Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 28
Filter
1.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 295, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle caused by LSD virus (LSDV) was first reported in August 2019 in China. Since then, several LSD outbreaks have been reported in seven different provinces of China. Until now, several Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) strains from China have been reported and sequenced including LSDV/Xinjiang/2019 (MN598005.1), China/GD01/2020 (MW355944.1), and LSDV/Hongkong/2021 (MW732649.1). In October 2020, more than 1,700 cattle imported from Chile arrived in Xilingol, Inner Mongolia, and were diagnosed with LSD. Currently, limited data on the origin of the virus is available. METHODS: Nucleotide sequences of the ORF11, ORF36, ORF74, ORF117, ORF126 genes and the complete genome of LSDV strains and isolates were downloaded from NCBI database. MEGA7.0 was used to perform phylogenetic analysis with Neighbor-Joining (NJ). DNASTAR software is used to analyze homologous comparison analysis with related genes of reference strains included in Genbank. RESULTS: Compared with other strains isolated from China, the results of full genome sequence analysis showed the LSDV/NMG/2020 strain belonged to the recombinant strains. The LSDV/NMG/2020 strain is different from the current LSDV field isolates in Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and the newly emerged LSDV Russia variants. Based on the identities of P32, RPO30, EEV, GPCR and LSDV117 genes (99.8%, 99%, 99.8%, 99% and 98.7%), the sub-cluster recombinant containing LSDV/NMG/2020 strain is phylogenetically closer to the Russia strain (Saratov/2017). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we reported a new isolated LSDV strain named LSDV/NMG/2020. The results of genomic characterization and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the LSDV/NMG/2020 isolate was a vaccine-like recombinant strain.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Lumpy Skin Disease/epidemiology , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide , Phylogeny
2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): e451-e462, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973741

ABSTRACT

Lumpy skin disease (LSD), an economically important viral disease of cattle caused by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) has recently spread into South and East Asia. LSD emerged in India in August 2019, first in Odisha State and spread to other areas, but there is scanty data on source and molecular epidemiology of LSDV involved in the initial outbreaks. Here we report genetic relationships and molecular features of LSDV, causing outbreaks in cattle spanning seven districts in Odisha and West Bengal States during August-December, 2019. Twelve LSDV isolates obtained using lamb testis cells were sequenced and analysed in four complete genes, GPCR, RPO30, P32 and EEV. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the Indian LSDV isolates from 2019 outbreaks are very closely related (99.7%-100%) to the historical Kenyan NI-2490/Kenya/KSGP-like field strains. Importantly, our results demonstrated that LSDV strains involved in 2019 outbreaks in India and Bangladesh are very similar in GPCR (99.7%), RPO30 (100%) and partial EEV (100%) sequences, indicating a common exotic source of LSDV introduction. Additionally, a 12-nucleotide insertion was found in GPCR gene of LSDV strains from 2019 outbreaks in India and Bangladesh. The findings of this study highlight the importance of continuous monitoring and molecular characterization of LSDV strains. These data should be useful while developing diagnostic and control strategies against LSD in India.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Sheep Diseases , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Kenya , Lumpy Skin Disease/epidemiology , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide , Phylogeny , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): 1813-1823, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973737

ABSTRACT

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a devastating viral disease that occurs in cattle. In China, it was first detected in the Xin-Jiang autonomous region, near the border with Kazakhstan, in August 2019. As there were no new occurrences of LSD in either country following the first detection, the initial introduction of the virus remains unknown. Arthropod vectors were considered as potential vectors. Consequently, to identify the arthropod vectors involved in transmitting LSD virus (LSDV), an insect surveillance campaign was launched at four different sites scattered along the border, and samples from 22 flying insect species were collected and subjected to PCR assays. Following the Agianniotaki LSDV vaccine and Sprygin's general LSDV assays, two kinds of non-biting flies, namely, Musca domestica L and Muscina stabulans, were positive for LSDV. However, all the other insects tested negative. Viral DNA was only detected in wash fluid, implying body surface contamination of the virus. The negative test results suggest that non-biting flies are the dominant insects involved in the observed local epidemic. Three genomic regions encoding RPO30, GPCR, and LW126 were successfully sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The sequences shared high homology with LSDV/Russia/Saratov/2017, a recombinant vaccine-like strain formerly identified in Russia, and clustered with LSDV vaccine strains in phylogenetic trees of RPO30 and LW126. However, the GPCR gene was seen to be solely clustered with LSDV field strains, implying differences in host affinity between these closely related vaccine-like strains. Despite this, there is no direct evidence to support cross-border transmission of the vaccine-like LSDV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of vaccine-like LSDV DNA detection in non-biting flies in China.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Lumpy Skin Disease/epidemiology , Lumpy Skin Disease/prevention & control , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide , Phylogeny , Vaccines, Attenuated
4.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964101

