in Slovenia, we investigated the genetic diversity of partial 390-nucleotides of RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase gene (RdRp) for 66 human (HCoV) and 24 bovine CoV (BCoV) positive samples, collected between 2010 and 2016 from human patients and cattle with respiratory disease. The characterized CoV strains belong to four different clusters, in three separate human clusters HCoV-HKU1 (n = 34), HCoV-OC43 (n = 31) and HCoV 229E (n = 1) and bovine grouping only as BCoVs (n = 24). BCoVs from cattle and HCoV-OC43 were genetically the most closely related and share 96.4-97.1% nucleotide and 96.9-98.5% amino acid identity.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/transmission , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Female , Genetic Variation , Humans , Male , Slovenia
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