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a causative agent of enteric and respiratory disease in cattle. BCoV has also been reported to cause a variety of animal diseases and is closely related to human coronaviruses, which has attracted extensive attention from both cattle farmers and researchers. However, there are few comprehensive epidemiological reviews, and key information regarding the effect of S-gene differences on tissue tendency and potential cross-species transmission remain unclear. In this review, we summarize BCoV epidemiology, including the transmission, infection-associated factors, co-infection, pathogenicity, genetic evolution, and potential cross-species transmission. Furthermore, the potential two-receptor binding motif system for BCoV entry and the association between BCoV and SARS-CoV-2 are also discussed in this review. Our aim is to provide valuable information for the prevention and treatment of BCoV infection throughout the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus, Bovine , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(7): 929-937, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957092

ABSTRACT

After improvement of hygiene protocols on boots in a bovine operation (farm A) in Ibaraki, Japan in September 2017, mortality of calves and the detection of 4 viral pathogen indicators, including bovine rotavirus A (RVA), became significantly low for one year. Subsequently, in the present study, these indicators and mortality were monitored and confirmed all were still low, except for the detection rate of bovine RVA in calves less than 3 weeks old. The present study aimed to investigate G and P genotypic profiles of RVAs in farm A from 2018 to 2020. Molecular analysis using semi-nested multiplex RT-PCR of positive RVAs (n=122) and sequencing of selected samples revealed the presence of G6, G8, G10, P[1], P[5] and P[11] genotypes and the prevalence of G and/or P combination and mixed infections. The most common combination of G and P types was G10P[11] (41.8%), followed by mixed infection with G6+G10P[5] (11.5%). Phylogenetic analysis of RVAs showed clustering with bovine and other animal-derived RVA strains, suggesting the possibility of multiple reassortant events with strains of bovine and others animal origins. Noteworthy as well is that vaccinated cattle might fail to provide their offspring with maternal immunity against RVA infections, due to insufficient colostrum feeding. Our findings further highlight the importance of RVA surveillance in bovine populations, which may be useful to improving effective routine vaccination and hygiene practices on bovine farms.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Animals , Biosecurity , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Farms , Feces , Genetic Profile , Genotype , Phylogeny , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary
6.
J Vet Sci ; 22(5): e69, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bovine group A rotavirus (BoRVA) is a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in newborn dairy calves. Only one study has investigated the G and P genotypes among dairy calves in a few regions of China, which were G6 and P[5]. Therefore, data on the prevalence and molecular characteristics of BoRVA in dairy calves in China remains limited. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of BoRVA in dairy calves in China. METHODS: 269 dairy calves diarrheic samples from 23 farms in six provinces in China were collected to detect BoRVA using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: 71% of samples were determined to be BoRVA-positive. Two G genotypes (G6, G10) and two P genotypes (P[1], P[5]) were identified, and G6P[1] BoRVA was the predominant strain. Moreover, the VP7 and VP4 gene sequences of these dairy calf BoRVA strains revealed abundant genetic diversity. Interestingly, eight out of 17 complete G6 VP7 sequences were clustered into G6 lineage VI and analysis showed the strains were closely related to Chinese yak BoRVA strains. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that BoRVA circulates widely among dairy calves in China, and the dominant genotype in circulation is G6P[1], first report on molecular characteristics of complete P[5] VP4 genes in chinese dairy calves. These results will help us to further understand the prevalence and genetic evolution of BoRVA among dairy calves in China and, thus, prevent the disease more effectively.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , China/epidemiology , Dairying , Female , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Rotavirus/classification , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/microbiology
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(2): 127, 2022 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1728637

ABSTRACT

Calf diarrhoea is one of the major problems in cattle farming with high morbidity and mortality in herds. Two enteric viruses, bovine rotavirus (BRV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV), are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in young calves, whereas picobirnaviruses (PBVs) are often associated with diarrhoea. In the present study, the faecal specimens of 127 diarrhoeic bovines (less than 1-month-old) were employed to investigate the infection frequencies of these three pathogens. Results indicated that frequencies of BRV and BCoV in diarrhoeic calves were 38.58% and 29.92%, respectively. The 7.08% of bovine calf samples (9 out of 127) were found to be positive for PBV genogroup I. Sequence analysis further revealed the high genetic heterogeneity within representative PBV sequences. Additionally, both PBV-BCoV (n = 2) and BCoV-BRV-PBV (n = 1) co-infections were detected in bovine calves for the first time. Consequently, our findings pointed out the highly divergent nature of PBVs without regard to exact host or territory and the occasional co-existence with other enteric agents.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Picobirnavirus , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Feces , Genetic Variation , Picobirnavirus/genetics , Turkey/epidemiology
8.
Prev Vet Med ; 198: 105532, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616704

ABSTRACT

In the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, the yak is an animal of particular economic interest, which provides protein and income for herders in daily life. Brucellosis is a bacterial disease that can infect humans and animals, including yaks. It can damage the yak reproductive system, causing miscarriage and orchitis. At the same time, brucellosis threatens the health of herders. We performed this meta-analysis using R software to explore the combined prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in yak in China. Variability was assessed by the I2 statistic and Cochran Q statistic. We identified 52 publications of related research from four databases (Wanfang Data, VIP Chinese Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and of PubMed). The pooled prevalence of yak brucellosis was 8.39 %. Prevalence was highest in Southwestern China (11.1 %). The point estimate of brucellosis in yak from 2012 to 2016 was the highest (11.47 %). The point estimate of age ≤ 12 months (1.44 %) was lower than that of age > 12 months (15.6 %). This study shows that yak brucellosis is serious, and its incidence is higher than before 2012. We recommend carrying out large-scale yak brucellosis investigations in Western China and conducting comprehensive testing planning. The detection of brucellosis in adult animals should be strengthened to reduce the economic loss caused by brucellosis to herders and to improve public health.


Subject(s)
Brucellosis , Cattle Diseases , Animals , Brucellosis/epidemiology , Brucellosis/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Incidence , Male , Prevalence , Tibet
9.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2461-2468, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292555

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) can be spread by animal activity. Although cattle farming is widespread in Turkey, there are few studies of BCoV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current situation regarding BCoV in Turkey. This is the first study reporting the full-length nucleotide sequences of BCoV spike (S) genes in Turkey. Samples were collected from 119 cattle with clinical signs of respiratory (n = 78) or digestive tract (n = 41) infection on different farms located across widely separated provinces in Turkey. The samples were screened for BCoV using RT-nested PCR targeting the N gene, which identified BCoV in 35 samples (9 faeces and 26 nasal discharge). RT-PCR analysis of the S gene produced partial/full-length S gene sequences from 11 samples (8 faeces and 3 nasal discharge samples). A phylogenetic tree of the S gene sequences was made to analyze the genetic relationships among BCoVs from Turkey and other countries. The results showed that the local strains present in faeces and nasal discharge samples had many different amino acid changes. Some of these changes were shown in previous studies to be critical for tropism. This study provides new data on BCoV in Turkey that will be valuable in designing effective vaccine approaches and control strategies.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary , RNA, Viral/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Agriculture , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/classification , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular , Feces/virology , Humans , Mutation , Nasal Cavity/virology , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Turkey/epidemiology
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2151-2163, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031655

ABSTRACT

The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine rotavirus (BRoV), and Cryptosporidiumparvum on dairy calf health and performance and to determine the prevalence of these pathogens. A total of 198 male dairy calves housed at a grain-fed veal facility were examined from June 11, 2018, to October 9, 2018. Calves were fed milk replacer twice daily and housed individually until weaning at 56 d. Once weaned, calves were moved into groups of 5 until they were moved to a finishing facility at 77 d. At the grain-fed veal facility, calves were scored for fecal consistency for the first 28 d and had fecal samples taken on arrival and at 7 and 14 d. Fecal samples were frozen and submitted to a commercial laboratory, where they were tested for BCoV, C.parvum, and 2 groups of BRoV: group A (BRoV A) and group B (BRoV B). Calves were weighed on arrival and at 14, 49, 56, and 77 d using a digital body scale. Treatments for disease and mortalities that occurred over the 77 d were also recorded. Statistical models, including Cox proportional hazards and repeated measures models, were built to determine the effect of infection with 1 of the pathogens. Over the 3 sampling points, 151 (85.8%), 178 (94.2%), 3 (1.5%), and 97 (57.4%) calves tested positive at least once for BCoV, BRoV A, BRoV B, and C.parvum, respectively. The source of the calves and the level of serum total protein measured on arrival were associated with testing positive for a pathogen. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea and severe diarrhea; calves that tested positive for BCoV and BRoV A had an increased proportion of days with severe diarrhea. In addition, calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a higher hazard of being treated for respiratory disease. With respect to body weight, calves that had diarrhea or severe diarrhea had lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d. Specifically, calves that had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea showed a reduction in weight gain of up to 15 kg compared to calves without diarrhea. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d; calves that tested positive for BCoV had a lower body weight at 56 and 77 d. This study demonstrates that the prevalence of BCoV, BRoV A, and C.parvum infection is high in this population of calves and has significant effects on the occurrence of diarrhea and body weight gain. Future studies should evaluate approaches for minimizing the effect of infection with these pathogens to improve the welfare, health, and productivity of dairy calves.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine , Cryptosporidiosis/physiopathology , Cryptosporidium parvum , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Feces/virology , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/physiopathology , Weight Gain
11.
Prev Vet Med ; 181: 104494, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761798

ABSTRACT

A national control program against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) was launched in Norway in 2016. A key strategy in the program is to test for presence of antibodies and protect test-negative herds from infection. Because these viruses are endemic, the rate of re-introduction can be high, and a disease-free status will become more uncertain as time from testing elapses. The aim of this study was to estimate the probability of freedom (PostPFree) from BRSV and BCV antibodies over time by use of bulk tank milk (BTM) antibody-testing, geographic information and animal movement data, and to validate the herd-level estimates against subsequent BTM testing. BTM samples were collected from 1148 study herds in West Norway in 2013 and 2016, and these were analyzed for BRSV and BCV antibodies. PostPFree was calculated for herds that were negative in 2013/2014, and updated periodically with new probabilities every three months. Input variables were test sensitivity, the probability of introduction through animal purchase and local transmission. Probability of introduction through animal purchase was calculated by using real animal movement data and herd prevalence in the region of the source herd. The PostPFree from the final three months in 2015 was compared to BTM test results from March 2016 using a Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test. The probability of freedom was generally high for test-negative herds immediately after testing, reflecting the high sensitivity of the tests. It did however, decrease with time since testing, and was greatly affected by purchase of livestock. When comparing the median PostPFree for the final three months to the test results in 2016, it was significantly lower (p < 0.01) for test positive herds. Furthermore, there was a large difference in the proportion of test positive herds between the first and fourth quartile of PostPFree. The results show that PostPFree provides a better estimate of herd-level BTM status for both BRSV and BCV than what can be achieved by relying solely on the previous test-result.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/veterinary , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cattle/virology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Infection Control/methods , Milk/immunology , Norway/epidemiology , Probability , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2151-2163, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-973226

ABSTRACT

The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine rotavirus (BRoV), and Cryptosporidiumparvum on dairy calf health and performance and to determine the prevalence of these pathogens. A total of 198 male dairy calves housed at a grain-fed veal facility were examined from June 11, 2018, to October 9, 2018. Calves were fed milk replacer twice daily and housed individually until weaning at 56 d. Once weaned, calves were moved into groups of 5 until they were moved to a finishing facility at 77 d. At the grain-fed veal facility, calves were scored for fecal consistency for the first 28 d and had fecal samples taken on arrival and at 7 and 14 d. Fecal samples were frozen and submitted to a commercial laboratory, where they were tested for BCoV, C.parvum, and 2 groups of BRoV: group A (BRoV A) and group B (BRoV B). Calves were weighed on arrival and at 14, 49, 56, and 77 d using a digital body scale. Treatments for disease and mortalities that occurred over the 77 d were also recorded. Statistical models, including Cox proportional hazards and repeated measures models, were built to determine the effect of infection with 1 of the pathogens. Over the 3 sampling points, 151 (85.8%), 178 (94.2%), 3 (1.5%), and 97 (57.4%) calves tested positive at least once for BCoV, BRoV A, BRoV B, and C.parvum, respectively. The source of the calves and the level of serum total protein measured on arrival were associated with testing positive for a pathogen. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea and severe diarrhea; calves that tested positive for BCoV and BRoV A had an increased proportion of days with severe diarrhea. In addition, calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a higher hazard of being treated for respiratory disease. With respect to body weight, calves that had diarrhea or severe diarrhea had lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d. Specifically, calves that had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea showed a reduction in weight gain of up to 15 kg compared to calves without diarrhea. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d; calves that tested positive for BCoV had a lower body weight at 56 and 77 d. This study demonstrates that the prevalence of BCoV, BRoV A, and C.parvum infection is high in this population of calves and has significant effects on the occurrence of diarrhea and body weight gain. Future studies should evaluate approaches for minimizing the effect of infection with these pathogens to improve the welfare, health, and productivity of dairy calves.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine , Cryptosporidiosis/physiopathology , Cryptosporidium parvum , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Feces/virology , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/physiopathology , Weight Gain
13.
Res Vet Sci ; 135: 450-455, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909188

ABSTRACT

BRD is associated with infectious agents, but management and transport-stress are trigger factors. Metaphylactic administration of antimicrobial reduces colonization of respiratory tract by pathogens, but the development of antibiotic-resistance raises public health concerns leading to propose new control strategies. The study analyzed nasopharyngeal swabs of 231 imported cattle, 10% of 49 trucks, transported from France to southern Italy and, through Real-time PCR identified the prevalence of the involved pathogens speculating on strategies to reduce the impact of BRD. The samples were tested by Real-time PCR, for the detection of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine parainfluenza virus (BPiV), bovine adenovirus (BAdV), Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. Yates-corrected chi squared, or Fisher's exact test were used to compare both animal-health status and positivity/negativity to pathogens, and the relationship between presence/absence of clinical signs and Real-time PCR-positivity. H. somni and BCoV were the most frequently identified pathogens. In BRD-diagnosed cattle, BAdV was detected in 13.8% (19/138), BRSV in 14.5% (20/138) and BPiV in 4.3% (6/138). Healthy cattle were mostly positive for H. somni (89.2%, 83/93). A statistically significant association was observed between clinical signs and positivity to M. haemolytica (p value = 0.016). Although mass-medication and vaccination are used for BRD control, it still remains a primary health problem. Our results highlight that the nasopharyngeal microbiota could be affected by transport and that strategies to enhance calf immunity for reducing BRD-risk development would be more effective if applied at farm of origin prior to loading.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Microbiota , Pasteurellaceae/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Epidemiologic Studies , France/epidemiology , Immunity , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mastadenovirus/genetics , Mastadenovirus/isolation & purification , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Pasteurellaceae/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respirovirus/genetics , Respirovirus/isolation & purification , Transportation
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 405, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Apart from the huge worldwide economic losses often occasioned by bovine coronavirus (BCoV) to the livestock industry, particularly with respect to cattle rearing, continuous surveillance of the virus in cattle and small ruminants is essential in monitoring variations in the virus that could enhance host switching. In this study, we collected rectal swabs from a total of 1,498 cattle, sheep and goats. BCoV detection was based on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Sanger sequencing of the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region for postive samples were done and nucleotide sequences were compared with homologous sequences from the GenBank. RESULTS: The study reports a BCoV prevalence of 0.3%, consisting of 4 positive cases; 3 goats and 1 cattle. Less than 10% of all the animals sampled showed clinical signs such as diarrhea and respiratory distress except for high temperature which occurred in > 1000 of the animals. However, none of the 4 BCoV positive animals manifested any clinical signs of the infection at the time of sample collection. Bayesian majority-rule cladogram comparing partial and full length BCoV RdRp genes obtained in the study to data from the GenBank revealed that the sequences obtained from this study formed one large monophyletic group with those from different species and countries. The goat sequences were similar to each other and clustered within the same clade. No major variations were thus observed between our isolates and those from elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Given that Ghana predominantly practices the extensive and semi-intensive systems of animal rearing, our study highlights the potential for spillover of BCoV to small ruminants in settings with mixed husbandry and limited separation between species.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Goat Diseases/virology , Sheep Diseases/virology , Animals , Base Sequence , Bayes Theorem , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary , Ghana/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goats , Phylogeny , Prevalence , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/veterinary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
15.
Prev Vet Med ; 185: 105196, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894168

ABSTRACT

A total of 237 faecal specimens from diarrheic calves younger than two months were collected and submitted for diagnosis of enteropathogens over a two-year period (2017-2018) to a veterinary laboratory. Samples originated from 193 dairy and beef farms in 29 provinces distributed throughout Spain, and were tested for the occurrence of three target enteric pathogens by reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR): bovine rotavirus A (RVA), Cryptosporidium parvum and bovine coronavirus (BCoV). RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing analysis were used to determine the G (VP7 gene) and P (VP4 gene) genotypes of 26 specimens positive for RVA. A total of 188 specimens (79.3 %) were positive for at least one of the three target enteric pathogens, and 101 samples (42.6 %) harbored mixed infections. The individual prevalence was 57.8 %, 50.6 % and 23.6 % for C. parvum, RVA and BCoV, respectively. Molecular analysis of selected RVA strains revealed the presence of the G6, G10, G3, P[5] and P[11] genotypes, with the combinations G6P[5] and G6P[11] being the most prevalent. Alignments of nucleotide sequences of the VP7 and VP4 markers showed a high frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with up to 294 SNPs found in 869bp of sequence at the G6 genotype (0.338 SNPs/nt), which reveals the extensive genetic diversity of RVA strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene of the G6 strains revealed four distinct lineages, with most strains clustering in the G6-IV lineage. The discrepancies between the RVA genotypes circulating in the sampled cattle farms and the genotypes contained in commercial vaccines currently available in Spain are discussed. We believe that this is the first study on the molecular characterization of rotavirus infecting cattle in Spain.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coinfection , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cryptosporidiosis/complications , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Spain/epidemiology
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 2209-2218, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-838157

ABSTRACT

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) has a complex pathogenesis and aetiology, being the costliest disease affecting the cattle industry in North America. In this study, we applied Nanopore-based viral metagenomic sequencing to explore the nasal virome of cattle upon arrival at feedlot and related the findings to the development of BRD. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from 310 cattle for which BRD outcomes were known (155 cattle developed BRD within 40 days and 155 remained healthy) were included. The most prevalent virus in on-arrival samples was bovine coronavirus (BCV) (45.2%, 140/310), followed by bovine rhinitis virus B (BRBV) (21.9%, 68/310), enterovirus E (EVE) (19.6%, 60/310), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV3) (10.3%, 32/310), ungulate tetraparvovirus 1 (UTPV1) (9.7%, 30/310) and influenza D virus (7.1%, 22/310). No relationship was found between BRD development and the number of viruses detected, the presence of any specific individual virus or combination of viruses. Bovine kobuvirus (BKV) was detected in 2.6% of animals (8/310), being the first report of this virus in Canada. Results of this study demonstrate the diversity of viruses in bovine DNS collected upon arrival at feedlot and highlights the need for further research into prediction of BRD development in the context of mixed infections.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus, Bovine , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Canada/epidemiology , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Virome , Viruses
19.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 3011-3015, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833995

ABSTRACT

The hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein of betacoronavirus lineage A is a secondary receptor in the infection process and is involved in the emergence of new betacoronavirus genotypes with altered host specificity and tissue tropism. We previously reported a novel recombinant bovine coronavirus (BCoV) strain that was circulating in dairy cattle in China, but this virus was not successfully isolated, and the genetic characteristics of BCoV are still largely unknown. In this study, 20 diarrheic faecal samples were collected from a farm in Liaoning province that had an outbreak of calf diarrhea (≤ 3 months of age) in November 2018, and all of the samples tested positive for BCoV by RT-PCR. In addition, a BCoV strain with a recombinant HE (designated as SWUN/A1/2018) and another BCoV strain with a recombinant HE containing an insertion (designated as SWUN/A10/2018) were successfully isolated in cell culture (TCID50: 104.25/mL and 104.73/mL, respectively). Unexpectedly, we identified the emergence of a novel BCoV variant characterized by a 12-nt bovine gene insertion in the receptor-binding domain in a natural recombinant HE gene, suggesting a novel evolutionary pattern in BCoV.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary , Hemagglutinins, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Cattle Diseases/virology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/classification , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/pathology , Diarrhea/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Feces/virology , Gene Expression , Genotype , Models, Molecular , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Phylogeny , Protein Structure, Secondary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2556-2566, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829668

ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract infections (bovine respiratory disease) are a major concern in calf rearing. The objective of this study was to identify pathogen-specific risk factors associated with epidemic respiratory disease in calves. A cross-sectional study was conducted, involving 128 outbreaks (29 dairy, 58 dairy-mixed, and 41 beef) in Belgium (2016-2018). A semiquantitative PCR for 7 respiratory pathogens was done on a pooled nonendoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage sample for each herd. Potential risk factors were collected by questionnaire and derived from the national cattle registration databank. Most outbreaks occurred between October and March, and single and multiple viral infections were detected in 58.6% (75/128) and 13.3% (17/128), respectively. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) was the most frequently isolated virus (38.4%), followed by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (bRSV; 29.4%) and parainfluenzavirus type 3 (PI-3; 8.1%). Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni were detected in 33.3, 41.2, 89.1, and 36.4% of the herds, respectively. Specific risk factors for BCV detection were detection of M. haemolytica [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8 (95% confidence interval = 1.1-7.5)], increasing herd size [OR = 1.3 (1.0-1.8) for each increase with 100 animals] and detection of BCV by antigen ELISA on feces in calves in the last year [OR = 3.6 (1.2-11.1)]. A seasonal effect was shown for bRSV only {more in winter compared with autumn [OR = 10.3 (2.8-37.5)]}. Other factors associated with bRSV were PI-3 detection [OR = 13.4 (2.1-86.0)], prevalence of calves with respiratory disease [OR = 1.02 (1.00-1.04) per 1% increase], and number of days with respiratory signs before sampling [OR = 0.99 (0.98-0.99) per day increase]. Next to its association with BCV, M. haemolytica was more frequently detected in herds with 5 to 10 animals per pen [OR = 8.0 (1.4-46.9)] compared with <5 animals, and in herds with sawdust as bedding [OR = 18.3 (1.8-191.6)]. Also, for H. somni, housing on sawdust was a risk factor [OR = 5.2 (1.2-23.0)]. Purchase of cattle [OR = 2.9 (1.0-8.0)] and housing of recently purchased animals in the same airspace [OR = 5.0 (1.5-16.5)] were risk factors for M. bovis. This study identified pathogen-specific risk factors that might be useful for the development of customized control and prevention and for the design of decision support tools to justify antimicrobial use by predicting the most likely pathogen before sampling results are available.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , Animals , Belgium/epidemiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feces/microbiology , Female , Male , Mannheimia haemolytica/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma bovis/isolation & purification , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Bovine/isolation & purification , Pasteurella multocida/isolation & purification , Pasteurellaceae/isolation & purification , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Risk Factors , Species Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL